LOCAL, STATE, AND FEDERAL PARTNERSHIPS 5
Local,State, and Federal Partnerships
Local,State, and Federal Partnerships
Thefederal government functions in close coordination with local andstate bodies to enhance effectiveness in the harmonization ofemergency activities. Much as the government has a guide to assist insuch functions, a command structure details the communication andresponse efforts. Coordination of activities is made possible by theexistence of multi-agency, unified command, and area controlstructures. When a city experiences an act of terrorism, the fieldand area control centers provide the regional bodies with relevantinformation. Depending on the extent of the act of terrorism, thelower levels may seek assistance from the state to enhance theircapabilities. Communication is a two-way process between the lowerand higher levels. Officials in the city, for instance, need toprovide primary data about the incident to assist in the resourcemobilization and response planning.
Ina case of suspected terrorism, a law enforcer is supposed to identifythe features that are exhibited in terror attacks. He or she issupposed to examine whether the suspects have paraphernalia that isidentifiable with terrorism or not. As such, the officer shouldundertake a thorough search for the culprit. The collection of theindividual’s details is also essential. Further, a local lawenforcer needs to examine the nature of a terrorist attack, if any,to lessen the risk levels. The officer should also inform other localagencies such as the FBI to start investigations and coordinateinterrogations on a suspected case of terrorism. The law enforcerneeds to be adequately prepared to minimize chances of blowing thecover or becoming a terror victim.
Theterrorism liaison officer (TLO) in San Francisco reports suspiciousindividuals or activities that may be construed as extremism. His orher function is to inform the security officers and other relevantpersons or bodies in the state on the said activities. TLOs work inclose cooperation with the Department of Homeland Security andcommunities to help in curbing terrorist activities. Further, TLOsare involved in the creation of awareness to prepare the citizens forappropriate response measures to terrorism. They also work undercoverduring protests and huge gatherings to provide security intelligenceto law enforcers (Strunk & Leitner, 2013).
TheFederal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has an essential role ingathering domestic intelligence as well as undertaking securityfunctions in the US. The information collected by the agency informsother law enforcement bodies in the country on appropriate steps andmeasures. In the current American society, FBI undertakesinvestigations and information gathering on counterterrorismactivities. The agency conducts the function with close collaborationwith other agencies such as the CIA and the Department of HomelandSecurity. It also has field offices across the country to help insupplementing efforts to investigate suspicious activities andcrimes. The FBI has an important duty in boosting the capacity oflocals and private bodies towards responding to terrorism attacks(Posid et al., 2013).
TheNational Response Framework expounds on the reaction measures todisasters and terrorist attacks. Moreover, it describes thecollaboration between the state actors and the community to assist inthe response efforts. NRF addresses various stakeholders, includingcommunities, individuals, state, and federal governments among others(HomelandSecurity, 2013, p. 5).NRF is not a plan, but a guide to help the law enforcers indischarging their duties. The document has lessons and experienceslearned from other operations during disasters and threats (HomelandSecurity, 2013, p. 4). The goal of the guide is to assist in theresponse mechanism, not in the prevention or the long-term recovery.State, local, and federal authorities use the document to help in theformulation of appropriate interventions during a disaster orterrorist attacks(Homeland Security, 2013, p. 30).
TheNational Incident Management System (NIMS) offers a planned andproactive strategy to help the state and non-state actors to prevent,protect, and mitigate grave incidents and occurrences.Theaim is to lessen destruction to properties and loss of lives. BothNIMS and NRF seek to achieve common objectives, especially managementof disasters and resources(Homeland Security, 2013, p. 3).On terrorism, NIMS gives a guide to the actors on the appropriatesteps to manage terror incidents. The document provides a mechanismfor the players to help avoidance of property destruction and loss oflives. The NRF report provides the structure for a federal-level planfor managing terrorism incidents in the country. Both NRF and NIMSconsider all scenarios, including location, complexity, or magnitudeof a terror act. In essence, the documents enhance coordinationbetween state agencies and private bodies. During shootings orbiological attacks, individuals are required to adopt a coordinatedapproach. NIMS and NRF ensure that all agencies work in unison duringemergencies and terrorist attacks. It is noteworthy that terroristattacks are sometimes complicated to handle or mitigate (HomelandSecurity, 2013, p. 5).
Moreover,NIMS and NRF help in ensuring timely mitigation of terrorist attacksand emergencies. It is also considered that the local and privatebodies need to have appropriate information to mitigate and preventterror attacks. The guides emphasize the importance ofdifferentiating between various forms of terrorism, including,biological, chemical, radiological, and nuclear. Of importance is theneed to recognize and interpret different forms of terrorism byexamining the nature of destruction (HomelandSecurity, 2013, p. 3).
HomelandSecurity. (2013). NationalResponse Framework.Retrieved August 24, 2016, fromhttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjdt4qFsdnOAhXnDsAKHb4nASwQFggeMAA&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.fema.gov%2Fmedia-library-data%2F20130726-1914-25045-1246%2Ffinal_national_response_framework_20130501.pdf&usg
Posid,J., Bruce, S., Guarnizo, J., O`Connor Jr, R., Papagiotas, S., &Taylor, M. (2013). Public health emergencies and responses: what arethey, how long do they last, and how many staff does your agencyneed?. Biosecurityand bioterrorism: biodefense strategy, practice, and science,11(4),271-279.
Strunk,C., & Leitner, H. (2013). Resisting Federal–Local ImmigrationEnforcement Partnerships: Redefining ‘Secure Communities’ andPublic Safety. Territory,Politics, Governance,1(1),62-85.