PersuasivePaper Part 2: Solution and Advantages
PersuasivePaper Part 2: Solution and Advantages
Itis apparent that the number of inmates found in California prisonshas significantly increased. Consequently, this leads to severeproblems and setbacks as far as running the operations of the entireprison system is concerned. Ordinarily, each of the numerous prisonshas undergone design and structure enabling them to hold a specificnumber of inmates at any given time. Nevertheless, this is not thecase for most cells. The rising cases of terrorism, socialinjustices, drug trafficking, crimes against humanity, and any formacts that are unlawful, have compelled the government to apprehendmore offenders for prosecution (Vance,2011).As a result, more convicts are confined to serve different jail termsbased on the intensity of the unlawful acts they committed.Therefore, more cells in California operate in deplorable conditions.In this essay, I will seek to highlight the problems existing inCalifornia prisons and attempt to provide a viable solution as wellas its economic, environmental and ethical/ moral advantages.
Itis noticeable that California prisons have experienced a steadygrowth of inmates in the recent years. The overcrowding witnessedtoday can be traced back from the era of Great Depression, which ledto a high number of people to commit various crimes (Vance,2011). However, most of the offences can experience classification as crimesof survival, which comprise individuals giving fraudulent informationso that they can secure jobs as well as stealing foodstuffs. Theinmates primarily committed them so that they can meet basicstandards of living. Notably, the condition worsened in the 1970’swhen President Nixon started the War on Drugs (Vance,2011). During his tenure, there was the establishment of several drugcontrol agencies. Additionally, the president authorized aggressivelaw enforcement actions that considerably resulted to an increase inthe concentration of inmates in California prisons. Similarly, theThree Strikes Laws have also led to the higher incarceration rates(Cullen,Jonson & Nagin, 2011).
Owingto the various legislation measures, the quantity of Californiainmates has exceeded the rate at which other prisoners are releasedwith the aim of creating more space. Subsequently, this had exposedmany prisoners to dire conditions. The situation does not only applyto those who have been sentenced but also the convicts servingextended prison terms, as well as, the ones awaiting trial but havenot yet been convicted of any crime. These circumstances include poorsanitation and lack of basic services such as healthcare and cleanwater. In agreement with Oninla& Onayemi (2012), thishas led to the outbreak of healthcare- associated complications suchas skin diseases.
Ona similar note, access to adequate food is also a major challenge inCalifornia prisons. The prisoners have suffered starvation andmalnutrition, which is detrimental to their health. In some extremecases, the convicts lose their lives others commit suicide whileserving their jail terms. With increased congestion, inmates areprone to illnesses and ultimately hospitalization because healthcareprofessionals fail to administer medication on time or tend to ignoretheir injuries. Imprisonment has been associated with variouspunitive consequences. The high rates of conviction and overcrowdingin California prisons has led to the disintegration of families.According to Wildeman(2014), theinmate separation from their friends, relatives, and children exposesthem to emotional trauma.
Additionally,detention of the prisoners in overcrowded California cells hasimposed financial strains to their families outside the facility. Dueto this, many families lose their loved ones whom they depend on toprovide their basic needs on an everyday basis. As noted by Lacity,Rottman & Carmel (2014), high arrest and jail sentence ratesowing to numerous crime varieties result in prison congestion whilesimultaneously hurting the daily activities of their families. Apartfrom that, family members are forced to incur other expenses such asfrequent calls and visits to see their relatives in prison. Moreover,squeezing the already overcrowded inmates into tight living quartersis likely to trigger violence this might result in severe injuriesand death amongst themselves. Further, the lives of prison wardersare also put at risk.
Asestablished, there are various challenges inmates go through due toovercrowding making it a chronic problem. Hence, proper strategiesshould be set up to facilitate their admission into therapy andrehabilitation centers, which already exist in California(Bosma, Kunst, Reef, Dirkzwager & Nieuwbeerta, 2016).Rehabilitation is the most appropriate solution to reform thecharacter of inmates. The opportunities given to the prisoners aremeant to counter habitual offending which will eventually mitigatecriminal recidivism(Hall,2015).Here, the convicts are made to go through extensive training whoseaim is to make them realize their mistakes so that they can transformand become law-abiding citizens. Apart from focusing on theirbehavior, rehabilitation also emphasizes on granting them basiccognitive skills, which they can apply once their time comes to jointhe society.
Advantagesof the viable solution
Providingthe convicts with rehabilitation opportunities has economic,environmental as well as ethical/ moral advantages. To start with,during rehabilitation, the convicts are exposed to prison workprograms, for instance, grinding lenses for glasses and carpentrycourses, which are essential for economic growth (Lacity et al,2014). On top of that, the prisoners are involved in the running ofprison laundry rooms and kitchens. After their release, the inmateswill have basic skills to create employment opportunities in variousfields based on what they acquired during the rehabilitation process.Accordingly, they will manage to generate more income needed tosupport themselves and their families. They will also create moreprospects for other unemployed people. An improvement in the livingstandards for each household is vital in ensuring growth of theeconomy is achieved (Lacity et al, 2014). That is because people willbe in a position to make their contribution through income taxes andvalue added taxes. This will help the government meet its budgetaryallocations.
Ona similar note, rehabilitation will reduce criminal recidivismrate, which is crucial for the growth of the economy. According to the Themis:Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science (2013), thestate government spends approximately $45, 000 annually to detainevery incarnate within the prison system that serves as an expense tothe taxpayer. The expenditures arise from basic services offered tothe prisoners from instance food, water, medical, therapy andrehabilitation services. All these costs have to be funded by thetaxpayers’ money. Exposing inmates to rehabilitation opportunitieswill increase the rate at which they experience prison release.Lacity et al (2014) note this will substantially ease the congestionhence reduce the costs incurred by the government in providing properhealthcare and other services such as food and water to the inmates.The extra funds allocated to confine inmates will then undergoutilization in other developmental projects. For instance, thegovernment can use the money to build more schools, healthcarefacilities, improve infrastructures and initiate various schemes tocreate more jobs to the nation’s population. Normally, growth invarious sectors has a positive impact on the country’s economy.Decreased inmate expenses will address undue pressure or anyconstraints exerted on the country’s budgetary allocation (Lacityet al, 2014).
Secondly,rehabilitation opportunities arevitalin ensuring high levels of sanitation that is beneficial to theenvironment (Oninlaet al, 2012). Usually,detainee overcrowding results in poor sanitation due to the limitedavailable facilities including washrooms and water resulting in lowlevels of hygiene. More importantly, Rehabilitation helps theconvicts transform their characters hence increasing the rate atwhich they are go through prison release. Consequently, this easesthe congestion in California cells hence improving the levels ofsanitation. Additionally, the program will make them learn fromtheir offences realize the importance of abiding to the laws andregulation already in place thus reducing recidivismrates. That will improve sanitation because the facilities availablewill effectively serve the number of inmates in a cell at any giventime thus conserving the environment (Oninlaet al, 2012).
Remarkably,providing captives with rehabilitation opportunities is advantageousin nurturing their ethical and moral behavior (Bosmaet al, 2016).Ordinarily, individuals are imprisoned for committing various crimes,which are against the law. For that reason, rehabilitation isindispensable in transforming the inmates into law-abiding citizens.Understandably, rehabilitation programs are critical in making theoffenders learn to take responsibility for their actions, gain basicskills so that they refrain from committing the same crimesrepetitively. They will be able to know what is right, acceptable andprudent hence nurturing their morals. Further, rehabilitation processwill help the inmates develop principles to guide their behaviorhence becoming ethical. Bosma etal.,2016 asserts, this will make them refrain from any unlawful acts thusreducing their probability of going back to prison soon after theirrelease.
Inconclusion, congestion of inmates in California prisons is a severeproblem that needs proper address. Providing the inmates withrehabilitation opportunities is one of the viable solutions that canbe employed to deal with the deplorable state of the prison cells.Therapy and rehabilitation programs will help the convicts’ reformso that they go through reintegration into the society. Subsequently,this has economic, environmental and ethical/moral advantages.Firstly, the inmates are exposed to various training and workprograms such as carpentry during rehabilitation that is importantfor the growth of the economy. The inmates will manage to createemployment opportunities for themselves and others once they arereleased. Furthermore, the rehabilitation will significantlyreduce recidivismrates hence minimizing the expenses incurred by the government tocater for food, water and medical services. The funds will be used tofinance other development projects such as infrastructure, which isnecessary for the growth of the economy. Besides, rehabilitationprograms increases the rate at which convicts go through prisonrelease reducing overcrowding thus improving sanitation. Thefacilities available such as water will be adequate to serve theinmates in prison at any given time. Lastly, rehabilitation gives theprisoners an opportunity to learn from their offences. They also makethem realize the importance of being a law-abiding citizen. Suchprograms are helpful in nurturing their ethical and moral characters.The ex-convicts will be able to conduct themselves according therules and regulations. They will embrace good morals and characterthus reducing the probability of re-imprisonment because of unlawfulacts.
Bosma,A., Kunst, M., Reef, J., Dirkzwager, A., & Nieuwbeerta, P.(2016). Prison-Based Rehabilitation. Crime& Delinquency,62(8),1095-1120.
Cullen,F. T., Jonson, C. L., & Nagin, D. S. (2011). Prisons do notreduce recidivism the high cost of ignoring science. ThePrison Journal,91(3suppl), 48S-65S.
Hall,L. L. (2015). Correctional Education and Recidivism: Toward a Toolfor Reduction. JournalOf Correctional Education,66(2),4-29.
Lacity,M., Rottman, J. W., & Carmel, E. (2014). Impact Sourcing:Employing prison inmates to perform digitally-enabled businessservices.Communicationsof the AIS, 34(1),913-932.
Oninla,O. A., & Onayemi, O. (2012). Skin infections and infestations inprison inmates. InternationalJournal Of Dermatology,51(2),178-181. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.05016.x
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Wildeman,C. (2014). Parental incarceration, child homelessness, and theinvisible consequences of mass imprisonment. TheANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,651(1),74-96