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1. B

2. B

3. A

4. D

5. C

6. A

7. C

8. C

9. B

10. A

11. True

12. False

13. True

14. False

15. True

16. True

17. False

18. True

19. True

20. False

21. True

22. ThePlan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle refers to a model used to learn abouta particular environment. Consequently, changes are planned andaccomplished before evaluating the desired effects. Edwards Demingadvocated the use of the PDCA cycle as a quality management andprocess improvement tool. In this regard, the cycle ensurescontinuous improvements through repeated processes and activities.Furthermore, the PDCA cycle enables the implementation of newprograms without jeopardizing the entire operation. Hence, it enablesthe firm to adopt consistent practices that form reliable precedents.

23. There areseveral reasons to account for the slow improvement rates in patientsafety. For example, the health sector lacks adequate measures gearedtowards enhancing hospital care quality. In this respect, littleconcern is shown towards the availability of social support to aid inrecuperation. Besides, many health care facilities lack properincentives to improve medical care. Granted, a reduction in hospitalinfection rates and a shift to organization-wide liability has led toimprovements in preventable errors. Nevertheless, many practitionersmanifest a poor understanding of longer-term care and patientoutcomes.

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