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  1. All societies use gender as a means of stratification. Discuss the consequences of gender stratification

Itis evident that human beings undergo different treatment based ontheir genders. The stratification of people into groups that haveunequal benefits social incentives results in oppression anddiscrimination. These groups include gender/sex, ethnicity, age,region, and race. Due to this, gender stratification is experiencingattention within many societies despite it being unintended andunconsciously institutionalized in terms of dishonor or privilege. Inagreement with Carlson &amp Lynch (2013), gender stratifications aresets of obligations, rights, privileges, and expectations, whichdefine the behaviors of men and women in a society. Therefore, thenotion provides various effects in the societies that influence thedifferent genders. In this essay, I will evaluate the variousconsequences associated with gender stratification.

Brownetal.(2016) claim gender inequality serves as the primary effect of genderstratification. It refers to the subordinate place allocated to womenwithin a family that relates to resource control and the making ofrules. Accordingly, it destroys societies through different ways,which include domination. For instance, vast women do not engage inthe work force due to high levels of income differences andoccupational segregation (Carlson &amp Lynch, 2013). They alsoexperience regular denial of their rights to inheritance and propertywithin the family setup and undergo early marriages ensuring thattheir work revolves around giving birth to babies and taking care ofthe family. Further, in countries such as Pakistan, China and India,women are thrown into prostitution, killed, and occasionally starvedwhen need arises (Brown etal.,2016). Therefore, gender stratification restricts individualdevelopment and generates severe problems not only within a workenvironment but also in health, personal life, and education.

Oppressionand discrimination form other gender stratification consequences.Women experience discrimination and oppression in every aspect oftheir life not only in social organizations and homes but also inreligious settings (Carlson &amp Lynch, 2013). Owing to this, it isexpected that women talk, think, and behave in particular ways withinevery known society. They are not required to highlight so much oftheir sexual behavior or they risk being labeled as promiscuous.Additionally, women often undergo objectification, which results innumerous cases of sexual violence such as rapes. Unfortunately, theseacts attract joke statuses within most societies. Currently, womenhave made amazing strides towards liberation. They have gained theright to divorce and abortion, ventured into higher education, andeven pursued their desired careers. Despite these efforts, womenremain exploited. Even though many of them have entered into thelabor market, they are still expected to perform domestic choresmaking it tasking. Additionally, the society does not allow women tohave a voice in decision-making processes. In agreement with Brown etal.(2016), women are not capable of making appropriate decisions sincethey are emotional creatures. Such notions are discriminating sincewomen are capable in the same capacity as men to make valuabledecisions concerning any task whether at home or at work.

Inclosing, gender stratification has weighed unevenly on women sincethey experience most of its negative consequences. For societies toensure economic and social success, they should strive to eliminategender stratification and encourage gender equality. If both male andfemales participate towards the betterment of a society, the economyscales will raise ensuring poverty elimination.

  1. Distinguish the difference between ‘race’ and ‘ethnicity’ and give an example of each

Theconcepts of race and ethnicity are complicated and difficult todefine and structure. They often receive great discussion in thefields of theology, psychology, literature, and philosophy amongothers. Due to this, distinct assumptions have surfaced attractingvaried definitions, which make separating the terms even harder.Hadjicharalambous &amp Walsh (2012) claim scholars define racialidentity from either a social dimension, which integrates skin coloror a biological dimension, which incorporates an individual’s genepool, their physical characteristics, and personality. Utilizingthese characteristic differentiating factors, Europeans classifyethnicity into Caucasians, Asians, Native Americans, and Africans. Inthis paper, I will strive to discuss the distinctions between theconceptions of race and ethnicity and provide viable examples.

Accordingto Corlett (2014), race is the biological engineered features thatmanifest in human beings. It can incorporate skin tone, hair and eyecolor, skin color, and the probability of suffering from specificdiseases. Socially, it involves grouping individuals by languages andlocation among other related characteristics. Hadjicharalambous &ampWalsh (2012) claim these forms of distinction are unwelcome globallysince it stirs racism because race can neither be disguised norchanged and does not have internationally learned mannerisms orcustoms. People from a particular race tend to follow their normsstrictly in accordance with their ancestral teachings. With this,race is not confinable into particular timelines because it hasprevailed over years. On the other hand, ethnicity is often culturerelated. It mainly involves a certain type of people living in aspecific region and they link via sets of communal social norms.Obviously, it does not associate with biological characteristics asrace but relates to an individual’s surrounding. In agreement withCorlett (2014), human beings can adapt different ethnicities. Inother words, people can choose ethnicities and can either leave orbecome part of any specific ethnic group. Further, ethnicity does notnecessarily connect to historical events rather it varies accordingto the individuals living in a location.

Lookingat the Caucasian race, their physical characteristics are light eyesand skins, wavy or straight hair, thin lips, and narrow noses asdefined by M.A. MacConaill (Hadjicharalambous &amp Walsh, 2012).Such characteristics and others including a notable sized foreheadand cranium region prominence relate to this race. Most of theCaucasian race individuals are found within Europe (ref).Nevertheless, there are multiple ethnicities found within thisparticular race. For example, they include German, Irish, Slovak,French, and Welsh among others. The factors that differentiate thementioned ethnic groups, despite being of a similar race are mainlytheir countries of origin, cultural heritage, beliefs, traditions,rituals, and languages (Corlett, 2014).

Overthe years, people associated race and ethnicity without any cleardifference. Despite the difficulties, research has made thedifferentiations clear ensuring that people understand the twoconcepts. It is perceivable that race is constant, meaning that itcannot undergo change at any particular time. On the other hand,ethnicity is bound to change with time. Additionally race isbiologically linked while ethnicity is culturally linked. Currently,people can distinguish between the different races found around theworld, as well as, the different ethnicities found within eachparticular race.

  1. Summarize the U.S social class ladder as proposed by Joseph Karl and Dennis Gilbert

Gilbert&amp Russell (2011) claim the Joseph Karl and Dennis Gilbert’smodel depends on an individual’s access to property, power,education, and prestige. They draw this model on Marx to define sixsocial classes. They include capitalists (upper), upper middle,middle, working, working poor, and underclass. The capitalists areindividuals whose income originates mainly from their asset returnsearning approximately $1,000,000. They normally own profitablebusinesses, securities like bonds and stocks, and commercial realestates. Additionally, they may hold important corporate executivejobs, except ownership is vital to guarantee a high income. The modelalso draws from Weber recognizing many class differences among thenon-ownership groups contained in this capitalist class (Gilbert &ampRussell, 2011). They depend not on their asset incomes but jobincomes and are classified in accordance with their occupation.

Thesecond group is the upper middle class, which comprised of universityeducated, well-paid professionals and managers. They mainly haveresponsible titles in business organizations not excludingaccountants, doctors, lawyers, and other experts. At the topmost partof the class, Karl and Gilbert’s model distinguishes a minute levelof extremely successful small-business owners, professionals,executives, and salespeople with approximate incomes of 125,000dollars (Gilbert &amp Russell, 2011). The model refers to theseindividuals as the working rich since their income could easilyexpire once they ceased working.

Subsequently,the model describes the two major classes that include the middle andworking class. The middle class persons are mainly the insuranceagents, teachers, plumbers, lower-level managers, nurses, andelectricians earning about $60,000 (Gilbert &amp Russell, 2011). Onthe other hand, the working class includes office workers who have nospecialized training, numerous retail sales personnel, and inexpertfactory workers earning roughly $35,000. In agreement with Gilbert &ampRussell (2011), the borderline between these two social classes isnot definite because Karl and Gilbert’s model does not placeemphasis on the old-fashioned white collar versus blue-collar jobdissimilarities. Therefore, it is noticeable that both classes haveblue and white-collar jobs. Evidently, the model differentiates thesetwo social classes depending on the knowledge or skill levels and theauthority or independence degrees linked to each occupation.

Belowthis model’s class structure are classes such as the working poorand underclass. According to Gilbert &amp Russell (2011), theworking poor undergo employment with minimal skill at low wages of$17,000. They often engage in insecure jobs with no benefits likemedical insurance. These individuals include house cleaners,untrained construction workers, fast-food workers, and janitors.Owing to their jobs having poor pay, no benefits, and are precarious,they mainly experience financial instability. The underclass membersoften have some form of job income ranging at $10,000 however, theyregularly depend on government provided income (Gilbert &ampRussell, 2011). These include incomes from veterans’ benefits,Social Security, and public assistance. Nevertheless, quite a numberget their incomes from unlawful activities.

Conclusively,the Karl and Gilbert framework draws entirely from economicdissimilarities using the source of income. Through this, the topmostsocial class gets income from their capitalist property, the middlefrom job earning with differentiating occupational degrees, and thebottom most class rely on government payments and unpredictable jobincome.

  1. Discuss how marriage and family are viewed from the three sociological perspectives

Sociologistsassess sociological events at distinct levels from differentiatedperspectives. From solid interpretations to societal generalizationsand social mannerisms, sociologists investigate every concept rangingfrom particular to broader issues. Currently, they use three maintheoretical viewpoints to answer various queries concerning societyand the people within it (Reiss, 2016). These views include thefunctionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionism. They offersociologists the theoretical frameworks that explain the society’sinfluence on individuals and vice versa. In this essay, I willdiscuss the manner by which these three sociological perspectivesview the institutions of marriage and family.

Thefunctionalist perspective studies the groups of organizations andpeople found in a society (Reiss, 2016). It also looks for theevents, which take place that ensure the group is cohesive. Using thefunctionalist theory is is possible to determine the most importantfeatures, which solidify a marriage and a family, thus making itwork. There are multiple factors that make families and marriageswork, but this theory studies family and marriage from broad or macroviewpoints. In agreement with Reiss (2016), this lets sociologistsemphasize on greater properties that influence all marriages andfamilies instead in the least common factors. Therefore, theseinstitutions serve as the primary and necessary foundations of anysociety according to this theory. For instance, they providestructures that allow the producing and raising of children.Additionally, they offer the means by which intimate relationshipscan happen in regulated environments to guarantee that people satisfytheir sexual wants without initiating conflict. They also exposeindividuals to love and belonging, which enables them to beproductive and respected society members.

Theconflict framework assesses the variations in people, as well as, theproblems and disputes arising from these differences. Like thefunctionalist theory, this one studies the broad or macro point ofview by investigating the core trends associated with the roles invarious communities. The sociologists supporting this theory seefamily and marriage as a conflicting outgrowth between the women andmen (Reiss, 2016). They claim the practice of family and marriage inour current society views the women as subjugate to some extent. Eventhough this trend may be experiencing change in this present times,family and marriage may conventionally be a means by which malesmaintain their superiority over women.

Thesymbolic interactionism theory looks at any social circumstance froman individual approach. It takes into account the thoughts of theindividual and their communication mode grounded on their affiliatedsociety. Reiss (2016) claims this is because the framework follows amicro or narrow view. According to this framework, every family andmarriage is different. Therefore, marriage is basically what humanbeings make of it. There are marriages where a single partner fullysubjugates whereas there are others in which the couple complete andfulfill one another. Such marriages have different impacts onfamilies since they will manage to adapt to the different strategiespracticed in each marriage.

Insummary, each of these theories plays a different role inunderstanding the institutions of family and marriage. They providedistinct manners of comprehending any structure or group ensuringthat people employ them to know their society thoroughly. Throughthis, they can make sound decisions when faced with any issue intheir daily lives.


Brown,T. H., Richardson, L. J., Hargrove, T. W., &amp Thomas, C. S.(2016). Using multiple-hierarchy stratification and life courseapproaches to understand health inequalities: the intersectingconsequences of race, gender, SES, and age. TheJournal Of Health And Social Behavior,(2), 200.

Carlson,D. L., &amp Lynch, J. L. (2013). Housework: Cause and consequence ofgender ideology?. SocialScience Research,421505-1518

Corlett,J. (2014). On Race, Ethnicity, and Racism. JournalOf African American Studies,18(1), 128-145.

Gilbert,D., &amp Russell Sage, F. (2011). TheAmerican class structure in an age of growing inequality.Thousand Oaks, Calif.

Hadjicharalambous,C., &amp Walsh, L. (2012). ETHNICITY/RACE AND GENDER EFFECTS ONETHICAL SENSITIVITY IN FOUR SUB-CULTURES. JournalOf Legal, Ethical &amp Regulatory Issues,15(1), 119-130.

Reiss,I. L. (2016). A Sociological Perspective. ArchivesOf Sexual Behavior,(3), 509.

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