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Asa 50-year-oldblack American, I have worked hard to eliminate part of the biasesthat limit my capability to perform as a therapist. However, I haverealized that because of some of the aspects of cultural integrationand evolution, it has become hard to eliminate all of my personalbiases. Some of the biases that I still hold include, understandingthe different sexualities such as lesbianism, gay, bisexual, andtransgender. Religion is also at the center of cultural factors thatincrease my biases.Despite being brought up in a Christian family,I try to practice and acknowledge diversity in religion. However, Istill have some biases in other religion such as Hindu, Muslim andnon-religious people such as atheists. I believe that these culturalbiases may affect my work as a therapist. To ensure that I keep thecultural diversity issues as far as possible,I developed a habit of tryingto relate and understand people from different religions and sexualorientation in my inner social cycles so that I understand themdeeply. By interacting and engaging with people of different sexualand cultural orientation,I have managed to reduce some of the personal biases.

Igrew up in a time when discrimination in the American culture wasrife everywhere, in neighborhoods andschools. In the early 1980s, many schools had clear images of racialinclination as the black and whites hardly mingled in schools. Theracial aspect was still very prevalent even in the televisionchannels as the white programs dominated the air view. I felt likethere was an aspect where the whites were regarded superiortoother races. This superiority aspect affectedother groups such as the black and forced them to retaliate. Thewhite kids werehardly welcomedin the black neighborhood. They were either chased away or at timesattacked. In the 1990s, the blacks were occasionally harassed by theauthorities since they wereassociatedwith violence and drugs. The television programs werehighly dominatedby white reporters and news anchors who often reported negative sideof the blacks’ social life. In 1984, I remember an incident when Iwas youngIwas going to a bookshop that was dominated bywhite employees. I was highly fascinated by storybooks,so I wanted to go through some of them before I decide which one Icould buy. As I was walking through the pavement towards the door, aman likely on his 40s yelled at me to get off his property. Theincident overwhelmed me,and I broke down intears.

Iadmit that later association with different people and advancededucation has helped to shape how I perceive people,especially from different social dimensions. Since I went to collegein my early 20s, I got a chance to interact with different peopleespecially from different races. This helped me significantly toeliminate the bias that I had formed that all whites were racist. Iunderstood that despite the common bias that can behardly eliminatedat a personal level because of race, proper understanding with peoplefrom different cultures and background is an important aspect toeliminate the bias.My interaction with Asian friends and whites in college helped me toget rid of some of the bias and widely held perception aboutdifferent groups. My experience with people of different cultures hashelped me to understand people from their personal background andtheir early life experiences. I now understand that people aredifferent,and some people share values and beliefs different from me.However,my personal experience has helped me to judge people bythe actions and situation but not from their cultural background orother differences.

Subtleracism is still prevalent in the US even in today after many years offighting racism. The blacks and the Latino are likely to be treateddifferently, such as being harassed, ignored, and ridiculed by othersuperior groups such as the whites. Subtle racism includes aspectsdeeply rooted prejudice to people outside one group. For a long time,many people have a perception that racism is only by majority groupsto the minority. However, I understand racism as the widely helpprejudice to outside groups because of the personality factors,social dominance, and other human self-motivatingfactors such as self-esteem.There is a general tendency for any group to view itself as superiorover others. For instance, Christian believes they are superior toMuslims. The same cases apply to racism in the US where many whitesbelieved they were physically and mentally superior to the blacks.Despite the decrease of racial aspects,it is hard to eliminate the personal prejudice to members outside onegroup. I believe that the minorities such as the blacks and Mexicansare also racists because they have some misconception and prejudicialbeliefs that they have held over the whites.

Differenceseven in the same group such as whites or blacks are still veryprevalent. The variations areenhancedby the fact that different early experiences such as theneighborhood, religion, economic aspect influence how people developperception and values. The environment that people grew in hasa significant influencein establishing perception and bringing out the differences in agroup.Psychologistsexplains that human beings have an inherent characteristic of tryingto be different from others. People only believe and want toassociate with people that they share the same characteristic andalways form prejudices and perception to members outside the groups.Some of the factors that can influence people to be different fromothers include aspects such as race, class, religion, sexualorientation and many other personal and social aspects. For instance,even within a white community, queerpeople are regarded as different and are likely to facediscrimination and bias. The same is likely to happen to a blackcommunityaMuslim is likely to be regarded with suspicion by Christian blacks.Group theory explains why members of a group might show variationwithin the group. The theory asserts that members establish the validexpected behavior within a group through the process ofsocialization. A group gets an identity from the specific, yetdistinct characteristics. If a member display varied characteristicsthat are not common within the group, they are likely to be regardedas outsiders within the same group.

Becauseof the difference in cultural values and the need to maintain aunified and a consistent ethical practice that isenshrinedin creating and adding value to a client, American CounselingAssociation (ACA) and NAADAC form important underpinning. These codesguide the collective behavior of counselors and improve theprofessionalism in service delivery. A helper or a therapist shouldhave an immense understanding of the client and also understandself-valueinorder toremove the potential bias when dealing with the client. These codeshelp in outlining the limitation and the capacity of individualcounselors when handling clients. The sole purpose of the counselingsession is to improve the condition of the client.Therefore,it is paramount for the counselor to observe and respect the valuesand cultural differences of the client. Understanding the person’sdifferences help the counselor to deal with a specific personalsituation by coming up with a solution to the problem. Some of thespecific ACA and NAADAC aspect that I observe include respect forclients’ ownvalues and avoid imposing mine by practicing tolerance, unconditionalregard, and patience. Espousing objectivity is also another importantprinciple that I apply when handling clients so that I observe onlythe problem and concentrating on coming up with a solution.

TheACA and NAADAC also stipulate that professional counselors shouldavoid any form of discrimination based on race, region, class,ethnicity or economic situation. These situations are very importantto me and form part of my personal values when dealing with any kindofpatient. Understanding the cultural diversity is crucial inadministering a personalized care and developing a holistictherapeutic intervention. People from different cultural backgroundshave variations in values and social aspects such as communicationand behavior. Understanding a client’s social background is thusimportant for therapiststo avoid imposing conflicting values and cultural aspects.


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Social and Cultural Diversity

Thesis:We all have personal bias and use stereotypes, all the time,unconsciously. Every person has a biased global view because peopleare limited to a single camera viewpoint.


  1. Cultural bias: Cultural bias refers to a firm stance that all decisions must be based on one’s own values and beliefs.

  2. Personal bias: Personal biases are subconscious obstacles that can emasculate unprejudiced decision-making. They usually introduce unwarranted opinions as well as feelings into the scrutiny of an issue, making it nearly impossible to make a neutral and objective decision. Common biases consist of the halo effect, confirmation bias, groupthink, and overconfidence bias.

  3. Thesis: We all have personal bias and use stereotypes, all the time, unconsciously. Every person has a biased global view because people are limited to a single camera viewpoint. It implies people are only able to see what comes before them. No one has the definite version of reality. People’s social locations help inform their worldview—their class, gender, sex, culture, sexual orientation, race, etc. Human worldview affects how they view, react, and respond to every experience

  1. Define cultural diversity

  2. How cultural diversity might influence our personal opinions and perceptions as well as how we execute our roles and responsibilities.

  1. Information from my personal history

  1. Identifying my personal biases specifically cultural biases: As a staunch Christian, I am uncomfortable with women wearing very short skirts. I also personally dislike gay and lesbians patients. In addition, I always assume that the best place to work in is in counselling and I do not have any alternative. I also have a bias towards eye contact and the type of food. This has mainly been shaped by my culture, the environment I grew and my parents. My parents were staunch Christians with strong family values. They were strict and ensured we dress, and behave in specified norm. The neighboring community was also against gay and lesbian individuals. I was also used to particular type of food something that has made me not to like other types of meals from other cultures and regions.

  2. Meeting with Latino Americans, whites, Chinese and Indians in college. Working with a Mexican, Chinese, Arab and white in a team project of an organization. Having a relationship with a Kenyan, Woman. It allowed me to be aware of the cultural difference among various races and tribes. It allowed me to be a well diverse individual who appreciates everyone.

  3. Interacting with different people from the continent has given for many years now has now enabled me to treat everyone with dignity and respect.

  1. The concepts of racism and discrimination

  1. Racism—It is the antagonism, discrimination, or prejudice directed against an individual of a given race-based of the credence that the race of the other person is superior or belief that an individual is less superior because of customs, language, skin color, birthplace or any other element that purportedly discloses the basic nature of that individual.

  2. Discrimination— the prejudicial or unjust treatment of different groups of people or things, based on sex, class, age, or race.

  1. ACA and NAADAC codes of ethics

  1. ACA and NAADA multicultural codes to use

  1. ACA Multicultural codes

  1. F.11.b. Student Diversity

  2. F.7.c. Infusing Multicultural Issues/Diversity— In order to develop qualified and professional counselors, counselor educators must infuse material associated with diversity/multiculturalism into all workshops and courses.

  3. F.11. Multicultural/Diversity Competence in Counselor Education and Training Programs

  1. F.11.a. Faculty Diversity— Counselor educators must be committed to recruiting as well as retain a multicultural faculty.

  2. F.11.b. Student Diversity— Counselor educators need to actively make an effort to recruit and retain a multicultural student body. They should also demonstrate commitment to diversity competence by accepting and respecting the diversity culture and the various types of abilities that students to the training experience. Counselor educators are also supposed to offer right accommodation that improve and support the welfare and academic performance of diverse student.

  3. F.11.c. Multicultural/Diversity Competence—Counselor educators actively infuse diversity/multicultural competency in their supervision practices and training. They should also engage actively in training student to gain insight, skills, and knowledge in the multicultural practice competencies.

  1. H.5.d. Multicultural and Disability Considerations—Counselors who are website administrators should provide accessibility to people with disabilities. Translation capabilities should be available to clients with a different mother tongue, when possible. Counselors to recognize the defective nature of such accessibilities and translations.

  2. F.2.b. Multicultural Issues/Diversity in Supervision—counselling supervisors should be cognizant of as well as address the diversity/Multicultural role in supervisory relationship.

  3. F.11.a. Faculty Diversity

  4. B.1.a. Multicultural/Diversity Considerations— Counselors are supposed to always be aware and sensitive to cultural meaning of privacy and confidentiality. Counselors must also respect divergent views towards information disclosure. Counselors are expected to hold continuous discussions with clients on the type of information to share, how and when to share it and whom to share it with.

  5. E.8. Multicultural Issues/Diversity in Assessment—Counselors are supposed to cautiously select as well as use evaluation techniques normed on population other than that of the client. They should also be aware of the effects of spirituality, race, culture, age, color, ethnic group, gender, language preference, socioeconomic status, and sexual orientation on administering and interpreting and need to place results of the test in right outlook with other pertinent factors.

ii.NAADAC codes

  1. Ethical multicultural counseling

  2. V. Working in a Culturally Diverse World— Addiction professionals must understand the importance of the role that culture and ethnicity plays in person’s perceptions.

  3. Standard 11: Cultural Sensitivity Diagnosis

  1. My conclusion about cultural sensitivity in treatment planning: Cultural sensitivity is crucial in making the right diagnosis of the problem and providing appropriate treatment.

  2. How do communication styles differ across cultures

  1. Language uses: Across cultures, phrases and words are employed in different ways

  2. Degree given to non-verbal communication varies from one culture to another

  1. How strategies to build rapport can be differentiated based on culture

  2. Reasons for differential treatment methods

  1. Each problem surfaces in a unique way, thus may not be treated by a single method

  2. Due to culturally diverse nature of the world

  3. One treatment method cannot be effective for all conditions

  1. Resources that could help in making one more informed about cultural diversity

  2. Apply my learning to my future practice as a counselor

-todevelop an effective treatment mechanism

-provide effective and quality care

  1. Conclusion

Havinga full understanding of cultural diversity is key to become acompetent counselor. Personal cultural biases can also be minimizedby being aware and learning more about the culture of various peoplemore specifically your clients. Making friendship with other peoplefrom various ethnic group can also make you learn more about theirculture.


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    1. Technology enables students to learn new language through the appreciation of the new culture.

    2. New technology provides tools for learning and practicing the new language through writing.

    3. Technology provides tutorial tools and opportunities for teachers and students to engage in learning.

    4. The role of digital technology in learning makes it important for students to learn a new language.

  1. Technology enables students around the world to learn new language through the appreciation of the new culture using technology.

    1. Digital tools such as the internet enable learners to connect with people who use the target language.

    2. Learners are able to learn cultural aspects of the culture of the new language.

    3. Students appreciate the new language through the understanding of the new culture.

    4. Students are able to engage fully with individuals who speak the target new language

  2. New technology provides tools for learning and practicing the new language through writing.

    1. Learning to write in a new language is assisted by digital technology in the form of a word processor.

    2. Learners create texts and get immediate feedback that enhances their learning through corrections.

    3. Online text materials for learning a new language may be obtained through listening other speak or read.

  3. Digital technology enhances the conventional classroom for learning a new language.

    1. Learners to get specific lessons of new language from online materials such as e-books

    2. Digital technology averts personal teaching or learning challenges of conventional classrooms

    3. Digital technology averts personal teaching or learning challenges of conventional classrooms

  4. Digital technology provides tutorial tools for learners.

    1. Tutorial tools ensure that learners get immediate feedback through digital technology

    2. Teachers are able to connect their learners and provide support through digital platforms like the internet

    3. Teachers give better instructions and homework assignments

    4. Educators to further spread out language learning opportunities through distance learning.

  5. Conclusion

    1. Technology enables students around the world to be assisted in learning a new language.

    2. Technology allows students to appreciate language by learning some aspects of the new culture.

    3. Through technology students practice the new language through writing.

    4. Tutorial tools and opportunities offered by technology allow teachers and students to engage in online learning.

    5. Digital technology plays an important role that makes it important for learning a new language.

Roleof Digital Technology in Learning a New Language

Today,it is uncommon to find a language class that does not include digitaltechnology in the learning process. Recent technological advancementshave made it possible for students from around the world to beassisted in learning a new language. In addition, teachersincorporate different forms of digital technology in the teachingprocesses. Through technological tools, teachers overcomegeographical distance to engage students in the learning processes.The technology makes it easier for students to learn a new language.The discussion on the roles of digital technology will illustratethat it is important in learning a new language.

Technologyenables students around the world to learn new language through theappreciation of the new culture using technology. Digital tools suchas the internet enable learners to connect with people who use thetarget language. Learners are able to learn cultural aspects of theculture of people who speak the new language. As a result, studentsare able to appreciate the features of the particular targetlanguage. In this case, digital technology enables learners to learnthe target language through appreciating the culture, rather thanjust learn about speaking the language (Abbott and Beltran 14).Moreover, students are able to engage fully with individuals who usethat particular language and hence are able to make meaning duringthat learning process together.

Newtechnology provides tools for learning and practicing the newlanguage through writing. Typically, the starting point during anynew language learning process in digital technology is usually in theform of word processor. This is an important digital tool thatenables language learners to work on their target language. This isthrough the processes of creating and also re-creating specific textsuntil such texts are fully accurate and are comprehensible (Abbottand Beltran 15). Digital technology enables learners to create suchtexts and get immediate feedback that enhances their learning throughcorrections. During language learning, such feedback enables learnersto recognize and correct any grammatical as well as spelling errors.Thus, digital technology plays a role in ensuring that learners fullyengage during such editing processes (Abbott and Beltran 15). As aresult, learning produces the desired result of high quality newlanguage.

Digitaltechnology enhances the conventional classroom for learning a newlanguage. First, it enables learners to get specific lessons of newlanguage from online materials such as e-books (Abbott and Beltran18). During the process of language learning, digital technologymakes access to such materials easier. There are some materials thatmay exist in the curriculums but are outside the learners’ reach.The access to such contents is achieved through digital technology,making learners to improve their new language skills from wheneverthey may be (Blake 31). More importantly, both the learners andteacher reach out for online text materials from variety of authors.It is worth noting that such material may be obtained throughlistening other people speak or read the language.

Inaddition, digital technology averts personal teaching or learningchallenges of conventional classrooms. For instance, some challengesusually exist in scenarios where language teachers lack theconfidence of speaking the target language due to poor skills.Through technological tools like online tutorials, learners can askquestions and directly process the responses that they get. It ishence possible to indicate that digital technology plays an importantrole of mediating between learners. This is through technologicaltools such as videos, which enable teachers to link up learners withother classes from around the world (Blake 25).

Digitaltechnology provides tutorial tools for learners. Such tools ensurethat learners get immediate feedback when practicing the newlanguage. The digital tools dictate whether they are accurate andright in their spoken words. The process of learning a new languagerequires constant feedback to ensure that learners quickly developtheir language skills (Abbott and Beltran 22). Additionally, teachersare able to connect their learners with others from around the worldand provide support through digital platforms like the internet.Digital learning also ensures that teachers correctly differentiateinstructions and hence able to adapt to classroom activities as wellas homework assignments.

Moreover,digital learning has enabled language educators to further spread outlanguage learning opportunities through online learning (Abbott andBeltran 28). Digital technology plays a crucial role of ensuring thatall teachers of foreign languages are effectively assisted to teachlearners who are far away. This is by facilitating and offeringmediating tools in new language learning programs for many studentsfrom around the world (Blake 35).

Allin all, it is important to note that the effectiveness of all digitaltechnological tools in the process of language learning, needsqualifies individuals who have the needed expertise. In particular,the process of language learning using digital technology requires afully qualified teacher who is able to facilitate and manages thelanguage learning environment. Such expertise averts any challengesbrought about by distance which makes learners to be fullyindependent. By providing content and feedback, digital technologyenables independent learners to learn and test new language skills.


AbbottChris., Beltran V. Elina. InclusiveLanguage Education and Digital Technology.Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 2013. Print

BlakeJ. Robert. BraveNew Digital Classrooms: Technology and Foreign Language Learning.Washington,D.C:Georgetown University Press. 2013. Print


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TheFormation of Sales and Lease Contracts

-Concept of salesand lease contract introduced.

Formation ofSales and Lease Contracts

-Highlightsprocess of formation of lease

Considerationand Enstoppel

-Part offormation of the contract


-Forms part offormation of contract

UniformCommercial Code

-Defines andexplains its provisions

United StatesContract Law

-Explains conceptof contract law in the US.

Public PolicyImplication

GeneralBusiness Implications

ParticularImplications for the Organization

Recommendationfor Organization for Future Action


Ciacchi, A. C. (Ed.). (2016). Contents and Effects ofContracts-Lessons to Learn From The Common European Sales Law(Vol. 7). Springer.

Faber, N. E. D., Vermunt, N. S. G. J., &amp Linde, K. (2013).Treatment of contracts in insolvency. Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press.

Giordano, H. S. J., &amp Alces, P. A. (2015). Personal PropertyLeasing: Article 2-A of the Uniform Commercial Code. NY PracticeGuide: Business and Commercial, 3.

Miller, R. L. (2016). Business Law Today, Comprehensive.Cengage learning.

Pham, M. L. (2016). Law in Business: Syllabus: Summer III-2015.

Strausz, R. (2014). Optimal Sales Contracts with Withdrawal Rights(No. SFB649DP2014-045). Humboldt University, Collaborative ResearchCenter 649.

Schwenzer, I., Hachem, P., &amp Kee, C. (2012). Global sales andcontract law. Oxford University Press.

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