MOTIVATION AND INVOLVEMENT 10
Asnoted by McLeod(2007), theneed for self-esteem can be used in marketing Samsung 4K SUHD.According to Maslow’s, esteem need hierarchy, and people have aneed for reputation, status, recognition, and appreciation. When thisneed is fulfilled, it leads to self-confidence, worth and value tothe world. Samsung 4K SUHD offers unique features that fulfill theconsumer’s need for esteem. The Nano-Crystal technology found thatSamsung 4K SUHD enhances the quality of TV entertainment, leaving theconsumers with higher status than having the normal TV. The peakilluminator, ultimate feature, brings the scenes to spectacular life.The Samsung 4K SUHD is also a high-end TV, which requires muscle fora consumer to purchase. The ability to purchase this gadget makesconsumers differentiate their status from others and command respect(Morrison,2015).
Motivationalconflict is brought about by the opposing force that involves pain orinconvenience when fulfilling a need. A consumer may face theapproach-approach type of conflict when purchasing the Samsung 4KSUHD. In this conflict, a consumer is in torn between two differentchoices of similar products and might be unable to choose betweenthem. Several companies have come up with products that offer thesame features as the Samsung 4K SUHD. To solve this conflict, amarketer would appeal to the brand confidence that Samsung offers itsconsumers. Samsung held a 21 percent market share in the U.S. in2015, making it the number one brand for ten straight years (Larsen,2016). These statistics should convince a consumer that Samsung is atrusted brand for many years due to its uncompromised quality. Theconsumers, therefore, can confidently identify the brand despite thecompetitors. A marketer should convince the consumers through activeand timely advertisements. He could also appeal to the consumerthrough price modification strategies such as offering payments ininstallments. The approach-approach conflict may also arise when theconsumer is in torn between having the Samsung 4K SUHD technology nowor wait for a better version. Technology is constantly changing, andbetter innovations are always coming up. The marketer focusing on theunique features of the Samsung 4K SUHD TV should, therefore, have theconsumer wanting to buy the TV now (Morrison,2015).
Consumerinvolvement refers to the level of consumer interest toward a productor service. Involvement levels are divided into two high involvementand low involvement. The level of involvement is determined by theperceived importance of product, perceived product risks, valueattached to purchase and consumption of the product and the hedonicvalue of the product (Srivastava, Karnavat, & Suklani, 2012). TheSamsung 4K SUHD TV falls under the high involvement level as it is ahigh priced and a luxury good. With the high-priced products, brandloyalty is important. This means that a consumer who had previouslypurchased a Samsung TV is likely to purchase it again. Since Samsungenjoys a good market share, capitalizing on these consumers will be akey issue for a marketer. When purchasing a high priced good,consumer researchers are ardent to eliminate risks. Since consumersare keen to research on the Samsung 4K SUHD TV before purchasing,customer reviews are important. A satisfied consumer would be morethan glad to give a five-star review on the Samsung 4K SUHD TV.Therefore, after every purchase, the consumers should be encouragedto review the products and give their genuine and helpful reviews,which other potential consumers can refer to. It is also importantfor a marketer to realize that consumer involvement is not onlycognitive but emotional. The cognitive related nature means that theconsumer will be psychologically attached to a product if it appealsto their personal goals and values. Hence, while marketing Samsung 4KSUHD TV, they should appeal to the cognitive elements of theconsumers. The emotional nature of consumer involvement means thatdecision making by consumers is influenced by attitudes and judgments(which are emotion-influenced). This is important for a marketer toknow that they are not only appealing to the cognitive ability butalso the emotional ability of the consumer.
Inmarketing Samsung 4K SUHD TV, two personality theories could applyHorney’s neo-Freudian theory and consumer materialism theory. Inthe Horney’s neo-Freudian theory personalities can be compliant,aggressive or detached. Compliant individuals deal with anxiety byaccepting a situation and moving towards others. They have a strongdesire for approval, appreciation and affection. The aggressiveindividuals respond to anxiety by resisting a situation and becomingaggressive. They have need for power, recognition and achievement.The detached individuals respond to situations by withdrawing fromothers and becoming isolated. They feel self-sufficient,self-reliant, want privacy and independence. These personalitiesdrive the individuals into buying brand names instead of privatelabels. This is a great advantage since Samsung is an establishedbrand and has the largest market share especially in the U.S markets.The Samsung 4K SUHD TV presents these personalities with a sense ofimportance and social progress. As a marketer it is important tounderstand this class of people and tailor messages that appeal tothem. For example, messages that emphasize of the brand of theSamsung 4K SUHD TV would appeal to them.
Inconsumer materialism, possessions are important to the consumer’sidentity and life. Consumer materialism can be explained by threebehaviors exhibited by its personalities. One, the consumers believethat acquisition of materials is leads to happiness. Therefore, theydedicate their lives to accumulation of wealth and materialpossessions. The individuals believe that material possession willhelp them attain pleasure and minimize discomfort in life. Two, one’ssuccess in life is judged by their possessions. The individualsbelieve that accumulation of materials means higher levels ofcivilization and shows their social progress. Three, the consumersplace material possession at the centre of their lives. Here, theconsumers may not understand their reason for buying products butsince it is in them, they go ahead and buy. Materialist consumers arepurchase that which reflects on their high status and separates themfrom the rest. The Samsung 4K SUHD TV being a unique and high pricedproduct. Consumer materialists are likely to associate with it. Itgives this class of people the uniqueness they look for and the classassociated with the muscle to purchase such items. As a marketer, itis important to understand the personality of consumer materialistsand capitalize on it. For example, displaying that Samsung 4K SUHD TVwill make their entertainment more pleasurable and give them classwould be important.
Brandpersonality is where consumers associate brands with human-likepersonalities. These personalities reflect the consumer and bring theemotional bonding between the brand and the consumer. The personalityhelps to build a brand by meeting the consumers’ need forself-expression, connect with the past or in life transition. Tosuccessfully help a consumer find self-expression through apersonality, the brand personality has to be consistent with aself-image of the consumer (brand-self congruence). Consumers can bepersuaded to use a certain brand due to the strength and consistencyassociated with it. In marketing Samsung 4K SUHD TV, the brandpersonality must have the following traits: First, the personalityhas to show modernity. Samsung 4K SUHD TV demonstrates the latesttechnology in the TV manufacturing and has to be associated with thepresent. Consumers who purchase Samsung 4K SUHD TV should relate withthe modern world of wanting better picture quality and entertainmentexperience. The personality should also reflect off thefuture-mindedness of the technology that it will not only be relevanttoday but also in future. Second, the personality has to portrayeccentricity. Samsung 4K SUHD TV is peculiar and displays oddity fromthe normal TV technology. This aspect will show the uniqueness of thebrand and the ability to go beyond the consumer’s expectations. Itshould demonstrate mysteriousness, magic, and creativeness of the TV.Third, the branding personality should reflect opulence. The featuresassociated with Samsung 4K SUHD TV display a higher social status.Thus, the personality should display luxuriousness and splendor thatis in Samsung 4K SUHD TV. Fourth, the personality should show somelevel of elitism. The uniqueness of the Samsung 4K SUHD TV demandsthat people associated with it see themselves as elegant,accomplished and of influence in the society. This trait, however,should not demonstrate arrogance and pride. Fifth, the brandpersonality should reflect strength. The Samsung brand hasdemonstrated strength by leading in the market share for the last tenyears. Therefore, a good representative of the brand should showstrength resilience and success of the technology. It will alsodemonstrate on the durability of the brand.
Figure1: Perceptual map of Samsung, Sony and LG TV brands
Perceptualmapping diagrammatically displays the perceptions of consumers’ tomarketers. A product is assessed in relation to its competitors.Samsung is competing with two other strong brands, namely Sony andLG. LG also has the HUD-TV technology competing against that ofSamsung. Both Sony and LG brand could be positioned at a lowerquality and lower cost than Samsung. In this scenario, Samsung has anadvantage over the Sony brand since it has a high-quality product.However, the lower cost might lure some financially constrainedconsumer to buying Sony. Samsung could reposition its cost to caterfor this market share as consumers, though of high income, are priceconscious and tend to cut on costs as much as they can. In thisperceptual map, Samsung 4K SUHD TV seems to compete unfavorably withthe LG brand (VisvesvarayaTechnological University, 2008).A consumer is likely to ignore the small difference in quality and gofor the cheaper LG. Since LG is also of relatively high quality, aprice-conscious consumer is likely to be lured by its relativelylower cost. LG competed for market share closely with Samsung andtook a 12.6 percent market share in 2015 (Larsen, 2016). This marketshare gap is likely to get thinner with the low-cost positioning ofthe LG brand. Samsung should, therefore, reposition itself such that,the cost gap does not make a significant difference to consumers whowant to associate with its strong brand and are price conscious.
Consumersuse extrinsic and intrinsic cues to value a product. The intrinsiccues are inherent to a product while the extrinsic cues areexternally attributed to the product (Veale,Quester & Karunaratna, 2006).The intrinsic cues that consumers could use on the Samsung 4K SUHD TVare the features of the TV. The NANO-Crystal technology found onSamsung 4K SUHD enhances the quality of TV entertainment while thepeak illuminator ultimate feature brings the scenes to spectacularlife. It also comes with a curved screen that is unique and displayssplendor compare to the normal screens. These features are likely topresent the consumer with a feeling of sophistication and class thatthey are looking for. As noted by Heine (n.d),thesefeatures display creativity and bring not just an entertainment TV toa home but a decorative display. Therefore, the cues are likely tolure the consumer into purchasing the technology. Consumers would usethe extrinsic cue of price in assessing the quality of Samsung 4KSUHD TV. Consumers often relate to a price scale where high-qualityproducts are priced higher than low-quality products. The higherSamsung price, as opposed to its competitors, would be to itsadvantage when using the price cut. Firstly, consumers are sensitiveto the quality of electronics as they prefer a technology that willbe worth their money and that will give them a great experience. Theyare therefore likely to attach a high quality and higher preferencefor the Samsung 4K SUHD TV. Secondly, there is limited knowledge ofthe new HUD-TV technology which means that consumers rely on theprice cut to make their quality judgment (Veale, Quester, &Karunaratna, 2006). The consumers will assume that the price tag onthe Samsung 4K SUHD TV is associated with its high quality and belured into purchasing it. As a marketer, the price tag will be usedto convince the consumers that they are purchasing a qualitytechnology.
Ingeneral, the consumers associate high price with high quality. TheSamsung 4K SUHD TV is priced higher than its competitors as itcapitalizes on its brand image and quality offered to the consumers.The HUD-TV technology is surrounded by uncertainties and limitedconsumer knowledge. The consumers are likely to rely on the price astheir general guidance to determining its quality to the advantageof Samsung 4K SUHD TV.
Thistechnology comes with certain perceived risks. The first risk is thefunctional risk attached to the TV. A consumer may fear that theSamsung 4K SUHD TV will not deliver on its promises. This is a highrisk as electronics may fail due to manufacturer’s failure or dueto consumer’s negligence. However, to counter the risk, the Samsung4K SUHD TV comes with a warranty that will ensure that it has nofault from the manufacturer’s side. Secondly, a consumer mayexperience the time risk. With this perceived risk, the consumerfears that the product purchased will soon have to be replaced orturn obsolete. This is a high risk as technology soon replaces itselfat a fast rate. However, the Samsung 4K SUHD TV consumers will beassured that the technology is made with a futuristic mind to lastthem long enough.
Consumerlearning takes place both intentionally and unintentionally. Consumerlearning is the relatively permanent change in behavior afterconsumption of a product or service. Operant conditioning is based onthe fact that behavior is controlled by consequences. To positivelyreinforce a behavior, one may consider giving incentives or rewardsto encourage a behavior. To discourage a behavior, one may usepunishments. Operant conditioning can be used to shape behavior byrewarding or punishing in a way that drives the behavior closer andcloser to the desired outcome. Each time a person moves a steptowards the desired behavior, the reward shifts. This theory can beused to influence consumer pre-purchase behavior such that theypurchase the Samsung4KSUHD TV with ease. This could be through various reinforcements.Fixed ratio reinforcement works such that if a consumer purchasesmore than one the Samsung4KSUHD TV or refers a friend, they get a reward such as a Samsungphone. This would encourage more purchases as a friend of a pastconsumer is likely to trust the brand referred to them. Anothereffective reinforce would be variable ratio reinforcement. Here, alucky buyer of the Samsung4KSUHD TV walks away with a gift. This unpredictability will encourageconsumers to try their luck in purchasing the Samsung4KSUHD TV.
Consumerattitude is reflected in the way they feel about a brand. Consumersprocess information using both their cognitive and emotionalabilities to make purchasing decisions. These attitudes can bepositively influenced to achieve the desired behavior. To address thechanging beliefs about the Samsung 4K SUHD TV, using the functionalapproach. In this approach, a marketer can appeal to the utilitarianfunction-attitude. With the utilitarian function, the consumer’sexperience with a brand will positively affect their decision to useit again. As seen earlier, Samsung TV has created a strong brandwhich consumers can bank on in the future. The value-expressivefunction can also influence the consumer’s behavior. Since Samsung4K SUHD TV has elegance and value, consumers will want to be attachedto it to reflect on their lifestyles. To address the changing beliefsabout competing brands, two-sided appeal would be effective. In thisstrategy, Samsung admits that other companies have relatively lowcost priced HUD TVs, but they are of lower quality. In this way, theconsumers will get the picture that Samsung 4K SUHD TV is superior inquality hence, it has a higher price compared to the competingbrands. A brand statement such as “the trusted brand withelegance” can also be used to change the consumers’ belief aboutcompeting brands. Such a statement would improve the Samsung brandrating. The Samsung 4K SUHD TV is associated with a high-incomemarket segment. To convince middle-income market segment tocross-over, an emphasis on the durability and quality of the TV couldbe used. This is because every consumer is attracted to quality andwants to purchase a product that will last them longer (Zaichkowsky,2009).Using the strategy of adding an attribute, an attribute could be usedto alter behavior change. An attribute such as the curved screen thatbrings elegance into a consumer’s living room could be emphasized.The NANO-Technology that makes the Samsung 4K SUHD TV bring morevivid entertainment would positively influence attitude change(Srivastava,Karnavat & Suklani, 2012).
Thefoot-in-the –door technique would apply in selling Samsung 4K SUHDTV where a consumer agrees to buy another Samsung product such as aphone before agreeing to buy the Samsung 4K SUHD TV.
Communicationand consumer behavior
Toget the message to the consumers, television and billboards would beappropriate advertising media. A study by MarketShare (2009-2014)found that TV has the highest efficiency at achieving key performanceindicators compared to online display, paid search, print and radioadvertising. This can be attributed to its widespread popularity,strong impact and mass coverage. Television utilizes both verbal andvisual communication, which would appeal to the memory of theconsumer. A proper use of color, sound, sight, drama and motion wouldlure consumers into buying Samsung4KSUHD TV. Billboards are also powerful tools for outdoor marketing.Their effectiveness can be attributed to two factors. One, people seethe billboards whether they like it or not. Two, marketers can placebillboards where they will have the most impact such as along hightraffic locations or inaccessible areas. Strong messages combinedwith visuals will effectively influence a consumer into purchasing aprodcut. A short statement that demonstrates the brand strength wouldbe appropriate in promoting sales. However, a comparative messagewould not be appropriate as it would give publicity, though negative,of the other competing brands.
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