Principlesof standards-based instruction and assessment
Themain framework applied in standards as the basis for curriculum,instruction as well as assessment entails compelling students, whereschools are required to focus on the quality of services theyproduce. Nevertheless, proficiency-based teaching in collaborationwith learning practices focuses on principles of standards-basedachievement, as well as, instructions that center on the students andassessment techniques. These may be followed closely by collaborativeprofessional learning for the teachers. Most importantly,proficiency-based practices ensure that equal educational results forall students between kindergarten and level 12. The achievement ofthese essential elements occurs through the application of principlesof standards-based instruction as well as assessment aimed at guidingteachers, curriculum leaders, district administrators, just tomention a few, as they work together in the development of methodsand materials for helping students in realizing the new standards.However, these standards advocate for a shared responsibility inreading, writing, speaking, listening and language within a school.Moreover, the expectations of these factors should be applied to arange of subject that includes English Language Arts (ELA) whereteachers in other areas should also take part in the development.
Theprinciples of standards-based instruction and assessment play anessential role in supporting English Language Learners in theirrealization of the grade-level academic standards required by theCommon Core State Standards. The first principle entails instructionsthat focus on providing English Language Learners with theopportunities to engage in practices specified by disciplines andwhich are designed to build conceptual understanding and languagecompetence (Education, 2002). The principle portrays learning as asocial process that requires teachers purposely create learningopportunities aimed at integrating reading, writing, listening aswell as speaking with practices of every discipline. Secondly,instructions leverage English Language Learners regarding theirculture and home language through regarding them as assets used byteachers in connecting their prior knowledge to the new one.Additionally, instructions make content more comprehensible andmeaningful (Education, 2002).
Thirdly,instructions aligned with standards for ELLs should be appropriate tothe grade level, rigorous and provide deliberate and appropriateframeworks that reflect the major shifts in the Council of ChiefState Standards and National Governor`s State Standards. Thesechanges require teachers to provide the students with opportunitiesfor describing their reasoning, justify their conclusions andnegotiate meaning from complex texts. Additionally, the fourthprinciple states that instructions drive English language learnersforward through consideration of their English proficiency levels aswell as their prior schooling experiences (Education, 2002).Therefore, teachers should focus on the differences between theheterogeneity in the learner`s home language proficiency and theirprevious experiences in schools in the development of instructionsaccordingly. The fifth principle states that instructions boost theautonomy of English Language Learners through equipping them with thenecessary strategies for comprehending and using language in variousacademic settings (Education, 2002). Lastly, formative assessmentpractices, as well as diagnostic tools, should be employed inmeasuring the content knowledge of the students as well as theircompetence in academic language and participation in disciplinarypractices.
Ananalysis of how the California ELD Standards reinforce the ELAstandards
Theapplication of these principles may be reflected through the wayCalifornia English-Language Development Standards reinforce EnglishLanguage Arts. However, the ELD standards require an appropriate usefor students in each grade and California focuses on the developmentof English Language for every domain that includes, listening,speaking, reading and writing (Education, 2002). The ELD standards inCalifornia require students to know and possess the ability to do asthey move towards full fluency in English. These factors are achievedthrough different phases, beginners, intermediate and advanced, thathelp the students in developing their skills in English. Thesevarious aspects portray the development of the learner throughresponding to simple directions by physical actions at the beginners`level, to asking and answering instructional questions in theintermediate level and eventually to the demonstration ofunderstanding of idiomatic expressions in the advanced level. Thereinforcement of ELA standards from ELD standards in California occurthrough the demonstration of proficiency in language arts for allgrade levels. It also incorporates outcomes for students who beginlearning English throughout the classes.
Thedifference between English Learners` achievement of ELD standards andattainment of ELA standards entails the fact that ELD standards,focus on the development of proficiency in the English language aswell as literacy necessary for engaging in learning academic contentbased on the new and rigorous standards (Education, 2002). On theother hand, achievement of ELA standards entails the development oforal proficiency in English that includes, the depth and breadth ofvocabulary while they simultaneously learn to read and write.
State-mandatedstandardized assessments in programs for English learners describethe requirements of the state concerning what all students bothnative and second language learners should know and possess theability to do. These state-mandated assessments ensure that studentsdevelop proficiency in the English Language as well as the conceptsand skills contained in the English Language Arts content standards(Standards, 2012). For instance, the California State Board ofEducation in 2010 adopted the California Common Core State Standardsfor ELA and Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects in thedescription of knowledge, skills and abilities in reading writing,knowledge of the language, just to mention but a few (Standards,2012). The standards were adopted with the aim of ensuring thatstudents in each grade level gained the necessary literacy arts andpractices required for the 21st-century higher education andworkplace participation (Standards, 2012).
Thepros of these state-mandated standardized programs entail buildingawareness and understanding of how the California ELD standardscorrespond to the Core Competence State Standards concerningliteracy. On the other hand, the cons include disregard for thedifferent cultures in California that may have adopted the differentlanguage and pursue English as a second language. Most importantly,the application of the data results to the instructions should occurthrough the incorporation of language arts standards for studentsfrom kindergarten through grade two into the ELD standards(Standards, 2012). Additionally, teachers should use both the ELD aswell as ELA standards in ensuring that English learners developproficiency in listening and speaking in the acquisition of theconcepts in ELA standards.
Education,C. D. (2002). English-Language Development Standards for CaliforniaPublic Schools. English-Language Development Standards forCalifornia Public Schools Kindergarten through Grade Twelve, 1-91.
Standards,C. E. (2012). Common Core State Standards (Title III CA Dept. ofEducation). ELD Standards Publication- California English LanguageDepartment Standards Kindergarten through Grade 12, 7-204.