TraumaticEvents, Assessment, and Treatments
Atraumatic event is considered as an action that results inpsychological, physical, or emotional distress. A harrowingoccurrence is deemed to be a threat to the safety of individualssince it may make them develop instability. Thus, there is a need toevaluate traumatic events and treat them for the well-being ofvictims who experience them. The issue of hostility between partnersis present in some families, and it may lead to the victimizedpartner being devastated. Also, the aggression amid spouses canresult in their kids becoming traumatized. The experiences of thevictims of domestic brutality call for interventions so as to makethem feel safe. Alternatively, sometimes car accidents may occur,though unintended, and have an adverse outcome on the injured people.In such a scenario, the accidents may make the victims suffer fromshock. Recovering from the ordeal is necessary for the reassurance ofthe sufferer. This report will delve the issue of domestic violenceand motor vehicle accidents in relation to the assessments as well astreatment options that are available to the victims.
Domesticviolence refers to aggressive or violent conduct within the home,where a spouse or a partner becomes abused by another. The incidencesof this form of violence are on the increase, and it may involveeither male or female partners however, more women compared to menare exposed to the violence (Fall & Howard, 2013). When spousesbecome involved in domestic hostility, the partners themselves andthe children usually suffer. There is a need to evaluate the traumacaused to the partners as well as their children because it mayaffect them in their workplaces or schools respectively.
Assessmentsand Treatment Options in the Workplace
Partiesto domestic violence may be employees in a given organization. In theworkplace, it is critical to know how to treat individuals that arevictims of domestic aggression. Sharon (2015) provides arecommendation on how the victims of domestic hostility should behandled. She argues that one of the options is to encourage thevictims to speak up. Victims should keep issues in the open so thatthe company can be prepared for any drama that may unfold. Also,through encouraging workers to communicate, it will be easy to assistthem to avoid their harasser. According to Sharon (2015), uponemployee opening up, the employer is supposed to discuss with theemployee on whether the worker can take a temporary leave of absenceafter leaving the abuser, transfer to another location would workwell, or whether changing the shift for some time would be helpful.The provision of these options can help a worker to cope with thedomestic violence. Furthermore, the victims should be provided withresources that would assist them to leave the abuser. For instance,the employer may provide a cell phone to allow an abused workercommunicate with family members. The company can also offer differentresources such as counseling centers and shelter in an attempt tohelp the victimized employee.
Anorganization should assess its facility when dealing with domesticviolence victims. In evaluating the services, the entity should focuson whether marital hostility is a real threat to its employees(Sharon, 2015). The firm should also assess whether security needs tobe brought in, and any other action that is necessary. Furthermore,there should be an evaluation as to whether there would be a need ofcontacting the local law enforcement institutions.
TreatmentOptions for Offenders
Accordingto Tollefson & Phillips (2015), there are treatment andintervention programs for domestic violence offenders that focus onimproving the safety of victims, holding offenders responsible, andproviding judges with an alternative to incarceration. A mind-bodyapproach has been indicated as useful to the domestic aggressionoffenders since it emphasizes on improving the emotional regulationof an individual, which is essential to domestic violence treatment.Mindfulness therapies are recognized in enhancing physical and mentalhealth, as well as emotional control, a move that mitigatesaggression and hostility (Tollefson & Phillips, 2015).
TreatmentOptions for Women
Inmost cases, women have become a target for domestic battery. Whenthey go through the distress, they become affected in various areassuch as education and jobs since their mental health become affected(Beck et al., 2015). One of the healing interventions that can beconsidered for their recovery is prolonged exposure (PE), whichaccentuates on mitigating avoidance, with wide dependence on imaginedand in vivo exposure carried within and outside therapy sessions.Another approach available is the cognitive processing therapy (CPT)this chiefly deals with dysfunctional thoughts (Beck et al., 2015).
TreatmentOptions for Children
Accordingto Clarke & Wydall (2013), children who experience domestichostility exhibit behavioral and emotional instability. Children, whoreside in families where adult-to-adult aggression occurs, are morelikely to suffer physical abuse compared to kids who do not encountersuch experiences. Emanating from the danger that children of domesticviolence are exposed to, there is a need for action. The treatmentoptions for children have to start with disclosure. Exposure can makeagencies and well-wishers provide support to children from familiesthat experience domestic violence. This is the most difficult pointsince when disclosing domestic violence issues to a professional,children may not be taken seriously. Therefore, in an attempt toattend to the needs of children who are victims of domestic violence,there is the need to ensure that they are offered with an opportunityto express their experiences and feelings openly (Clarke &Wydall, 2013).
Uponlistening to the feelings and experiences of kids, it is important toensure that organizational barriers are broken so as to facilitateattending to the needs of the children. In most cases, there areregulation obstacles that hinder dealing with the problem faced bydomestic violence children directly. For instance, the chain ofcommand that guides institutions may delay in addressing the issuesof the children (Clarke & Wydall, 2013).
Aholistic approach has been proposed in dealing with the problems ofkids of families that exhibit domestic violence. The approach focuseson addressing the needs of the entire family, including the offender.The holistic treatment is viewed as effective since, instead ofdealing with the problems of one party, the issues of all sides areresolved. This means that kids, as well as the parents, would havetheir predicaments solved. In this case, the functioning ofmulti-agencies is exceedingly crucial.
Inassessing the children for domestic violence, the best place is theschools. This is due to the reasoning that it is possible to obtain alot of information concerning children who are in domestic violencehouseholds. Also, schools are a safe place, where teachers can be ina position to offer behavior of children living with domestic hostileparents (Clarke & Wydall, 2013). For instance, the engagementwith the tutors can be fruitful in understanding the welfare of achild as well his/her performance. Such information can help agenciesin evaluating whether a child is under the risk of domestic violenceand the strategies that can be adopted to help him/her.
Atraumatic accident refers to an accident that is not intentional thatcan result in severe injury, which may call for hospitalization andrehabilitation. According to Al-Kofahy (2015), traumas that resultfrom motor vehicle accidents are on the increase, especially indeveloping countries. In these countries, death from injuries isapproximated to reach 8.4 million in 2020. Victims that suffer motorvehicle accident traumas should be treated appropriately so as toavoid the development of instabilities in their later life. In mostdeveloped countries, these victims are in a position to receiveenhanced social healthcare services, but this is not the case indeveloping countries due to inadequate health services and lack ofaccess to the healthcare facilities (Al-Kofahy, 2015). Differentindividuals can suffer from motor vehicle accidents trauma, but theprimary focus of this report would be children and pregnant women.
Assessmentand Treatment Options for Children
Accordingto Hall & Nayar (2014), when children are involved in a traumaticaccident, it is imperative to build a trusting working relationshipamid the nurses, children, and the family members so as to promotethe recovery of the child. In a pediatric hospital, trust emerges asthe most important element that can support the healing process of achild experiencing trauma that emanates from motor vehicle accident(Hall & Nayar, 2014). In case there is a lack of trust, it wouldbe exceedingly difficult for nurses to carry out the recoveryprocess.
Oneof the treatment options for children entails eye movementdesensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). This approach emphasizes ondesensitizing a person to the traumatic memory through the use ofstandardized short imagined experiences and bilateral stimuli (Racco& Vis, 2015). The goal of this technique is to help thetraumatized child to sufficiently process traumatic memories andconnect them with healthy processed experiences.
Anothertreatment for children who have experienced motor vehicle accidentdistress is trauma-focused CBT. This is a psychosocial approach thathas been validated for the treatment of trauma in children andparents. TF-CBT is carried out through individual and joint parentand child sessions for 12-16 sessions. The components of thistreatment option include psycho-education, a re-creation of traumanarratives, and cognitive reprocessing (Racco & Vis, 2015).
Cognitivebehavioral therapy (CBT) entails another treatment option that isavailable for kids who experience motor vehicle accident trauma. Thiskind of treatment centers on addressing and changing dysfunctionalthoughts, unhealthy emotional responses, and maladaptive behaviors.The approach is grounded on the premise that one’s thoughtsconcerning a situation or an event impact how one feels andsubsequently reacts or behaves. In the treatment of trauma, CBT isdeemed to address symptoms of experiencing, arousal, and avoidance.CBT for trauma most of the time includes gradual exposure,psycho-education, cognitive repossessing and structuring (Racco &Vis, 2015).
Furthermore,apart from the treatment options mentioned above, art in therapy isanother option that can be used for treating trauma in children. Thistechnique helps children exposed to traumatic events with expressingemotions as well as communicating their experiences. The method iscapable of providing young and pre-verbal kids a means of expressingtheir experiences. The technique tends to be initiated by engagingthe senses and the body through sensory art materials, followed byautobiographical and symbolic accounts of the traumatic memories andcognitive reflections of work via repetitive reframing of commodityand process (Racco & Vis, 2015).
Althoughdifferent studies have been carried out to investigate the working ofthe various modalities in the treatment of trauma in children, thereis a need for researchers to engage in further studies so as toestablish the pattern that is most active with the kids. This wouldhelp in the application of the best alternative in dealing withtrauma in children.
Assessmentand Treatment Options for Pregnant Women
Accordingto Jain, Chari, Maslovitz & Farine (2015), every female who hasattained the reproductive age should be considered pregnant wheninvolved in injuries until proven otherwise by ultrasound scan or adefinitive pregnancy test. Therefore, it is critical to understandthe assessment and treatment options for pregnant women whoexperience traumatic motor vehicle accidents.
Theevaluation, stabilization, and provision of care are the firstpriority that should be offered to pregnant women who suffer accidenttrauma. In case the fetus has 23 or more weeks, it is vital tomonitor it, and an obstetrical should be obtained within the shortesttime possible. In instances where the traumatized pregnant woman hasvaginal bleeding at or after 23 weeks of pregnancy, a digital vaginalexamination must be deferred until placenta previa becomes excludedthrough a prior or current ultrasound scan. The application ofgadolinium-based contrast agents can be proposed when maternalbenefits outweigh the likely fetal risks. Rather than the usual bloodtests, the victim is supposed to have a coagulation panel thatincludes fibrinogen (Jain et al., 2015). Abdominal computedtomography may be taken into account as an alternative to diagnosticperitoneal lavage. Furthermore, for women with a viable pregnancy,electronic fetal monitoring should be recommended. In addition,victims having adverse factors need to be admitted for observationwithin 24 hours.
Whena pregnant woman becomes a victim of accident trauma, her conditionshould be first assessed so as to establish whether she should betaken to the maternity facility or emergency. This is dictated by theinjury sustained as well as the gestation period (Jain et al., 2015).In case the victim just suffers minor injuries and the fetus has 23or more weeks, she is supposed to be taken to the maternity facility.If the fetus is less than 23 weeks, the victim should be admitted tothe emergency room. Alternatively, in severe cases, the patient mustbe transferred to the emergency or trauma unit. Anti-D immunoglobulinis supposed to be given to rhesus D-negative trauma patients. Additional doses for the immunoglobulin should be determined throughkleihauer-Betke tests. In case the gestational stage is undetermined,it is vital to carry out ultrasound scan (Jain et al., 2015).
Aftertreating injuries that the victim may have sustained, differentmanagement options for trauma should be used. One of the options mayinclude the use of stress inoculation training (SIT). This is amulti-component unease management treatment program, which includesmuscle relaxation training, education, guided self-dialogue, roleplaying, and thought stopping. Also, biofeedback training may be usedin the management of trauma (Foa, 2009). This approach promotesrelaxation and uses electrophysiological tools to provide feedbackconcerning physiological states, which is critical for deeperrelaxation. Furthermore, cognitive therapy (CT) can also be used as amanagement of trauma for the victims (Foa, 2009).
Inconclusion, domestic violence trauma may affect children and parents.This kind of injury may influence the behavior of victims resultingto instabilities. Therefore, there is a need for assessment andtreatment of the ordeal. An organization should assess its facilitywhen dealing with domestic violence victims. In evaluating theservice, the entity should focus on whether spouse hostility is areal threat to its employees. The employer should assist workers, whoare victims of domestic violence, in going through the hostility. Inhelping children, it is recommended to consider resolving the entireneeds of the family. In the case of accident trauma, treatmentalternatives for children include CBT, TF-CBT, and art in therapy.Alternatively, for pregnant women, management options may entailstress inoculation training, biofeedback training, and cognitivetherapy.
Al-Kofahy,L. (2015). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Health Perspective:Victims of Motor Vehicle Accidents in Jordan. EuropeanScientific Journal,Vol. 2, Iss.1857-7881.
Beck,G.J., Tran, N.H., Dodson, S.T., Henschel, V.A., Woodward, J.M. &Eddinger, J. (2015). Cognitive Trauma Therapy for Battered Women:replication and Extension. Psychologyof Violence,Vol. 6 (3) 368-377.
Clarke,A. & Wydall, S. (2013). From Rights to Actions: Practitioners’Perceptions of the Needs of Children Experiencing Domestic Violence.Childand Family Social Work,20: 181-190.
Fall,A.K. & Howard, S. (2013). Alternativesto Domestic Violence: A Homework Manual for Battering InterventionGroups.New York: Routledge.
Foa,E. (2015). EffectiveTreatments for PSTD, Second Edition.New York: The Guilford Press.
Hall,J. & Nayar, S. (2014). Building Trust to Work with Children aftera Severe Traumatic Accident. ContemporaryNurse,Vol. 46 (2) 161-169.
Jain,V., Chari, R., Maslovitz, S. & Farine, D. (2015). Guidelines forthe Management of a Pregnant Trauma Patient. JObstet Gynaecol Can37(6):553–571.
Katula,L.S. (2012). Creating a Safe Haven for Employees who are Victims ofDomestic Violence. NursingForum,Vol. 47 (4).
Sharon,L.S. (2015). WhenDomestic Violence Enters the Workplace. South Carolina Business.
Tollefson,R.D. & Phillips, I. (2015). A Mind-Body Bridging TreatmentProgram for Domestic Violence Offenders: Program Overview andEvaluation Results. JFam Viol,30: 783-794.
Vis,J. & Racco, A. (2015). Evidence Based Trauma Treatment forChildren and Youth. Child AdolescSoc Work J,Vol. 32: 121-129.