Theconcept of leadership has been a contentious topic for a long time.The studies carried out over the years have revealed that thegovernorship theories have gradually evolved to take care of thecontemporary aspects. Traditional concepts of governance emphasizedon the character and the persona of effective rulers as well as howthey carried themselves (Johns & Monser, 2001). Currentprinciples are more interested in what leaders implement rather thanthe need of them having specified inborn abilities or traits. It isalso evident that most of the ancient theories made several attemptsto come up with the qualities that could be associated with apotential ‘good` ruler. It was compulsory as per their stipulationsthat superiors must possess those traits if they have to beeffective. Traits like honesty, integrity, inspirational ability,intelligence, confidence, and achievement orientation were essential.Historically, a number of rulers in the political and military fieldswere endowed with the named personality traits apart from a few whosignificantly damaged the perception of those theories (Johns et al.,2001).
Thenecessity address the challenge of efficient administration ininstitutions has resulted in several theories and practices that arecentered on actions that can be cultured opposed to innate aspectsthat an individual lacks or is endowed with. The plethora of studiescame up with some modern theories of leadership which range fromcontingency, situational, democratic to transformational approaches.
Itis, therefore, necessary to look at the opinions exhaustively anddraw notable similarities and differences between them. Is there anyrelationship between the community and leadership in the theories? Inschools supervision is vested in the hands of teachers, how do theyappear as rulers? Are there characteristics they should have to actconstructively as administrators? And how the models are currentlydepicted in my school are some of the questions and concepts thatwill form the basis of my paper.
Directfrom the name, one can easily deduce what the model is all about. Theword situational clearly shows that managers should diverse theirtactics basing on the individuals they are controlling and thesettings that surround the prevailing tasks. It is founded ondifferent management concerning varied situations. The effectivenessof an administrator, in this case, is judged on his ability to adaptto the contextual conditions within the shortest time possible forthe benefit of the entity (Houglum, 2012).
Precisely,it is driven by the maturity level of those who are being managed.People, who have occupied overseeing positions, can bear with me thatmaturity of employees is a determining factor when it comes to theapplication of any leadership style. Individuals that lack experiencein a certain field will shy away from particular tasks or lack therelevant skills to carry them out when compared to knowledgeableworkers who will comfortably take them up. In such circumstances,administrators should structure the methodologies to maturity levels,and the abilities of the employees to realize the set objectives aswell as raise performance to the optimum.
Adoptersof this theory are tasked to portray four styles in management. Theyare supposed to tell the members which way to take and how they wantthings to be done. They should also convince and inspire theemployees that the direction they have selected is viable (Houglaum,2012). Situational overseers also must strive to build therelationship between workers by initiating a participatory approachand delegating duties to some them. The basis of this style isflexibility to take care of the experience and the traits of theindividuals.
Thismodel stresses on the ability of officials to stimulate and inspirefollowers to accomplish exceptional results. Rulers ought to keep aneye on the concerns and the needs that may develop individuals.Transformational leaders create awareness in the team and motivatecolleagues to put in additional effort to realize the set goals(Johns et al., 2001). It is all about creating a positive adjustmentin the group that is being led. Several mechanisms, employed in thismodel include linking the employees’ feeling of identity to the setgoals, the group uniqueness, leaders acting as role models, posingchallenges to the team to be accountable for everything they do, andhaving a clear picture of each workers abilities shortcomings. Suchtraits have been found to promote morale, productivity, andmotivation in an organization. As proposed by James McGregor, thetheory has four overseeing styles.
Thefirst component of the model is charisma. Administrators shouldbehave in an exemplary way that shows given principles that make theteam members to recognize him positively as the role model.
Inspiringfollowers is also a typical style within this theory. Governorsshould articulate the goals of the firm in a way that is appealingand inspiring. Thus, workers become optimistic and motivated toaccomplish the set goals.
Stimulatingthe intelligence of the team is essential if the transformation is tobe reached this is done through challenging the existingassumptions, stimulating, and encouraging innovativeness of themembers.
Lastly,leaders should pay attention to individuals. They should addresspersonal needs play a mentoring role, appreciate, and respectindividual’s influence.
Alsoknown as the participative model, the members governed by rulers whoembrace it are mostly involved in the process of decision-making andimplementation (Houglum, 2012). It gives every member of the group achance to participate fully in leadership, air out their ideas freelyand the environment set is conducive to hold discussions on pertinentissues. Though the model is based on equality and freedom ofexpression, the position of the superior is paramount as he is thereto offer direction and control.
Democraticleaders also have the powers to decide who will be part of the groupand who will be given the opportunity to give opinions on thedecisions that are in place. Studies point to this model as the mosteffective when it comes to productivity, increasing teamcontributions, and heighten team morale.
Itis characterized by the creation of an environment that is conduciveand encourages employees to air their opinions, concepts even whenthe ruler has the right to make the final judgment (Houglum, 2012).Colleagues should also be free to engage each other in meaningfuldiscussions. Individuals are also encouraged and recognized for beinginnovative. Effective leaders within this model must portray levelsof honesty, cognitive ability, confidence, inventiveness, competency,and justice. Inspiration from overseers is also a major factor inthis theory.
Theleadership models I have selected have a lot in common. In all ofthem, governors are called upon to inspire the followers towards theset goals. Cognitive prowess is also necessary for all the models.There is a notable difference in the democratic theory as it givesroom for members to take part in leadership unlike the other two. Thesituational model also seems not to encourage creativity and changeas it calls rulers to fit in the prevailing context.
Relationshipbetween the Environment and Leadership in the Models
Theprevailing conditions play a critical role in the adoption of themodels I have selected. For instance, in the situational, theexperience of the employees who are the immediate environmentdetermines the decisions the governor will take. Similarly, if theenvironment needs to be changed for the set goals to be realized thenthe leaders will have to adopt the transformational model. Incountries that do not embrace democracy, it is not likely to findinstitutions that have a democratic type of governorship.
Teachers’roles in line with the school goals and students objectives cannot beunderestimated. Whether the responsibilities are formal or informal,they are vital in the general improvement of the school capacity.
Variousplatforms bring out teachers in the school environment as leaders.One of the platforms is mentorship (Onorata, 2013). Teachers serve asmentors not only to the students but also to other educators andparents. They act as role models by acclimatizing new teachers in theschool environment, offering advice to them about teaching methods,concepts, learning processes, curriculum, and the politics around theschool. Teachers also provide mentorship to students on how to carrythemselves in the outside world or on spiritual matters.
Theyalso take administrative roles in the school set up. They serve inthe school committees, heading of departments and are responsible forthe daily routines within the learning institutions.
Educatorsdisplay overseeing in many ways. In some cases, these methods overlapeach other. Various ways are ranging from formal to informal. Thevariation ensures that each of them can find an area of interest tooffer leadership. In any of the roles they assume, they play acritical role in improving the learning process and shaping of theschool culture.
EssentialCharacteristics of Teachers as Leaders
Successfulrulers come in some ways. However, teachers must possess certainfeatures that are familiar to any leader. First, their attitudeshould always be positive. Tutors should exhibit optimism if theywant to motivate the students to reach greater heights in theacademic and career ladder (Onorata, 2013). Learners tend to put inmore efforts if they are recognized and made happy.
Thedelegation of duty is also another aspect that teachers need toconsider in their leadership line. It is not possible for anindividual to carry out everything by himself. Teachers can achievethis by assigning roles to school officials, class monitors or othercolleagues. Assigning duties indicate that one has confidence inother individual`s capabilities thus enhancing morale within theschool environment. Other characteristics include confidence,exemplary communication skills and being accountable for actionstaken.
Thediscussion has brought out clearly the transformational, democratic,and situational models of the governorship. From the theories, Irealized that the democratic approach is the theory that is beingemployed in my current school. Although the management makes thefinal decisions, it still gives room to everyone to express theirviews.
Houglum,D. (2012). Myth-busters: Traditional and emergent leadership. E:COIssue, 14(2),25-39.
Johns,H., & Mosner, H. (2001). From trait to transformation: Theevolution of leadership theories. Education,10, 115-122.
Onorato,M. (2013). Transformational leadership style in the educationalsector: An empirical study of corporate managers and educationalleaders. Academyof Educational Leadership Journal, 17(1),33-47.