Reviewof Sources and Annotated Bibliography
First off, the paper looks at different articles covering varioustopics that I am interested in as I pursue my master’s program. Mycore interest in the program is to acquire additional knowledge andskills required in advancing community development here at home andall over the world. In the modern age of globalization, there areunique emerging problems that did not exist several decades ago.Leaders, governments, organizations, and individuals must be preparedto address these new challenges adequately. Some of the problematicareas pertain to climate change, new diseases, pollution, congestion,population explosion, aging infrastructure, and limited food to feedthe masses. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop ways toaddress these challenges and improve the general welfare of people.
There are different theories and methods brought forward to addresssome of the problems. The viability and sustainability of some ofthese models are unproven. As such, researchers are borrowing heavilyfrom models in different disciplines as well as learning from pastsolutions on a variety of problems. On examining the currentliterature, there is evidence to show that today’s problems aremore advanced based and based on a complex, multilayered interactionbetween communities, urban centers, and the environment. Startingfrom theories on community development, urban planning andglobalization, it is evident that the issues of sustainabledevelopment, community development, fighting poverty, and upgradingslums require a multifaceted approach that recognizes the complexinteractions. Consequently, there is a need to change the previousapproaches to the issues facing cities and community developmenttoday. Private and publicly owned organizations need to partner morewith governments and locals in addressing these problems. This willensure solutions are user-oriented in that they serve prioritizedneeds of communities.
Block, T. &Paredis, E. (2013). Urban development projects catalyst forsustainable
transformations:the need for entrepreneurial political leadership. Journal ofCleaner
The article seeks to show that enhanced understanding of politicalleadership in decision-making processes of development projects canbe used to promote better, sustainable urban transformations. Simplyput, understanding how political leadership makes decisions can beemployed to promote sustainable development. Political decisionsshould thus be developed from an entrepreneurial point of view. Thearticle fits well with my professional objectives of promotingsustainable urban planning (SUP). SUP takes into account planningthat responds to social needs of members of the communities andaddressing the needs in other areas such as welfare, education, andhealth.
The literature review indicates that not much attention has beengiven to policy entrepreneurs in sustainable urban transformations. Alot of it is given to socio-technical systems that address particularconcerns such as food, transportation, energy, etc. The review alsorecognizes policy entrepreneurs as advocates of given problems andsolutions in thier communities. They must be willing to invest theirresources (time, repute, money) to endorse their ideas for policytransformation, either because they have personal views about certainproblems or even for personal gain. Political leaders can betransformed into such individuals with necessary training andcommitment.
The work provides an avenue for attaining needed change in modernsocieties. It indicates that conventional leaders such as mayors canbe transformed into advocates of SUP and development. Thus, in mypursuit or urban planning and development, I will place more emphasison training politicians to convert them from conventional politiciansto policy entrepreneurs as a way of driving community development.
Bryson, J. &Quick, K. (2012). Designing public participation processes. Public
AdministrationReview 73(1): 23–34.
The article presents a systematic and cross-disciplinary synthesis ofrelevant research in the field of public participation in communitydevelopment initiatives to offer evidence-based guidelines topractitioners. The article links theory to practice in runningcommunity development programs. Therefore, the article is suitablefor my studies as it addresses an area that I am interested in andprovides a method of applying theory into practice.
To synthesize theory from different fields, the authors reviewed morethan 250 articles and books. All these sources provided varyingtheories on the best ways of promoting public participation incommunity development. Conventional development initiatives eitheradopt a social or a scientific approach. However, the articlepresents a hybrid approach informed by social science, designscience, and empirical evidence. One of the most important aspectsthat the article brings forward is the assertion that the context ofdevelopment determines how the three main approaches are combined.
Calvano, L.(2008). Multinational corporations and local communities: a criticalanalysis of
conflict.Journal of Business Ethics 82(1):973-805.
The article examines the potential areas of conflict thatmultinational corporations are likely to encounter in theirinteractions with local communities. The author recognizes thatorganizations’ activities affect local communities directly andindirectly as stakeholders. As local communities demand morecorporate responsibilities from organizations, there is likely toemerge conflict due to the differences in expectations or other suchmatters. The article thus addresses an important issue that I ampersonally interested in my studies: The role of organizations incommunity development and how they can help solve pressing issuesfacing local communities. However, their efforts to assist localcommunities can be hindered by cases of conflict arising betweenfirms and local communities. The article’s review of literatureacknowledges that MNCs face a greater probability than homegrownfirms in terms of conflict with local communities. Furthermore,developing nations in Africa and South America present the mostimportant challenge to MNCs in dealing with local communities as mostof them are impoverished and thus demand more assistance from foreigncorporations and live under the illusion these firms have exploitedthem.
The article is essential as it addresses new ways that createconflict between MNCS and local communities can be addressed. Thearticle notes that modern communities have developed new needs suchas calls for greener processes, support for education (scholarships),and equitable employment. Therefore, the article will allow me toadvance my knowledge in how organizations can contribute better tocommunity development by addressing conflict that may arise in theirinvolvement with local communities.
Collins, C., Neal, J& Neal J. (2014). Transforming individual civic engagement into
community collective efficacy: the role of bonding social capital. AmJ Community Psychol. 54(3-4):328-336.
The study examined factors associated with collective neighborhoodefficiency in attaining community goals. It explores an interestingissue by placing the subject of community development and urbanplanning to the level of individual members of society. In so doing,the article will help me understand better how I can personallycontribute to community effectiveness by developing social bondingcapital. With such knowledge, I will gladly share it with othersgiven that community development is heavily dependent on community’scollective efficacy.
Based on reviewed literature, the authors indicate that collectiveefficacy is associated with perceptions and other measures of groupperformance. Again, civic engagement provides opportunities forindividuals to build relationships of trust and reciprocity withothers that develop social bonding capital. Where social bondingcapital is high, communities achieve goals more easily and readily.This shows that social bonding capital is necessary to achievecommunity engagement in development.
The article expounds the knowledge of social bonding capital in thecommunity context with regards to development. It illustrates thatcivic events are likely to benefit more from community engagementwhere there exists larger social bonding capital. To substantiatethis information, I will closely study group activities in my class.I expect to find that groups that have developed more social bondingcapital such as trust and reciprocity are likely to score higher intheir assignments and even complete their tasks more easily.
Frantzeskaki, N.,Wittmayer, J. & Loorbach. (2012). The role of partnerships in‘realising’
urban sustainability in Rotterdam’s City Ports Area, TheNetherlands. Journal of Cleaner Production 65 (2): 406-417.
The article is a case study exploring the partnerships betweenvarious entities in re-planning Rotterdam, as a medium-sized urbandelta following the relocation of a port. The article thus seeks toprovide lessons on the different roles played by differentpartnerships during urban planning provided that various parties aregiven the opportunity and space to experiment.
The study’s literature review recognizes that there are variousforms of partnerships that drive development. Public-privatepartnerships are the most common, but experimentation can revealother kinds of useful relationships. Thus, the fundamental issue inurban planning partnerships and development is creativity in decidingthe types and roles of involved entities and their relationships.
The article provides evidence that various entities can play afundamental role in driving community development and urban planning.It uses Rotterdam as a case study to provide guidance on differenttypes of partnerships as opposed to the conventional public-privatepartnerships used in urban planning and infrastructure development.The article is very useful in my current studies. I feel that I havea lot to learn from the case given that many cities are more likelyto redesign their plans to accommodate arising needs such as healthmatters and increased populations.
Jabareen, Y.(2013). Planning the resilient city: Concepts and strategies forcoping with
climate changeand environmental risk. Cities 31(1):220–229.
The article proposes a new innovative approach to developingresilient cities. The new approach called Resilient City PlanningFramework (RCPF) entails combining the multidisciplinary and complexnature of urban resilience. The article acknowledges that there is aneed to rethink modern cities to address arising issues in the faceof globalization and climate change. These are pertinent issues thatI will be encountering in my studies as I seek to promote communitydevelopment. This paper can inform rethinking and re-designing citiesand poor neighborhoods in American cities such as Chicago.
The articles’ literature review reveals that most modern cities arenot future-proof. It implies that most modern cities are not wellequipped to deal with new and more complex challenges that come withclimate change, development, globalization, population growth, andnew technology. Thus, the paper uses the concept of ecologicalsystems and how they respond to changes in the environment to suggestnew ways that cities can develop and cope with new challenges now andin the future. This enables the paper to fill the theoretical andpractical gap on how cities will survive the future.
The growth of cities can be modeled alongside living beings andecological systems. The best way to approach the new changes is toprepare and enable participants in the city systems to be preparedfor change and to play their changing role effectively. In thisregard, commoners and city dwellers must be ready to participate incommunity development and guide the process as opposed to sittingback and playing passive roles. Based on this, I can learn new waysthat urban planning and community development can mimic naturalsystems that have thrived through time. As new challenges arise,members of the community should be taught and trained on taking upnew roles to create better relationships with their environment.
Jamali, D.(2010). The CSR of MNC subsidiaries in developing countries: global,local,
substantive ordiluted? Journal of Business Ethics 93(1):181–200.
The article is an exploratory study that examines factors thatinfluence global subsidiaries’ CSR involvement in developingcountries and competition between adopting globalized and localizedstrategies. The article fits into my studies well as it supplementsCalvano (2008) in assessing the role of MNCs in promotingglobalization and community development. While Calvano exploresconflict areas between local communities and MNCs, Jamali examineshow localized and globalized CSR strategies affect local communitiesdifferently. This is in recognition of the fact that businessorganizations play a huge role in driving social change and alsoaffect urban planning. As taxpayers and corporate citizens, MNCs playan integral role in communities that cannot be ignored.
The article is guided by past studies in the literature review thatreveal that there is escalating CSR expectations from localcommunities. This is created by many factors among them prominence ofMNCs in the context of globalization and the increased visibility ofglobal corporations. Awareness of CSR has also grown significantlyand has made communities keen about their right as stakeholders inthe operations of MNCs. To contextualize the study, the authorsexplored CSR of firms in Lebanon. Findings indicated that very feworganizations were interested in linking their CSR activities totheir core competencies or strategic goals. Integration ofcontingencies relating to variations in the attributes ofsubsidiaries coupled with the dynamics of the local marketenvironment accounts for limited localization of CSR initiatives. Inshort, among MNCs operating in developing countries, CSR is notprioritized, and its role in community growth is highly diluted.
Based on this article’s findings, I have a better understanding ofthe difference of CSR in developing and developed countries. I canuse such knowledge to study better ways that MNCs can integrate theirCSR to community needs.
Ng’eni, F.,Bukwimba, Kwesigabo, E. & Kaaya, I. (2015). The role of corporatesocial
responsibility (CSR) in community development in Tanzania. AmericanJournal of Economics 2015, 5(6): 609-615.
The paper explores the role of MNCs in economic growth and communitydevelopment in Tanzania as one of the developing countries in EastAfrica. The paper recognizes that community development and urbanplanning are not reserves of governments. It provides actual figuresin the amounts of money that MNCs have committed towards CSR inTanzania with a view to driving community and economic growth. Byproviding actual figures and programs that CSR initiatives haveaddressed, the paper fits well with the purpose of study inunderstanding community development better. While much of communitydevelopment studies have sought to explore the role of governments incommunity development, this paper focuses on the role of MNCs throughtheir CSR in pursuing the same goal.
The study is informed by three main theories: Corporate socialresponsibility (CSR), the triple bottom line, and the stakeholdertheory. The CSR theory calls for philanthropic, ethical, legal, andeconomic accountability. The Triple Bottom Line model calls fororganizational leaders to assess an organization’s impact on thesocial level. The stakeholder theory engages community members asindividuals with a voice in directing community development mattersunder the CSR of various firms.
The article reveals that MNCs commit significant budgetaryallocations to community development affairs. Such allocations shouldthus be capable of supplementing government efforts in areas such ashousing, welfare, infrastructure, and education. The governmentshould thus be treated as part and parcel of the local community andthus engaged in articulating CSR projects. Therefore, the paperprovides very clear evidence of organizations’ involvement incommunity development in poor neighborhoods. It further provides atheoretical basis for businesses to engage in community developmentprojects. Same as governments, the public should be offered anopportunity to participate in prioritizing CSR projects undertaken byindividual organizations.
Rahardjo, H.,Suryani, F. & Trikariastoto (2014). Key success factors forpublic private
partnership in urban renewal in Jakarta. International Journal ofEngineering and Technology 6(3): 217-219.
The article explores the factors that contribute to the failure ofpublic-private partnerships in urban settlements renewal using thecase study of Jakarta as one of the countries with world’s largestslum dwellings. The article serves my study interests well as itexamines public-private partnerships as a vital path to attainingcommunity development and promoting better urban planning.
The study carried out a minimal review of literature given that itwas based on case interviews. Nonetheless, the authors acknowledgeconditions in slums are indications of government failures.Partnerships between private organizations and governments havefailed to address the problem of slums and poor living conditions insuch settlements. This calls for a re-evaluation of the governmentand organization’s approach to addressing community development andpromoting welfare.
Therefore, the article provides a new way of looking atprivate-public partnerships. Other studies examined in this annotatedbibliography identify the importance of private-public partnershipsin driving community development through CSR initiatives. Uniquely,the paper looks at public-private partnerships and highlights themajor pitfalls that face attempts to fight slums in urban centersaround the world. By addressing these pitfalls, private organizationscan partner with governments to address urban impoverishment andimprove general human welfare. I could use the knowledge provided bythis article to develop actionable ways through which privateorganizations can partner with various levels of governments toassist poor urban dwellers in a sustainable way. This would entailimproving infrastructure, health care facilities, housing, education,sewage, and fighting unemployment.
Rydin, Y.,Bleahu, A., Davies, M., Davila, J., Friles, S. de Grandis, G.…Wilson, J. (2012).
Shaping cities for health: complexity and the planning of urbanenvironments in the 21st-century. Lancet 379(9831):2079–2108.
The article looks at urban planning from the health perspective. Itaims at showing ways in which health outcomes can be improved throughmodifications in urban planning. The authors note that throughglobalization and rapid urbanization, urban dwellers are facing evenmore deplorable health conditions. This is nothing new to me as Ihave witnessed poor health care infrastructure in urban areasfirsthand in the West side of the city of Chicago. As such, thearticle has a personal appeal as it teaches the best way of adoptingimproved urban planning methods to improve community healthcarestandards.
The literature review undertaken revealed important backgroundinformation on health matters in urban centers. Despite growth inurbanization and deteriorating healthcare services, there is nocomprehensive methodology to explain the relationship between thetwo. Previously, urbanization improved health care services, buttoday, it leads to deteriorated health care services. However, thereare major differences across the socioeconomic divide. Some of thehealthcare indicators such as sanitation, ventilation, and cleanwater are directly related to urban planning. Thus, to improve urbanhealthcare standards, city planners must be included.
The article’s findings acknowledge that the complex relationshipbetween health and urban planning can only be approached throughmultilateral strategies. One such strategy suggested involvesintegrating three core concepts: providing necessary infrastructureassimilating specific measures and adopting a holistic approach thatincorporates healthcare into urban planning. By my goals of promotingbetter urban planning and community development, the article is avery helpful resource. It provides case studies and information onnew features of urban planning such as city farms, energy management,transportation, building standards and materials, transport lines,infrastructure, etc. All these measures can be redeveloped intosustainable ways to promote health and improve the quality of life.
This overview of various sources is guided by my personal view ondevelopment sustainability and globalization. I believe that it is anobvious fact that globalization is here with us, and we must acceptthe ripple effect of problems occurring from the furthest corner ofthe world. Therefore, I have addressed the issue of communitydevelopment not only in the context of the US but rather the wholeworld. Consequently, some of the sources examined looked at communitydevelopment issues in Tanzania Africa, Jakarta in Indonesia andRotterdam in Netherlands. Looking at these issues and problems, it isevident that some of the common problems facing American cities alsoface other cities around the world.
In the modern capitalist world, the palace of organizations ishighlighted. This is based on the [past failures of governments inpromoting community development equitably. Some communities face poorinfrastructure, poor education, and economic disparity is untenable.Thus, organizations must play their role in wealth redistribution,not only as the right thing to do but also as a moral obligation.Thus articles addressed range from the participation of firms throughCSR in community development, the role of political leadership indriving change, the role of partnerships in driving communitydevelopment, the issues facing urban planning in modern times, andthe issue or re-designing existing towns to address emerging needsand problems. Thus, I believe that my list of sources will encourageyou to examine the topic further and understand every individual’srole in enabling community development and better urban planning inthe modern world.