Report For Learning Plan Outcomes

  • Uncategorized

ReportFor Learning Plan Outcomes

LearningPlan Outcomes Report


Untilthe onset of the 20th century, most Americans passed away ofinfectious diseases, several in middle age and several in childhood.Essentially, each serious illness brought a swift course of death.Individuals who lived to old age developed chronic diseases that madethem die while few of them experienced prolonged episodes of illness.This paper intends to talk about the need for palliative care andparticularly how patients ought to be managed. It will furtherprovide literature review on information regarding palliative careand then offer a plan for achieving professional palliative nursing.Towards the end it discusses the strengths, weaknesses, opportunitiesand threats associated with palliative care before providingrecommendations of how to advance the profession of palliative care.

Tableof Contents

Executive Summary 2

Introduction 4

Recommendations 8

Conclusion 9

Appendices 10

Appendix 1 SWOT Analysis 10

Appendix 2 Personal development plan 11

References 13


Palliativecare involves an active whole upkeep of the spirit, mind and body. Itencompasses offering support to the whole household. Palliative carehelps to lessen or prevent pain severity and other symptoms to reachthe best quality of life for individuals suffering and dying fromlong-term diseases. It implies treating them as whole individuals andnot just as individuals with medical problems. Palliative carerecognizes that patients’ needs helps to meet their emotionalneeds, get the support that their families require and work throughspiritual issues. It enables nurses into the life of patients andtheir families at one of their most personal times. It is acontinuous education for patients, families, and also nurses. It ismore than management of a symptom together with medication as itinvolves caring for emotional, spiritual and social sides of thepatient and family while at the same time respecting final wishes andtreating other people as a person would also want to be treated whentheir time comes. LiteratureReview

Sallnowet al. (2013) argues that fresh theoretical understanding into thetrajectories of decline in a variety of long term conditions hasenriched our comprehension of people’s care and support needs asthey near the end life. It implies that people now have the abilityto make a real difference to the lives of all individuals who are intheir final illness and to the lives of their family members.Globally in 2005, cancer was responsible for 13% deaths while longterm illnesses caused 47% of the entire deaths (Dening et al., 2013).

Apparentlyit is estimated that by 2030 the annual amount of deaths globallywill rise to 74 million with organ failure conditions, cognitive andphysical frailty responsible for the increase (Smith et al., 2012).Despite all these changes, services for palliative care still careonly for cancer patients. For instance, hospices in developed nationsdedicate 90% of their care to cancer patients (Mitchell, 2011).Furthermore, persons dying from cancer mostly have needs that lastfor months or weeks whereas those dying from old age and organfailure have unmet needs that spread to several months or years. Nowonder people are dying of wrong conditions and their carers areprogressively frustrated by the hindrances to gaining access tosuitable care. In this case, van der Steen et al. (2013) states thatTherefore need for an all-inclusive palliative care for all patients

Accordingto Wiener et al. (2015), a healthcare provider requires training tomaximize the chances of addressing patients’ needs becausepreviously there was less training provided on concepts of palliativecare. Wiener et al. (2015), goes further to state that recent studieshave shown an increased number of days for patients who have beenreferred early to palliative care. For cancer patients, the qualityof care highly relies on accessing professionals for palliative carewho are well-informed about exceptional developmental, biomedical andpsychosocial needs of the residents all through the course of thedisease (Vandervoort et al., 2013).

Weissman(2011) states that late referrals shortage of workforce andconstraints of resources in palliative care present an immensebarrier to addressing hospitalized patients needs that have seriousillnesses. For that reason, strides have been made in designing aprogram that patients with needs for palliative care that are unmetcan be recognized early and taken for screening and assessment(Sallnow et al.,2013). In this article, Weissman (2011) identifies aprogram that primarily intends to use screening in the course ofadmission because implementing this approach for screening patientswith unmet needs for palliative care can help to identify severalsuch needs therefore reserving a specialty for palliative care incomplex problems.

Discussionof Personal Development Plan

Accordingto the nursing professional regulatory body, it requires that allregistered nurses must uphold their professional competence andknowledge. It states that a nurse should regularly take part inlearning activities that develop their competence (Wilson et al.,2014). It implies that education is life long and encompasses acontinuous professional development. As a result, it requirescompletion of a Bachelor of Science degree by the end of 2016 andthen get a position as an RN in the graduate program. It involvesserving in a way that recognizes rights, values, culture and dignityof people. Once attained a graduate position, there is need to startplanning and providing good nursing care through experiences thathave gained throughout the training that is consistent with up todate research and knowledge of nursing (Chan &amp Webster, 2013).Securing a position of an RN graduate, will help in productively andpositively establish working relationships by collaborating with allmultidisciplinary teams (Kennedy et al., 2014).

Towardsthe end of first year, an individual shall be in a position thatcompetently assesses patients with symptoms and signs related to theend of life. For instance, changes in patterns of breathing, changesin the functioning of cardiovascular and changes in the functioningof gastro intestines (Mitchell, 2011). After first year, a personwill be able to incorporate palliative care skills and knowledge toascertain the multiple and complex needs.

Insecond year, a person shall be in a position to explain how to offerevidence-based palliative care for patients who are near death, andthis will be achieved by attending education sessions that are madeavailable in the workplace (Wiener et al., 2015). Towards the end ofthe fourth year, an individual should be competent in managing painfor palliative care patients, and this will be reached throughpractice and knowledge gained from peers. At this point, anindividual will be in a position to continually take part inprofessional development while pursuing additional support andknowledge with colleagues to advance pain management.

Towardsthe end of fifth year, a person will have achieved a graduate diplomain palliative care, and integrated their nursing and healthcareknowledge to advance and participate in activities that contribute topalliative care. It requires that the person will regularly assessand evaluate the effectiveness of palliative care interventions in amanner that is timely and modify whenever necessary. In the end, thegraduate program will help to prepare a person to be more responsiveto persons with chronic illness and their relatives.

Discussionof SWOT Analysis

TheSWOT analysis provides a framework for strengths, weaknesses, andopportunities that will be created by the job and all the threatsthat may be encountered. Some of the strengths include having aresponsible and mature attitude with great listening andcommunication skills, being passionate about learning, being highlyorganized and self-motivated. Having all these qualities will help aperson to achieve a postgraduate degree in nursing and an advancedcertificate hospice and palliative nursing degree.

However,there are also weaknesses and these include being too self-criticaland talking too much. For that reason, it will require that anindividual accept to work on it to become effective members of themultidisciplinary team. However, with enough time and guidance frompeers while gaining practical experience in palliative care all thesecan be overcome and an individual be considered a valued team member.

Withtechnological advancement and medicine, fewer people nowadays die ofinfectious diseases and several people are living longer (Ramasamy etal., 2015). Because of the aging population, the need for palliativecare has increased, and trained nurses are needed to work in thisfield. People are living for many years with serious and chronicillness (Ng, 2012). Working within a community setting and a hospitalsetting has a lot in common. In both of them there is need tounderscore comfort and patients quality of life. Both of them seek tooffer holistic and comprehensive care, addressing psychosocial andspiritual issues in addition to the physical symptoms (Greaves etal., 2009). Working in either setting would be a fantasticopportunity and help to learn from experiences of a multidisciplinaryteam that will put a person in a good position of achieving a diplomain palliative care. With this experience, a person will be in aposition to overcome threats that will come along this job. Somethreats in this job include difficulty in conversing with familymembers, challenges in observing the process of the disease anddifficulty in making decision regarding the correct treatment process(Rodin, 2013).


  • To improve the way palliative care is delivered, there is a need to advance the training of care providers. As a result, an individual will have to go through continuous training to be able to offer quality palliative care.

  • Information that is apparently available is fairly new, and it is supposed to be incorporated in training programs (Steen et al., 2013). Healthcare providers and doctors will have to be trained to manage symptoms and pain. A healthcare provider will be supposed to learn how to care for people who have a chronic illness at old age.

  • On the other hand, standards for palliative care are supposed to be adopted and used widely. A healthcare provider will have to plan how they can offer palliative care to patients (Dening et al., 2013). Patients have to expect that they can make their decisions about care, and they also need to understand that their pain will be well managed, and symptoms will be controlled (Myatra et al., 2014). They also need to understand that they can build rapport and trust with the health care providers.

  • Enough money needs to be set aside to research and help to take care of the emotional and physical pain. Enough funding needs to support research based on palliative care


Itis important to acknowledge that palliative care is something thateveryone will come to need at some point in life. As a result,individuals need to talk to their loved ones about their wishes,their preferences in palliative care and ask for their views (Davieset al., 2014). In most cases, it is never an easy conversation, butit provides the opportunity to share worries and feelings. For thatreason, this paper has provided an in depth literature review aboutthe need for palliative care, the training that is supposed to beoffered and a proper plan of how these goals will be achieved.

AppendicesAppendix1 SWOT Analysis


self-motivated individual

passionate about learning

listens a lot, always shows empathy and highly organized

good communication skills


taking on too much


Overblown sense of responsibility


Appreciate and accept help from peers

Will always ask for feedback

Working within hospital and community settings

Aging population

Diploma in Palliative Care


Difficult conversations with family

Difficulty in decision making about treatment

Difficulty in observation of the disease process

Appendix2 Personal development plan

By the end of 2016

A trainee will have completed a degree in Bachelor of Science and gained a position as a RN in a Graduate Program. It requires serving in a way that recognizes rights, values, culture and dignity of people.

By the end of the first year

A person will be able to competently assess patients for signs and symptoms related to the end of life. (Such as weakness, changes in cardiovascular function, changes in breathing patterns, changes in gastrointestinal functions

By the end of the second year

It will require explaining how to provide evidence-based palliative care for patients nearing death. This will be achieved by attending education sessions that are made available by place of work.

By the end of fourth year

Achieve competence in pain management for palliative care patients. This will be achieved through knowledge and practice gained from peers and up to date evidence based practice.

By the end of fifth year

By the end of fifth year a person will have achieved a Graduate Diploma in Palliative Care Nursing. A person will have integrated nursing and healthcare knowledge to promote and engage in activities that contribute to quality palliative care.


Chan,R. J., &amp Webster, J. (2013). End‐of‐lifecare pathways for improving outcomes in caring for the dying. TheCochrane Library.

Davies,N., Maio, L., Paap, J. V. R., Mariani, E., Jaspers, B., Sommerbakk,R., … &amp Iliffe, S. (2014). Quality palliative care for cancerand dementia in five European countries: some common challenges.Aging &amp mental health, 18(4), 400-410.

Dening,K. H., Jones, L., &amp Sampson, E. L. (2013). Preferences forend-of-life care: a nominal group study of people with dementia andtheir family carers. Palliative Medicine, 27(5), 409-417.

Greaves,C., Bailey, E., Storey, L., &amp Nicholson, A. (2009). Implementingend of life care for patients with renal failure. Nursing Standard,23(52), 35-41.

Kennedy,C., Brooks-Young, P., Gray, C. B., Larkin, P., Connolly, M.,Wilde-Larsson, B., … &amp Chater, S. (2014). Diagnosing dying: anintegrative literature review. BMJ supportive &amp palliative care,bmjspcare-2013.

Mitchell,G. K. (2011). Palliative care in Australia. The Ochsner Journal,11(4), 334-337

Myatra,S. N., Salins, N., Iyer, S., Macaden, S. C., Divatia, J. V.,Muckaden, M., … &amp Mani, R. K. (2014). End-of-life care policy:An integrated care plan for the dying. Indian Journal of CriticalCare Medicine, 18(9), 615.

Ng,R., Chan, S., Ng, T. W., Chiam, A. L., &amp Lim, S. (2012). Anexploratory study of the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions ofadvance care planning in family caregivers of patients with advancedillness in Singapore. BMJ supportive &amp palliative care,bmjspcare-2012.

RamasamyVenkatasalu, M., Whiting, D., &amp Cairnduff, K. (2015). Life afterthe Liverpool Care Pathway (LCP): a qualitative study of criticalcare practitioners delivering end‐of‐lifecare. Journal of advanced nursing, 71(9), 2108-2118.

Rodin,G. (2013). Research on psychological and social factors in palliativecare: An invited commentary. Palliative medicine, 27(10), 925-931.

Sallnow,L., Kumar, S., &amp Kellehear, A. (Eds.). (2013). Internationalperspectives on public health and palliative care. Routledge.

Smith,T. J., Temin, S., Alesi, E. R., Abernethy, A. P., Balboni, T. A.,Basch, E. M., … &amp Peppercorn, J. M. (2012). American Society ofClinical Oncology provisional clinical opinion: the integration ofpalliative care into standard oncology care. Journal of clinicaloncology, 30(8), 880-887.

vander Steen, J. T., Radbruch, L., Hertogh, C. M., de Boer, M. E.,Hughes, J. C., Larkin, P., … &amp Koopmans, R. T. (2013). Whitepaper defining optimal palliative care in older people with dementia:a Delphi study and recommendations from the European Association forPalliative Care. Palliative medicine, 0269216313493685.

Vandervoort,A., Van den Block, L., van der Steen, J. T., Volicer, L., VanderStichele, R., Houttekier, D., &amp Deliens, L. (2013). Nursing homeresidents dying with dementia in Flanders, Belgium: a nationwidepostmortem study on clinical characteristics and quality of dying.Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 14(7),485-492.

Weissman,D. E., &amp Meier, D. E. (2011). Identifying patients in need of apalliative care assessment in the hospital setting a consensus reportfrom the center to advance palliative care. Journal of palliativemedicine, 14(1), 17-23.

Wiener,L., Weaver, M. S., Bell, C. J., &amp Sansom-Daly, U. M. (2015).Threading the cloak: palliative care education for care providers ofadolescents and young adults with cancer. Clinical oncology inadolescents and young adults, 5, 1.

Close Menu