First student (Derek)
The main similarity between motor control, motor learning andneuroplasticity is identified in the post. All of them involve thebrain. Then, the author concentrates on the differences. Motorcontrol is described as the ability of the brain to create movements(voluntary or involuntary) by emitting electric impulses. Some oftheir importance includes postural symmetry and alignment as well asambulation (Latash, 2012, Lundy-Ekman, 2013).
Motor learning is the precursor of motor control. However, thestudent argues that there is no consensus on the difference betweenexplicit and implicit processes. Implicit learning is self-instigatedwhile explicit learning involves another person initiating theprocess (Kleynan et al., 2015). Neuroplasticity is defined as changesin function, structure or chemical profile of the brain. Thisincludes modification or production of neurons that performparticular tasks (Lundy-Ekman, 2013).
Neuroplasticity is essential for motor control and motor learning,but the reverse is not true. Additionally, all the processes play acritical role in the life of an individual.
Latash, M. (2012). Fundamentals of motor control. Boston:Elsevier/Academic Press.
Lundy-Ekman, L. (2013). Neuroscience: Fundamentals forrehabilitation. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier.
Kleynen, M., Braun, S. M., Rasquin, S. M. C., Bleijlevens, M. H. C.,Lexis, M. A. S., Halfens, J., Beurskens, A. J. (2015).Multidisciplinary views on applying explicit and implicit motorlearning in practice: An international survey. PLoS One, 10(8)doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135522
Second student (Carlos)
The student uses examples to explain the three processes. Motorcontrol is defined as the ability of the brain to activate andcoordinate muscles resulting in movements. The neural processesdiscussed in the post are how decisions are made, activities in thebrain, and contraction of muscles (Lundy-Ekman 2007).
Motor learning results in accuracy and smoothness of movement thatdevelops through practice. It is critical for complex movements andfunctions such as walking or balance. Additionally, it plays a rolein the calibration of simple reflexes (O`Sullivan et al., 2014, Wu,et al., 2014). Neuroplasticity is defined as the ability of the brainstructures to adapt to changes in neural, behavior, and theenvironment. It is a complex development that takes time andcontinuous throughout the lifespan of the individual (Mishra &Gazzaley, 2016). The student concludes by discussing the relationshipbetween the three processes.
O`Sullivan, S. et al. (2014). Physical rehabilitation.Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Co.
Lundy-Ekman, L. (2007). Neuroscience: Fundamentals forrehabilitation. St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier.
Mishra, J., & Gazzaley, A. (2016). Cross-species approaches tocognitive neuroplasticity research. NeuroImage, 131, 4-12.
Wu, H. G., Miyamoto, Y. R., Castro, L. N. G., Ölveczky, B.,P., &Smith, M. A. (2014). Temporal structure of motor variability isdynamically regulated and predicts motor learning ability. NatureNeuroscience, 17(2), 312-21.