The Government Role in BIM Promotion

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TheGovernment Role in BIM Promotion

Chapter3: Literature Review

Chapter3: Literature Review

Thestudy of any subject needs its supporters to explain why peopleshould pay attention. It is essential for individuals and all membersof the society to study history. History provides a repository ofinformation about how people and the society behave. History assistspeople with the understanding of the changes and the formation of thesociety (Stearns, 1998).

Consequently,the study of history as an important research topic is inevitable.This chapter sets out the history of BIM. The paper contains theoriginal concept, the first article, the standards, the applicationrange, and the status.

Thegrowth of the construction industry has increased the demand for theBIM since it helps from the initial concept to the present digitaltechnology. This technology precisely fits in with the concept ofpaperless office that is applied in the construction industry.

Thischapter also introducesthe definition and characteristics of a paperless office. The BIM isa tool that facilitates the realization of the paperless office inthe construction industry in the current era of the sustainabledevelopment.

TheBIM, which is a kind of paperless office technology in theconstruction industry, has attracted much attention in recent years.It was supported in many countries by the governments. Thegovernment, as a special stakeholder, makes a significantcontribution to the development of BIM.

Thelast part of this chapter will introduce the reasons for thegovernment intervention in BIM adoption and its role in promotion ofthe tool. BIM is mainly used in the United Kingdom and the UnitedStates because these countries are the world’s leaders oftechnological development (Becerik-Gerber and Rice, 2010). This papermainly analyzes the contributions made by the British and theAmerican governments in the adoption of BIM.

Historyof BIM

Theconcept of BIM has attracted the attention of people worldwide.However, the concept of BIM is not new, given that it was coined inthe 1990s. The earliest record of the concept of BIM was a prototypecalled &quotBuilding Description System&quot that was described inthe paper “the use of computers instead of drawings in buildingdesign” by Eastman in 1975 (Laiserin, 2011). The stakeholders inthe construction and the technology sectors aimed to minimize theconsumption of materials and enhance efficiency. The government hasbeen a key player in the development and promotion of the relevanttechnologies, but it works in collaboration with the privatestakeholders.

Thisconcept suggests that any changes in the layout will only be madeonce and will be updated in the future. Any quantity analysis candock with the system so that cost estimation and amount of materialcan be generated easily. This system provides a complete and unifieddatabase for visual and quantitative analysis (Eastman, 1975). BIM,which was proposed by Eastman, was founded 7 years before Autodesk,and 25 years prior to the release of the first version of the Revitplatform.

Thenext concept, Graphical Language for Interactive Design (GLIDE), wascoined in the year 1977 at CMU. The purpose of GLIDE was to providean efficient computer representation of the physical system in orderto facilitate the design and construction of sufficient details. Theterm &quotphysical system&quot refers to the artificial products(such as building, ships, and machinery), composed ofthree-dimensional components and in which spatial arrangement is asignificant consideration (Eastman and Henrion, 1977). This paperpresents most of the features of a modern BIM platform.

Similarresearch and development work has been going on, following thecommercialization of BIM. In the early 1980s, this approach was knownas the “Building Product Model” or the BPM in the United States.In the building process, the BPM was applied by differentparticipants (Björk, 1989). In Europe, however, especially inFinland it is called “Product Information Model” (Laiserin,2011). Product ontology and interoperability standards are describedin the product information modeling architecture (Sudarsan etal.,2005). In these two phrases, the word “product” is used todistinguish the model from the “process” model. A combination of“Building Product Model” and “Product Information Model”generates the new phrase known as “Building Information Model”.

Thephrase the “Building Information Modeling” that people uses todaywas first applied in English, as the “Building Modeling”. For thefirst time ever, it was used in a paper referred to as the “BuildingModeling: The Key to Integrated Construction CAD” that waspublished in 1986 by Robert Aish (Eastmanetal.,2011).England had multiple systems developed (such as GDS, EdCAAD, Cedar,RUCAPS, Sonata and Reflex), which were applied in constructionprojects in the early 1980’s (Quirk, 2002). Robert Aish applied theRUCAPS building model system and analyzed the Heathrow Airportterminal 3 transformation project cases to express his concept (Aish,1986).

Thefoundation of the Center for Integrated Facility Engineering (CIFE)by Paul Teicholz at Stanford in 1988 marked a milestone in thedevelopment of BIM. The mission of CIFE is to become the premieracademic research center in the world for Virtual Design andConstruction of AEC (Architecture, Engineering, and Construction)industry projects (Center for integrated facility engineering, 2016).

Itpromoted the development trend of the BIM in two aspects. On the onehand, the application of multi-disciplinary tools to serve thedevelopment of the construction industry, and improved theefficiency. The other side was the prototype of the BIM model, whichcould be tested and simulated with the performance conditions(Teicholz,1989).The research center still exists, and many published articles can befound on its official website.

Itwas not until 1992 when the phrase “Building Information Modeling”was truly invented by van Nederveen and Tolman in the Netherlands.The name of the article is “Modeling multiple views on buildings”,in which authors states that it is useful for model buildinginformation to base the structures on specific views of differentparticipants. Different participants have different views becausevarious positions have their respective functions. For example, thedesign engineers in the construction process are concerned about thespace structure, but structural engineers focus on the arrangement ofthe load-bearing system. The engineers attend to the application ofenergy and sustainable development. The figure below is an outer doorexample, which was shown by the authors in this paper (van Nederveenand Tolman, 1992).

Figure1: Different views on an outer wall

Therefore,this article describes how aspect models are used to store specificinformation about different views. According to IncompleteStatistics, this article was cited in at least 103 academic papers.After that, the parametric modeling and visualization of BIM weregradually being developed and some software was also established.

Itis only the appearance (2D) of the building model that does notproduce too much help for the whole building life cycle. A largenumber of materials and information is required for a project. Thelarge number of designs and engineering information needs additionalmanagement and calculation. Therefore, the development of effectivesoftware was gradually being taken seriously.

Theearly software and hardware required for the operation were extremelyexpensive at that time, which limited the application of relatedtechnologies. Until the release of the Radar CH in 1984, which becameArchiCAD later, the purpose of participation was to provide the firstmodeling software running on personal computers (Malyavin, 2014). Thefigure below is a screenshot obtained from Radar CH that shows thecapabilities of BIM modeling in 1984.

Figure2: The capabilities of BIM using Radar CH in 1984

Fromthe picture, it can be seen that the model in the design stage doesnot have two-dimensional effect. However, the construction ofthree-dimensional spatialpattern can be seen.

ArchiCADoffers computer-aided solutions that can achieve two-dimensional andthree-dimensional graphic design completely. It can also be appliedin the visualization and other modeling functions for designers andarchitects. Therefore, ArchiCAD was considered to be the first firmto implement the Building Information Modeling (Martens and Peter,2002).

TheBIM is one of the technologies that have been developed andcommercialized. The table below lists the several kinds of softwarethat are commonly used in the construction sector and theircorresponding producers (Gaidyte, 2010).

Table 1: Software based on BIM technology

SOFTWARE

PRODUCER

Revit

Autodesk

Navit Works JetStream

Autodesk

ArchiCAD

Graphisoft

Constructor

Graphisoft

Bentley Architecture

Bentley Systems

Digital Project

Gehry Technologies, LLC

Vector Works Architect

Nemetschek N.A

Tekla Structures

Tekla Corporation

SPIRIT

SOFTTECH GmbH

StruCAD

AceCAD Software, Inc

IFC Engine Series

TNO

TheTable above represents a small part of the software. According toAssociated General Contractors of America (AGC) classificationmethod, the BIM software (including BIM related software) is dividedinto eight categories:

PreliminaryDesign and Feasibility Tools, BIM Authoring Tools, BIM AnalysisTools, Shop Drawing and Fabrication Tools, Construction ManagementTools, Quantity Takeoff and Estimating Tools, Scheduling Tools, FileSharing, and Collaboration Tools. The specific circumstances of theuse of each type of the software will not to be introduced in thispaper (Building Information Modeling Education Program, 2016).

Aresearch conducted at University of Salford from 3D to nD modelingprojects aimed to integrate time, cost, build capacity,accessibility, sustainability, maintainability, acoustics, lighting,and heat dissipation requirements (Wong and Wong, 2005). The nD modelallows the user to view and simulate the whole life of the project.Consequently, the model reduces the uncertainty in the process ofdecision-making, which facilitates the realization of the realhypothesis analysis (Kamardeen, 2010). The BIM gets rid of thetraditional two-dimensional design, and it has been developed from 2D(2D CAD falls with the concept of BIM technology) to 7D (Deutsch,2011). But there are still a lot of people who think that BIM is a 3Dtechnology. The table below provides a brief description of the sevendimensions of BIM as proposed by Victoria Silva (Scribd, 2016).

Table 2: Description of the seven dimensions BIM

Dimension

Description

2nd

Document

3rd

Space

4th

Time

5th

Cost

6th

Operational applications (facilities management)

7th

Related applications (contracts, purchasing, suppliers, and procurement solutions)

Therealization of different levels is reflected in the process of BIMfrom 2D to nD. Level 2 requires the team to work with 3D BIM, but 4Dand the other elements are not essentially included in the model(Isikdag etal.,2012). Level 3 is the full potential of the model and presents afully integrated BIM process. Therefore, individual BIMs in animmersive environment are part of a complete project model,regardless of the software and location (NBS, 2014). The maturity ofBIM can be seen directly from the figure below.

Figure3: BIM maturity

TheBIM did not have a unified standard when it was used in the actualcase from the concept for the first time. The ability of digitaltransmission information in the whole construction process highlightsthe necessity of the standards. It is crucial to establish standardsof communication between different stakeholders, especially whencommunication is transnational and requires a long period.

TheBIM technology started gaining momentum when the ISO Standard for theExchange of Product Data (STEP) standardization project was startedaround 1985. The first work to be completed was the establishment ofISO 13567, which was an international CAD layer standard.International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI), which was set upin 1990s, was an organization that aimed to enhance the informationexchange in the software applications for the construction industry.It developed Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) to facilitateinteroperability (Howard and Björk, 2008). Standards will help toachieve more reliable results for all participants, who are involvedin the related process (National Building Information ModelingStandard, 2007). The promotion of BIM technology became easier, withthe improvement of the BIM standards. According to Howard and Björk(2008), the development of standards and software was described inthe figure below. Brief statistics on the establishment of the BIMstandard is also shown in the table below (Wanda Commercial Planning,2016 and Du, 2012).

Figure4: Standard and software documenting development in BIM

Table 3: The research on BIM Standards in different countries

Country

Time

Standard

The United States

2006

National BIM Standard-USTM

Germany

2006

User Handbook Data Exchange BIM/IFC

Denmark

2006

Digital Construction

Finland

2007

BIM Requirements 2007

The United Kingdom

2009

AEC (UK) BIM Standard

Australia

2009

National Guidelines for Digital Modeling

Norway

2009

Information Delivery Manual

South Korea

2010

National Architectural BIM Guide

Japan

2012

Japan BIM Guide

Singapore

2012

Singapore BIM Guide

Therehas been continuous improvement realized during the developmentprocess. Different kinds of software emerge in an endless stream,while the software lacks an integrated engineering database.Therefore, to seek a better way to solve the problem of building amodel of full information technology has been a major problem for theconcerned researchers. Building information modeling precisely solvedthese problems.

Figure5: Communication, collaboration and visualization with BIM model(NIBS)

BIMattempts to integrate the whole lifecycle process in the constructionproject. The focus is on creation and reuse of the digitalinformation for each of the stakeholders. Detailed explanation can beseen in the figure above. From a modeling point of view, BIM is basedon three-dimensional digital technology.

Thedigital expression of the relevant information about the project isnot only limited to the geometric information, but also contains thephysical characteristics of the facility as well as its functionalcharacteristics and related information during the project lifecycle.

Fromapplication point of view, BIM emphasizes on the requirement of fulldigital information, and supports a variety of computing forms.Adding a variety of information to the model at any time in thelifecycle of the project helps meet the various needs of the project.Therefore, building information modeling can be integrated with themanagement in order to ensure that the constructors improve theefficiency and reduce different kinds of risk.

Inthe past, traditional construction process requires a considerablemanpower, materials, and time in communication, debugging, andmodeling. For example, in the construction phase, the review of the2D plan could force an individual to spend a significant manpower andresources. Manpower review also has an omission problem, and itaffects the quality of construction. It is necessary to modify thechanges one by one (including all contents of the drawing) when adesign has been altered.

BIMcan integrate all the information in the building lifecycle,including planning, design, contracting, construction, operation, andmaintenance. Architects, construction units, consumers, suppliers,and other stakeholders can forecast the full cycle of theestablishing a case. At the same time, the integration of the viewsof all participants and the exploration of the risks is necessary inorder to ensure that real-time monitoring of construction quality andprogress is achieved. The loss caused by improper planning and poorcommunication will be greatly reduced.

TheBIM structures a &quotvisualization&quot digital model through themulti-dimensional digital design solutions. A &quotsimulation andanalysis&quot of the scientific collaboration platform is provided.In addition to the application in the project design, construction,and operational management, the use of BIM can improve the quality ofconstruction and reduce waste (Bonenberg and Wei, 2015). Thesecharacteristics reflect the advantages of BIM that can result insustainable development.

Thereal economy was weak and financing as well as the labor costs washigh during the post-crisis era. Low carbon and energy saving hadbecome significant requirements in the construction industry, whichmade transformation in the sector imminent. The transformation andupgrading of construction enterprises fundamentally changed the levelof project management and enterprise administration, which promotedsustainable development. The emergence as well as the maturity of BIMtechnology has become the biggest magic weapon for the transformationand upgrading of the current construction enterprises.

TheBIM digital work mode achieves the capacity of the paperless office,which is the development trend of the construction industry. The useof the BIM in the construction industry will greatly improveefficiency, sustainable development, and green building.

PaperlessOffice

Thepaperless office is a concept that was invented to encourage thereduction of the use of paper in large offices (Techopedia, 2016).Paperless office needs hardware, software, and communicationnetworks.

Theapplication of the paperless office can save a lot of resources,reduce office supplies, facilitate effective coordination ofdifferent departments, supervision of the work schedule, trackinginspection, and improve the efficiency of daily work. A lot of workhas been done in the &quotpaperless” office. For example, do youwant to submit your class report as hardcopy or soft copy? Do youwant to write a letter to ask for a reply, or do you want to email itdirectly? These are a few examples, and now most of the industriesare gradually promoting the work of paperless offices.

Architectsuse drawings to express the process of construction. Through thedrawings, a bridge between architects and builders has been set up totransfer information. In 1990s, Hadid, Coop Himmelblau, Eisenman, andother architects were keen to use the “Cartesian coordinate system”to generate complex and diverse architectural forms. Even though theshape was complex, it could be easily transformed intotwo-dimensional drawings in the Cartesian coordinate system tofacilitate the processes of manufacturing and construction.

However,it would be difficult to construct the multi-curved buildings (suchas the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Figure 5) using the method of“Cartesian coordinate system”. Therefore, the two-dimensionaldrawings limited the architect`s ability to explore the possibilitiesof architectural form.

Figure6: The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao

Thetraditional way of relying on the drawings to transmit information isgradually declining, following the rapid development of computertechnology. The paperless digital information era is graduallyreplacing traditional practices.

Paperlesstechnology has changed the traditional design methods andconstruction practices. Construction is no longer derived from the“two pieces of bricks carefully put together”, but focuses on theuse of invisible &quotnumbers&quot to generate and create abuilding.

Thesuccess of paperless design in the manufacturing sector is of greathelp to the construction industry and brings a lot of enlightenment.In 1990s, the successful development of the Boeing 777 aircraft had agreat influence on the development of the computer aided design andmanufacturing industry in the world.

TheBoeing 777 is the world`s first paperless plan that was developedusing computer aided design technology (Gong, 1995). During thedesign phase, engineers were able to use CATIA (Computer AidedThree-Dimensional Interactive Application) to modify the virtualBoeing 777. In addition, engineers eliminated errors, transporteddata to numerical control machine, produced components, and then madeprototypes.

Boeinghas more than 3 million parts, which makes its drawing quite complex. Correcting deviations in the drawings was quite difficult in thepast. The development staff had to re-modify the drawings and theprocessing parts. The modification process increased the cost andtime. These challenges have been reduced by the application of thepaperless design approach that helped the Boeing Company lower thecost and improved product quality as well as efficiency.

Thesuccess of the Boeing 777 design motivated players in the automobilemanufacturing industry and other sectors to gradually adopt paperlessdesign. The rapid development of digital technology in today`ssociety has made the implementation of paperless office in theconstruction industry easier.

Anarticle that enumerated the U.S. construction industry identified thefollowing problems in 2002 (The Economist):

  1. About U.S. $200 billion out of US $600 billion spent in construction projects annually get lost through inefficiency, mistakes, and delays.

  2. A typical $100 million project would require about 150,000 separate documents, including the technical drawings, contracts, orders, requests for information, and construction schedules.

  3. Construction works involved a repetition of the primary work from one project to another, where about 80% of the input was repeated.

Astudy indicated that the U.S. construction industry could save up to15.8 billion a year by improving the software system`s application(GCR, 2004). The use of the digital technology to change thetraditional mode of production in the construction industry was aneffective way of improving its efficiency.

FrankGehry, a famous American architect, explored and practiced paperlessarchitectural design for many years. Gehry held that the aircraftmanufacturing industry and automobile sectors require the applicationof the paperless design. Gehry used CATIA to achieve paperless whendesigning Bilbao Guggenheim Museum, and realized the significance ofthe digital construction (Stavric and Marina, 2011).

Theprocess of Gehry’s paperless work (Bruggen,1997 and Bruggen andJulien,2009)was as follows:

  1. After the building environment, function and space analysis, Gehry made a series of manual model and carried on the evaluation of aspects, optimized and selected a preliminary model.

  2. Used a 3D scanner to scan the selected manual model, and then converted it into &quotpoint cloud&quot information in the computer.

  3. The 3D &quotpoint cloud&quot information was analyzed and modified in the computer, and delivered to the numerical control machine to make the entity model.

  4. Evaluate and modify the entity model, re-scan, and adjust the model in the computer. Constantly repeat the previous three steps until satisfied.

  5. The information of the entity model in the computer was transmitted to the numerical control machine to be processed into various components. The components were transported to the site to be assembled into a building.

Thearchitect Bernhard Franken designed and constructed the ‘Bubble’for BMW’s exhibition pavilion using the digital design method in2000 (Kolarevic, 2004).

Figure7: The ‘Bubble’

Figure8: The software design of BMW’s exhibition pavilion

Itis worth pointing out that the architects solved the problem of dataexchange between multi professional and multi software, and realizedthe real-time swapping of multi professional facts. Due to the use ofnew technologies, they had been able to complete all the work fromdesign to construction in a limited time, and the quality ofconstruction was improved as well.

Thesearchitects created avant-garde works to meet the aesthetic needs ofpeople in the new era with the help of the paperless design. Theirpioneering work in the field of paperless design had a great impacton the world. Their practice had ensured that it was possible torealize the paperless design and digital construction.

Gehryand Franken`s success was attributed to the use of three-dimensionalmodeling software: CATIA and Rhino. However, the information islimited using the software that fails to cover the physicalcharacteristics and functional features of the building as well asall the details related to the life cycle of the entire project(Wang, 2004). So they need to repeat the evaluation and analysis.

TheBIM technology in each software companies uses the differentdevelopment strategy, which implies that it will not be possible toexchange information from different software processes. Therefore, astandard is needed to unify the description of BIM. This standard isIFC, which is an international standard for the representation andexchange of data in building products.

TheIFC standard has basically covered all the things in the lifecycle ofconstruction projects, and it is the criterion for BIM informationsharing and exchange processes. Therefore, other people can accessthe data through IFC data interface as long as all kinds of programsbased on BIM technology set up the IFC format exchange interface. Itis possible to eliminate the low efficiency phenomenon by duplicatingthe input and making the whole workflow clear, smooth, and unimpeded.

Becausethe Building Information Model allows the multidisciplinaryinformation to be integrated in one model, it can be done in thewhole design process for sustainability measures and performanceanalysis (Azhar etal.,2009).

Government’sRole

Theconstruction industry is one of the sectors with voluminous data. Theindustry is responsible for some of the largest and the mostexpensive projects that including a large number of resources andwork (Marr, 2016). Many problems are difficult to solve and theefficiency is very low when the management relies on paperwork (ICT,2016). The BIM, which is s typical technology of the paperless officecan improve the efficiency of work and achieve quality control (Chenand Luo, 2014).

Theapplication of BIM is not only required to achieve the transformationfrom two-dimensional to three-dimensional design tools, but also tofacilitate the implementation of collaborative, green, andsustainable development design concepts (Wong and Zhou, 2015). TheBIM technology can significantly improve project management (Bryde,2013). Its ultimate goal is to make the whole project in the design,construction, and application stages able to effectively achieveenergy as well as cost saving, reduce pollution, and improveefficiency (Solutions, 2002).

Datamanagement model greatly enhances the work of the entire industry andtransparency, which will certainly reduce corruption (Lio etal.,2011). The way people plan, build, maintain, and use their social andeconomic infrastructure has been changed by this digital technology.The British government has saved 840 million pounds of constructioncosts using the level 2 BIM (HK Government, 2015).

PeterRoutledge (2015), the WFG (White Frog group) the company’spresident claimed that he had worked in the construction industry fornearly 40 years, but the sector had not made much progress. Until2010, there were no documents showing the emission of carbon dioxidein the construction industry and a proposal to reduce its footprint(HM Government, 2010). The use of the BIM in the constructionindustry has become so common, and it can help to reduce carbonemissions. This is a big leap for the BIM. The objective of using thelow-carbon building technique is to reduce the waste of resources(Zhao and Yang, 2012). These achievements are the main reasons forgovernment to promote the implementation of the BIM technology.

Greenbuilding is architecture with natural and harmonious coexistence(EPA, 2016). The stakeholders in the construction sector aim tomaximize the conservation of resources (such as energy, land, water,and wood), environmental protection, and pollution reduction.Provision of health and efficient use of space are some of thebenefits of green building (Yan and Stellios, 2006). Green buildingis one of the most effective approaches that are used to helparchitects realize the sustainable development.

Emissionof Carbon dioxide in the construction sector accounts forapproximately 40% of the total production (Schueter and Thessling,2008). This proportion is much higher than the transport andindustrial sectors. The increase in the energy costs and theenvironmental problems creates the need for sustainable buildingfacilities (Azhar etal.,2011).

Inessence, the BIM technology will benefit both the government andplayers in the technology industry. The government has sufficientreasons to participate in promotion of the development of the BIM.Its main role is to facilitate the sustainable development.

Thegovernment should focus on reduction of the environmental pollutionthrough the use of the environmental analysis and effectiveconstruction practices. Many organizations put in place higherrequirements for architects, planners, and builders to achieve thedelivery of low-carbon buildings (Autodesk, 2008). Some governments,such as the United States (GSA in 2003), Denmark (Erhvervs- ogByggestyrelsen in 2007), Finland (Senate Properties in 2007), Norway(Norwegian Defense Estates Agency in 2007) and the United Kingdom(Cabinet Office in 2011), have imposed mandatory requirements on theuse of BIM (Laine etal.,2007 and Bryde etal.,2013).

Thefollowing sections of the paper provide the analysis of the rolesplayed by the governments in the promotion of BIM in the UnitedStates and the United Kingdom. The two countries were selectedbecause the application of BIM started earlier and it has been widelyaccepted in their respective construction sectors. For example, theUnited States was the first country to start the application of BIM(Bazjanac, 2008). The BIM development in the United States cannot beseparated from the three major agencies: GSA, USACE, and BSA.

TheGeneral Services Administration (GSA) is an independent agency of theU.S. government that was established in 1949 (GSA, 2015). It isresponsible for the construction and operation of all federalfacilities in the United States, including project development,property management, building maintenance, and environmentalprotection. The development of real estate projects for governmentagencies and provision of property management services for governmentbuilding are the two most important functions (GSA, 2015).

TheGSA’s Facilities Standards provided information about the buildinginformation model. The concept of BIM had been gradually formed, butthe technology was still not perfect. It was projected thatavailability of information in the construction industry could assistin maintenance management and improve the quality of design. Until2000, Facilities Standards (P100) had made it clear that the use ofthe BIM technology to improve the design and construction of theproject delivery would be a long-term goal for GSA in the 2006financial year (GSA, 2016).

In2003, GSA launched the national 3D-4D BIM program through PBS Officeof the Chief Architect (Wong etal.,2010). Public Buildings Service (PBS) is the public service sector inGSA that is responsible for the construction and operation of allfederal facilities in the United States (GSA, 2016). Theestablishment of the BIM work group started changing the “long-termgoal” into reality.

TheGSA is a super large developer that manages more than 200 activeprojects with a total value of $12 billion. The promotion of BIM mustfocus on existing projects, make them easy to be accepted by thestaff and ensure that the effect can be felt in the short term (Yeeetal.,2010).Therefore, GSA decided to start with a small piece of BIM technicalbreakthrough known as the BIM spatial detection. The area of spatialdetection is the most intuitive and easy to be accepted by people.

Startingfrom 2007, all construction projects that receive federal grants wererequired to be sent to OCA, and be reviewed by PBS committee andchief architect. The GSA had a systematic way of promoting the publicsector using BIM Technology through the establishment of theknowledge community and the issuance of the BIM manuals.

TheGSA’s BIM team started cooperating with many leading technologycompanies and required them to provide their own software tools inaccordance with the its concept standards, which was a win-wincooperation. They could be provided in a number of technologycompanies to examine whether the software was in line with standards.The technology companies would benefit if GSA will buy theirsoftware.

Atotal of six software companies involved in the cooperation with theGSA, include the Autodesk, Bentley, Graph soft, Onuma, DigitalAlchemy and Solibri (Ho and Matta, 2009). The GSA gradually acquireda clear understanding of the use and management of BIM in theprojects, which was confirmed by a pilot project of its cooperationwith the technology companies.

Inaddition to the technical level and business model mentioned above,there is an important factor in the promotion of BIM by GSA:personnel configuration. The GSA has set up an internal staffnetwork, named “BIM Champions” (Yee etal.,2010). The agency selected a number of staffs that are proficient inBIM technology in each area as the region`s BIM Champions, who areresponsible for its promotion and application in the selected areas.The BIM Champions can be project manager, operation and maintenancemanager, architect, or construction supervisors. The diversity of theprofessional BIM Champions is one of the factors that contributetowards the effectiveness of the government agency in promoting theBIM technology (NFB, 2014). BIM convention is held every year indifferent regions the champions gather together to share theirexperience and industry information.

Thecontact information of every Champion is posted on the GSA website.The content is updated frequently. The person in charge of thecorresponding area can be found on the contact list, if there is aproblem on the GSA project. In addition, the GSA’s BIM team alsoset up a library in home page. The BIM resources and research resultsare also contained in this online library, including BIM standards,demonstration projects, and video explanation. Any person candirectly log on to the BIM library and find the resources that theyneed (GSA, 2016). The digital library is convenient for members ofstaff, who want to find more information about the BIM technology.

Tosum up, the U.S. government developed the BIM Standards. Thegovernment also proposed the National 3D-4D-BIM Program and used thepilot projects to accumulate experience and play an exemplary role.The results of the pilot projects strengthened the personnel trainingand built a knowledge-sharing platform. The selection of the mostappropriate software and hardware to ensure the stability of thefoundation of BIM applications is part of the continuous improvementprogram.

TheUnited States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is affiliated with theUnited States federal government and the U.S. army. The USACE wasestablished to provide project management and construction managementservices for the U.S. Army. It is the world`s largest publicengineering, design, and construction management institutions (USACE,2016).

USACEreleased an “Army BIM Roadmap” for a period of 15 years in 2006(Suermann and Issa, 2009). The title of the document is “BuildingInformation Modeling: A Road Map for Implementation to Support MILCONTransformation and Civil Works Projects within the U.S. Army Corps ofEngineers”. In this plan, USACE promised all military constructionprojects would use the BIM technology in the future (USACE, 2006).

Infact, before the release of this plan, USACE had taken a series ofmeasures to prepare for the use of the BIM. The first BIM project wasan “Unaccompanied Enlisted Personnel Housing (UEPH)” project thatwas designed and managed by the USACE Seattle district. The collisionchecking and calculation was done using the Bentley software. TheUSACE also used the software in the U.S. Army Reserve Center projectin North Carolina State, which was implemented with the help of theBIM technology (Issa, 2008).

InMarch 2005, the USACE set up a Project Delivery Team (PDT) to studythe value of BIM and provided recommendations for the BIM applicationstrategy. The USACE also studied the contract template to formulateappropriate terms in order to enable the contractor to use BIM. Inaddition, USACE required the Centers of Standardization (COS) to useBIM in standardization design and provide guidance.

In2010, the USACE released the BIM implementation plan for militaryconstruction projects based on the Autodesk and the Bentley platforms(Autodesk, 2012 and Huston, 2011). USACE plans to use BIM to reducethe cost and the life cycle of the building, enhance the deliverytime, and the quality of facilities planning, structure,construction, operation, and maintenance.

TheUSACE listed requirements for the use of BIM, especially in themilitary construction projects. BIM implementation plan applicable tocivil construction projects is still under research and development.

TheSMART alliance, which is a specialized committee in the field ofinformation resources and technology, established by the NationalInstitute of Building Science in 2007 (NIBS). It is committed to thepromotion and research of BIM, which allow participants in theproject life cycle share accurate information. Therefore, the goal ofthe BSA is to help the construction sector save about 31% of thewasted materials, which will amount to $400 million by 2020.

TheNational Building Information Model Standard Project Committee-UnitedStates (NBIMS-US) is an organization of bSa subordinates, dedicatedto research and develop BIM standards in the United States. InDecember 2007, NBIMS-US released the first part of the first editionof the NBIMS, including information on the exchange and developmentprocess and other aspects of the content. The NBIMS-US clearlypointed out the definition of BIM processes and tools, detailedrequirements, and the coding data exchange. Therefore, differentdepartments could develop a consistent BIM standard to achieve bettercoordination.

InMay 2012, NBIMS-US released the contents of the second edition. Thesecond edition of the writing process adopted an open submission (BIMstandard applied to each section) and democratic vote on the contentof the standard (Open Consensus Process). Therefore, it was alsoknown as the first consensus based BIM standard.

InJune 2013, a proposal for the NBIMS third edition was accepted andofficially released in July 2015.This version was an improvement ofthe previous editions. It had an additional definition of terms, andexpanded a number of new standards to get the content more detailed.For example, in chapter 2, the version added IFD/bsDD, XML and OmniClass, and BCF (BIM Collaboration Format) as proposed by Solibri andTeklacompanies (NIBS, 2012 and NIBS, 2015).

Tosum up, the BSA used the subordinate departments (such as NBIMS-US)to establish the standards used in the U.S. The application objectsare divided into two categories: (1) Software developers andsuppliers (2) Operators in the design, construction, construction,construction, and the application phase.

Today,even if there is no mandatory policy for the future U.S. constructionmarket, the industry will always open up to the BIM and otheremerging technologies.

Inthe U.S., construction contractors are the main consumers of the BIMtechnology. The three main agencies (including the GSA, USACE, andBSA) adhere to the principle of “Standard First”, and improve theapplication of BIM. To choose the government-designated project toimplement BIM technology, take its advantages and find its deficiencyin order to improve it. The success of the pilot projects motivatesplayers in the industry to accept this new technology.

TheU.K. is currently the only country where the government enforces theapplication of BIM on green building (BIM crunch, 2014). However, theU.S. and the U.K. insist on Standards-Advancement andGovernment-Leadership.

Priorto the development of the relevant policies, the British CabinetOffice and BIS (Department for the Business Innovation and Skills)had implemented a long-term plan based on the BIM application in theHM Government procurement case. The government also increased theapplication of BIM because it realized that the benefits (Departmentfor Business, Innovation and Skills, 2014).

Thegovernment hoped to increase the application of BIM in the “Designfor Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA)” and “Lean” constructionprojects in order to enhance efficiency (HM Government, 2012). TheBritish government`s long-term vision is to become a global leader inthe application of BIM (Withers, 2012), and gradually develop theability to expand knowledge in this field, and then become a providerof BIM services and software. These measures will ensure that theUnited Kingdom increase its ability to apply BIM in design,construction, and operation.

TheBritish government had set up three plans to achieve the long-termvision, namely committed to the implementation of the current BISstrategy to create the mass effect aiming at national growthcontinue to develop their own capacity to help create the future (HMGovernment, 2015).

TheBritish government will then adopted a series of promotionstrategies. First, some of these strategies include the accelerationof the execution of action plans, embedding of the BIM in thedomestic market, and the implementation of the international growthplans.

Thissection will address the importance of building an executiveorganization in the cabinet office and BIS support to assist allgovernment departments in developing their own BIM strategies, suchas the BIM Task Group. The program was initiated by HM Governmentthat is responsible for communication with the industry. It called onthe corresponding industry representatives to participate in theestablishment and promotion of standards and incorporated them intothe national research institutions (BIM Task Group, 2012). Thedevelopment strategies were returned to Construction BoardGovernment.

Thegovernment agency worked with a number of private sector clients toensure that BIM benefits could be shared across the entire customertier. The aim of collaboration was also to ensure that supply chainwould be in conformity with the appropriate conditions.

Inaddition, the government established the “BIM Regions” in orderto ensure that small and medium sized enterprises as well as thesmall customers could obtain technical advice from the local networks(BIM Regions, 2016). This feature is the same as the aforementioned“BIM Champions” that works in the United States.

Moreover,the government collaborated worked with BSI and other organizationsto help them develop more robust standards, including PAS 1192-23 andPAS 914.

Secondly,the government works with UKTI (UK Trade and Investment) to developstrategies that could help its agencies acquire the leading positionin the international application of the BIM. This achievement couldalso help design and construction companies get more success in theglobal market.

Third,it worked with the EU partners to assist and coordinate theapplication of BIM. It also used the UK`s leadership to facilitatethe development of relevant standards and practices.

Fourth,the UK was looking for global partners to establish internationalstandards and push for the development of related software that couldwork together more effectively. The United Kingdom supported theintegration of BIM into the &quotSmart City&quot and &quotSmartGrids&quot through the “Digital Built Britain” policy. One ofthe key targets of the “Digital Built Britain” was to find waysto increase the diversity and complexity of BIM software and to findways to work together with the support of network resources.

Fifth,the UK government would work with the Construction ProductsAssociation (CPA) and other trade groups to enhance the applicationof the industry standards to ensure that the UK manufacturerscontinued to be the vanguard of providing customers’ BIM data.

Sixth,the government would set up a pilot project by collecting andanalyzing BIM data to extract the experience and best practices forshaping the industry.

TheUnited Kingdom used the top-down approach to promote the developmentas well as the application of BIM, which is a different approachcompared to the practices that are deployed in the U.S. The CabinetOffice published the Government Construction Strategy in 2011 (RICS,2014), which held that all government projects should utilize the 3DBIM collaboration (Ganah and John, 2014).

Thereason for this strategy released was that the construction industryhad lagged behind other industries in the use of digital technology.A company that had the ability to work in a completely coordinated 3Denvironment in order to ensure that all the stakeholders involved inthe project are working on a shared platform. The purpose of thisapproach was to reduce transaction costs and the chance for error tooccur (Cabinet Office and Efficiency and Reform Group, 2015).

TheBritish government realized that effectiveness in promotion of theBIM technology could not only be achieved by simply enhancing thetechnical capacity of the companies in the construction industry.Effectiveness could also be achieved by making the demand side aswell as the supply side get the ability to implement BIM in theoperation process.

TheBritish government proposed the corresponding solution fordevelopment of the public sector’s abilities to apply BIMapplications in order to achieve the aforementioned objective ofenhancing effectiveness in promotion of the new technology (BIM TaskGroup, 2012). The corresponding solution was the policy of GovernmentSoft Landings (GSL). GSL has mainly focused on several areas,including the functionality as well as effectiveness, environmental,facilities management, commissioning, training, and handover (CabinetOffice, 2012).

TheU.K. released the Construction Strategy Government policy in May2011, which indicated that the government must enhance the value ofits public building sector. The GSL strategy is one of the main waysused to improve the performance of public buildings. The applicationof this strategy will improve the rights and interests of users inthe same position with the designers and constructors.

Theframework for the formation of the British BIM policy can be seen inthe following figure.

Figure9: British BIM policy formation frame

NBSstarted carrying out the National BIM Survey from 2010. For example,an online BIM survey was conducted for employees in the field ofarchitecture, engineering, and measurement. According to the survey,the application of application of BIM was 13% in 2010, but itincreased steadily to 50 % by the end of the year 2011. It is alsoestimated that about 43% of people had never heard of BIM, but only5% of the study participants reported the lack of knowledge about itsutilization in 2011.

Areport published in 2015 indicated the opinion of the peopleregarding the role of the government in the promotion and theapplication of the BIM. The figure below shows that the attitude ofpeople towards the government.

Figure10: Government role of BIM implementation

TheUnited Kingdom adopted a gradual and phased upgrade strategy topromote BIM. On the one hand, the government integrated the BIM tothe application of CAD technology era. On the other hand, it regardedthe application of “Smart City” (Level 3) as a long-termbenchmark. In the current stage (Level 2), the government willpromote the application of the BIM through the GSL standardizationprocess in order to establish a complete set of industry supplychain. The government also defined the division of labor using theRIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects) and other professionalassociations.

Theadvantage of BIM promotion in the United States and the UnitedKingdom is the government`s support through the establishment ofstrong policies. Both countries give priority to the government pilotprojects that assess the suitability of the BIM technology.

U.S.military and other public projects use BIM technology and constantlyimprove its standards. The initial success motivated the stakeholdersin the construction sector to apply the new technology in otherprojects, which has made BIM one of the widely applied innovations inthe modern world.

TheUnited Kingdom issued a mandatory policy indicating that all publicprojects must use the BIM since 2016. Therefore, the entireconstruction industry is bound to start paying attention to BIM,especially on its application.

Insummary, BIM is not a new technology since its initial concept wasmentioned in 1970s. The development of BIM is not only from 2D to nD,but also from drawing to the model. The development of the paperlessoffice has become the trend of all walks of life. The constructionindustry is a big data sector, which makes the application of digitaltechnology an opportunity for its transformation. The establishmentof policies to guide the players in the construction sector is anindication of the government’s commitment to promote theapplication of the BIM technology. Therefore, the government has madea great contribution to the development of the construction industry.

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