Influence of Brand Awareness, Attitude and Involvement on Purchasing Decision

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Influenceof Brand Awareness, Attitude and Involvement on Purchasing Decision



Thework covered by this research has two main objectives: to evaluatethe essence of consumer’s awareness to brands impact on buying andto determine the role played by consumer’s attitude towards a brandon purchases. To achieve the first objective, primary data collectedin India about the consumers’ preference to certain brands inclothing industry will be used. The information used was obtained byissuing well designed questionnaires to both male and femalerespondents between the 15-40 years of age. The research reveals thatgender does not play a significant role in determining level of brandawareness. However, males are heavier spenders on prestigious brandsas compared to females. In the second part, consumers’ attitudesand the motivating factors behind a purchase, which are eitherpositive or negative reinforcement, are analyzed from researchconducted in the United States. The drive behind consumer attitudestowards a product is closely analyzed against the level ofinvolvement. It emerges that both informational and transformationaladvertisements of a brand may either require high levels ofinvolvement or low levels of involvement depending on the nature ofthe product represented by the brand, as well as the targetedaudience.


Brand,brand attitude, brand awareness, motivation, brand extension,involvement.

Brandis a term that refers to a name, sign, symbol, or a combination ofany of these aspects that helps a potential buyer to identify thegoods or services of a particular seller or producer from a varietyof the same kind supplied by the competitors (Shahrokh,Sedghiani &amp Ghasemi, 2012). The brand architecture is a powerfulmeans of gaining consumer segments in a competitive world of businessand especially in the retail landscape (Haxthausen, 2008). Retailbusinesses all over the world are investing a lot of resources tomarket their brand as compared to only a few decades ago. In themodern world, people are keener in purchasing brands than the actualproduct. This is particularly true in prestigious industries such asluxury and sports cars, mobile gadgets and outfits among otherthings. For instance, in the United States, only 14% of the retailsales were attributable to private labels. By 2008, these labelsaccounted for 19% of all retail sales in the grocery sector.

Haxthausen(2008), states that private labels and consumer loyalty associated tothem is much stronger in Europe than in the U.S. For example, 43% ofretail sales in the United Kingdom are sold through private labels.According to research carried out by AC Nielson, the author reportsthat there exist a strong positive correlation between consumerconsolidation and share of commodities sold from a certain brand. Thehigher the consolidations rate in a place, the more the retail salesof a particular brand. This may explain why most branded retailstores are found in the most populous parts of major cities andmunicipalities.

Brand’ssuccess is largely tied to the inability of competitors to easilyreplicate the goods or services offered. To customers, choice of abrand and devotion of loyalty is done scarcely but once it is done,maintaining the brand is highly likely (Haxthausen, 2008). Firmsemploy brands symbols, names or signs to display ownership and takeany associated responsibilities to their goods and services. To theconsumers, brand is a reassurance badge about the nature of theproduct which saves them a great deal of efforts required when makinga decision to buy a new product.



Brandawareness may be described as a customer’s ability to recognize anddifferentiate a particular product within a category when making apurchase. Awareness is the power that a brand’s image has in themind of a potential buyer (Shahrokh,Sedghiani &amp Ghasemi, 2012). Accordingto Harvard Business School (2006), brand can be explained as aconcept introduced by marketers to assist positioning of a productand to make product differentiation concrete. It asserts that theproduct is unique among all other products. For a customer to beconsidered aware, knowing the product by name is not mandatory. Theawareness may simply be described by recognizing a certain imageassociated to the particular brand(Percy &amp Rossiter, 2016).The level of brand awareness can be measured by either brandrecognition or brand recall.

Whena customer is capable of recognizing a brand under varyingconditions, it becomes evident that they possess a certain level ofbrand awareness. The value of the brand is determined by the extentof consumer awareness. In any market, there are brands that arepopular to a large number of people and others which are less known.The power of a brand is not proportional for all products as some areeasily recognizable and memorable than others. Percy &ampRossiter(1992) observes that brand awareness is a measure of productsrecognition and the level to recall. In fact, the power of the brandis reminiscent from the perception that a customer holds of theproduct being more superior among the many varieties available tochoose from.

Thebrand image can be seen as the definite imagination that consumershave over an object, thing, company, country or political party. Bycombining all the signs, name, shapes and experience of the product,consumer gives shape to the brand in their mind. The brands imagebecomes the position placed by the consumer in their minds about aproduct. The success of a brand awareness strategy depends on theability to penetrate in people’s minds, form a stable picture andremain in their thoughts (Mohammadian &amp Rhoghani, 2011).Marketing managers are aware that consumers have multiple sights ofbrands and different people have significantly distinguished way ofassociation to products. Some of the channels through which peoplecan develop brand association include direct experience fromcommercials or through information from nonpartisan sources, mediavehicles and consumer reports, assumptions the consumers make onthemselves, word of mouth or through the signs and symbols marketersuse about a product. Perners (2010) states that even for a productthat sells internationally, word of mouth cannot be underestimated.What the experienced consumers say about a brand makes tremendousimpact on the listener.


Brandattitude is the customer’s evaluation of a commodity purchased withreference to the mentally formed opinion of its ability to meet arelevant motivation. Consumer attitude towards a brand is anoteworthy consideration for the marketer when developing a marketingstrategy (Dean, 2010). Percy &ampRossiter (2016) recognize general cognitive notion and beliefs thatinteracts with evaluation leading to formation of the brand concept.Brand attitude characteristics include relevant motivation at themoment, affective and cognitive elements, and relative constructs. Ifthe consumer attitude towards a brand is significantly high, due tothe changing needs and diverse preference, producers can develop newproducts using the brand’s name, a concept referred to as brandextension (Shahrokh,Sedghiani &amp Ghasemi, 2012).

Accordingto Perners (2010), consumer’s attitudes are composed of threecharacteristics beliefs about a brand, personal feelings andattachments (affect) and behavioral intentions towards the brandedobject. The three elements are closely linked and interdependent indetermining the attitude towards an object. Looking at the firstcomponent, beliefs, buyers may have affirmative of negative beliefsabout the same product. For instance, one consumer may have a goodfeeling about coffee while another may view coffee negatively due tothe staining effect it has once spilled on clothing. Some beliefs mayalso express neutrality. Beliefs affect the consumption habits of aparticular product. If, for example, a person believes that coffeeshould not be taken before sleep in a hot summer, whether thestatement is true or not may not change their action. Some beliefsare contradictory, creating complexity in getting at the bottom ofall beliefs that people may hold. The multi attribute model, whichuses an arithmetic expression, may be used to approximate overallattributes of a consumer by taking scores of the various components.

Additionally,consumers hold certain feelings as far as a certain brand isconcerned. These affects may or may not be influenced by dogmas held(Perners, 2010). For example, passionate environmentalists whobelieve that it is morally wrong to cut trees may have a positivefeeling on Christmas trees owing to the association of this tree tothe importance of the day and experience of Christmas as a child. Incontrast, the behavioral aspects tend to put aside both the beliefand the affect elements. What the consumer intend to do, or use thebrand for is prioritized and allowed to logically guide decision onthe course of action. For instance, a person who does not like takingcoffee at Star-Back may still walk in the joint to catch up withfriends who frequent the place. However, the behavioral attitude isinconsistent to a persons will and as a result it is not advancedfurther after the logical action that leads to it is satisfied.

Whenthe general perception about a brand is positive consumers developsaffection to the products creating loyalty. Research reveals thatpreference to a certain brand is based on beliefs and attitudesformed towards it. According to Yang &amp Wang (2010), brand loyaltycan be classified into four categories emotional loyalty, behavioralloyalty, intentional loyalty and cognitive loyalty. Loyalty may bedescribed as commitment held deeply that nurtures the tendency torebuy a preferred commodity in the future consistently with littleinfluence on prevailing market situations or marketing strategiesconducted by both the particular producers and the competitors. Oncebrand loyalty is developed, customers are more than willing topurchase the product repeatedly and to recommend others to do thesame.Deep commitment is observed where in spite of intensification ofcompetitor’s promotions and commercials, the buyers still maintainstheir habits and repeatedly purchase the same product. Sinceattitudinal measures are complex to make, behavioral approaches toquantification of brand royalty are often used (Bao,Sheng &amp Nkwocha, 2010).

Changingthe Various Forms of Attitudes

Onceloyalty to a brand has been established firmly, changing consumer’sattitude becomes an uphill task especially when it is evident thatthe competing brand motive is to increase its market share ratherthan offer a better product (Perser, 2010). However, tacticalmarketing strategy may succeed to alter the belief held by use ofaffective change. An ideal example may be use of classicalconditioning where a product is likened to something else thatconsumers like without necessarily trying to change their belief. If,for instance, a certain car brand is paired with beautiful women,certain consumers may develop a general good feeling about it whichmay create a desire to own one. The exposure effect popularizes theproduct, making its advertisements and commercial ads an effectiveway to popularize a brand. Once the consumer like the product enough,it is likely that they will buy it even though their belief abouttheir initial brand is unmoved.


Ifthe consumer attitude towards a brand is significantly high, due tothe changing needs and diverse preference, producers can develop newproducts using the brand’s name, a concept referred to as brandextension (Shahrokh,Sedghiani &amp Ghasemi, 2012). Brand extension employs competitiveedge of the business to produce totally different product class.Extension is particularly crucial when the parent brand expands tonew areas where consumer taste may differ significantly. For eachnewly developed brand, the parent name is adopted. Mohammadian &ampRhoghani (2011) argue that it would be illogical for a firm to spendhuge sums of money in developing a new product when it already has asuccessful brand in the market. Furthermore, the authors state thatthe essence of brand extension is to increase sales volume byventuring into new areas of diversification of the parent brand toreach consumers with varying needs within the same market.

Researchreveals that although benefits streaming from brand extension areextremely tempting due to the perceived competitive advantage, therate of failure is significantly high. Dense&amp DePelsmacker (2010), report that the failure rate is as high as80%. An alternative research revealed that the success rate of brandextension is basically less than 50%. Assuming that the brandfeatures are maintained, from the consumer’s perspective, extensionimplies equity of need satisfaction. During the exercise, the brandsymbols, name, image, and loyalty are highly emphasized. In anutshell, if the cost of introducing a new product is relatively low,brand extension can be a very profitable venture especially if themarket efficiencies are favorable.

Toassimilate a new product into their cognitive structure, consumersmust associate it to the brand they know (Dense&amp DePelsmacker, 2010). The degree of dependence of brand name tomake purchase decision is often controlled by the level of brandawareness and knowledge about the category in which the product islocated. Consumers generally rely on certain cues that act assurrogate indicators of quality of the product. When the level ofinformation that is identifiable is limited, the consumer is forcedto base on why they know about the parent brand. The reason why manycompanies employ extension can be largely explained by theunderstanding of the strong communication that a brand makes inpositioning the entity as a whole.


Inreference to the concept of attitude towards a brand, motivation isthe mechanism that aids relating a desired satisfaction to a brand,influencing purchase. Motivation may be positive or negative (Percy &ampRossiter, 2016). If a brand offers unique features and qualityservices are part to what is delivered, most buyers will experience apull to buy the same product again and again (American ManagementAssociation, 2010). Since the objectives of producers is to remain inthe market for as long as they possibly can and sell more than theircompetitors, understanding the drive behind consumer purchasinghabits is inevitable. Knowledge in incentives to buy is crucial inmaking ads as well as developing attitude towards a brand.


Involvementis among the most significant factors that influences buyer’sattitude towards a certain brand and purchasing process (Mashayekhi &ampKhodabakhs, 2014). The level of involvement required to buy certainproducts may be classified as either high or low depending on severalfactors. For example, when a person intends to buy an expensiveproduct, high level of involvement is required as this means spendinga relatively substantial amount of the disposable income. Inaddition, the perceived risk in a certain commodity will eitherrequire low or high involvement. Other elements crucial ininfluencing the level of involvement need include the relativeimportance of the good or service to the consumer and the length ofpurchase cycle- whether purchases are made daily, weekly, monthly orafter a number of years (Mashayekhi &amp Khodabakhs, 2014).


Theobjective of this study is to determine the role played in brandawareness in influencing decision to buy in both male and femaleconsumers. The study will employ use of primary data from the work ofRajput, Kesharwani &ampKhanna (2012). The authors conducted their research in India with theintention of determining whether gender plays any role in brandawareness and buying decision. The methodology used and the findingswill be explained and form a basis for making final recommendation ofthis study.

Inthe second part, the objective is to determine the role played bydifferent forms of motivation (positive or negative) in determiningthe consumers’ attitude towards the brand. The essence ofinvolvement in brand attitude development strategy will be keenlyscrutinized. To achieve these objectives, the primary work carriedout by Percy &ampRossiter (1992), will be utilized. The findings will be used to makerecommendations to marketers that can be used in advertising andmaking ads.

Thetwo objectives are interrelated once marketers understand whethergender plays any role in determining the purchasing habit, attitudedevelopment strategies can easily be formulated that will ensure thatthe target audience is reached adequately.

Objective1: Role Played by Consumer Brand Awareness and Gender in Purchasing


Questionnaireswere carefully developed to conduct the survey investigating theattitude and awareness of the consumers towards a number of selectedwell recognized apparel brands in India. To obtain the pre-determinedobjectives, both closed and open ended questions were included in thequestionnaires issued(Rajput, Kesharwani &ampKhanna, 2012).To aid rating of consumers perception of the various brands used forthe purpose of the research, a graded question was incorporated whererespondents were requested to indicate a rating of their preferredattributes that made the brand attractive. To access the consumerattitudes of branded apparel, psychographic tools were applied.Additionally, web and research from other articles coupled withsecondary sources were used to strengthen the weight of the researchfindings.

Questionnaireswere issued to 320 respondents all of whom were between 15 and 40years age bracket. The number of male participants was 162 and female158, which represents 50.6% and 49.4% respectively. The respondentswere from varying professional backgrounds, job seekers and studentswhich played a role in enhancing the diversity of the study. Quotasampling technique by use of gender and age was applied. Purchasedecision may differ among consumers with varying demographicalfactors, leading to differences in information search mechanism.

Forthe purpose of this research, the following hypotheses wereformulated:


Ho:Male and females do not have variances in brand awareness

Hi:Male and female brand awareness level have variances


Ho:Males are more likely to spend excessive amounts during shopping thanfemales

Hi:Males spend equal or less than female during shopping


Aftercollection of the questionnaires issued, the data collected wassummarized and organized in tables for ease of analysis. Theinformation pertaining to the first proposition was recorded in table1 below and that relating to the second hypothesis was recorded intable 2 and 3.

Hypothesis1: Gender versus Brand awareness Findings

Table 1

S. No


No. of males who know the brand

No. of females who know the brand










John players




Louise Philippe




Peter England




Allen Solly








Van Heusen



Note:Total respondents 320 males 162, females 158

Source:Rajput,Kesharwani &amp Khanna (2012).

Basedon the data collected, it is evident that both males and females havealmost equal level of brand awareness. In fact, the majority of casesshow less than 5% variation which is insignificant taking a 1 degreeof freedom in calculations. Following the research findings, the nullhypothesis was accepted and the alternative hypothesis rejected. Theconclusion reached was that gender factor does not play a role inbrand awareness as both males and females displayed equal level ofknowledge.

Hypothesis2: Gender versus shopping expenditure

Table 2



Below 5000



Above 25000




















Table 3: Chi-Square tests



Asymp.Sig (2-sided)

Likelihood Ratio




Pearson Chi-Square




Linear-by-linear association




Valid cases No.


Calculationof the significance level realized a figure greater than 0.05, whichmeans that the alternative hypothesis is to be rejected in favor ofthe null hypothesis. The null hypothesis stipulates that theexpenditure level of males is higher than that of females. By nature,females are more saving-oriented and prefer bargaining. Researchshows that women are more conservative spenders and are highlyfocused investors (Fisher, 2010). Men prefer spending their incomeson prestigious goods as this is of great essence to them.Furthermore, on average, men earn more than most females making itpossible for them to feed their consumption behaviors. As long asthey can afford, males make a buy decision more quickly than females,who are keener on prices. The conclusion for this part of theresearch is that on average, men spend more money during shoppingthan women. This is very crucial for brand strategists as it may bevery significant in developing attitudes towards a product.

Implicationsof the Awareness Research

Inthe apparel industry, branding is very critical as both males andfemales are very informed about the various types of products in themarket. The increased awareness is accompanied by people’s desireto spend any amount to purchase the best quality irrespective of theprices. Moreover, although little to no difference exist between maleand female brand knowledge level, men are more comfortable inpurchasing expensive commodities as long as the quality isguaranteed. Prestige and intrinsic pleasure are the major drivesaccounting for the tendency to developing an attitude towards acertain brand.

Objective2: Consumer’s Motivation and Involvement

Percy&amp Rossiter (1992), states that the motivation underlying consumerselection of a certain brand is largely divided into two categories:positive aspects and negative aspects. Positive factors includesensory gratification, social approval, and intellectual stimulation.The negative motives include problem avoidance, problem removal,incomplete satisfaction, and a mix approach that comprises of bothpositive and negative motives. The authors conducted broad researchbased on advertising factors that develops consumer attitude towardsa brand. They also analyzed in detail how involvement is critical inbrand attitude strategy development. The methodology and findingsthat Percy and Rossiter made form the basis of the next section ofthis research study.


Theauthors employed commonly used products to satisfy each motive toassess the efficiency of commercials. For instance, the motive behindconsumer’s use of aspirin is to relieve pain (problem avoidance). Abrand that removes that problem will attract a positive attitudetowards the product. The motive behind purchase of snickers candybars in the afternoon is to avoid hunger before dinner (problemavoidance). The authors conducted their research by analyzing thevarious strategies used by marketers in advertising. Two importantaspects that lead to making buying decisions were analyzedmotivation and involvement.

Themodel used by Percy &amp Rossiter (1992), looks at the consumersoverall brand evaluation putting into consideration the perceivedability to meet a prevailing motivation. The model recognizes andappreciates the role played by cognitive beliefs that interacts withthe mentioned evaluation of the brand to form comprehensivemotivation behavior of a buyer. The model requires that fourimportant aspects of brand attitude be recognized and put to use bythe marketer. First, attitude towards a brand is determined by thecurrently relevant motivation. Consequently, a change in a buyer’smotivation has the impact of being accompanied by a change in theevaluation of the brand. Secondly, both affective and cognitiveelements form an important part of brand attitudes. Behaviors areguided by the cognitive part which is also referred to as the logicalbelief, while the emotional feeling or the affective part powers thebehavior. Thirdly, multiple benefit beliefs may be composed in thecognitive part. These beliefs are not the attitude per se, but arethe main reasoning behind the attitude held about the brand. Lastly,the notion of brand is relative in its construction. What theconsumer seeks, in almost all the brands available for selection, isone that will meet his requirements and satisfy the need in the bestway possible. If a motivation to buy is in existence, a person willchoose the brand that best meets this motivation among thealternatives which they are aware of (Yang &amp Wang, 2010).

Involvement,on the other hand, affects the cognitive element that forms brandattitudes that guides purchase decision (Mashayekhi &amp Khodabakhs,2014). Involvement is categorized into two broad areas highinvolvement which requires the consumer to research for or besupplied with more information before making purchase decision andlow involvement, where prior experience through trial is critical indeveloping an attitude towards a brand. In formulating the later, themarketer assumes economic and psychological risk.

Intheir research, Percy &amp Rossiter (1992) identified eight basicmotives that lie in the affective component of consumer attitude.Five of them are negative while three are positive. The firstmotivation is the need to remove a problem which involves theconsumer seeking a solution. The second undesirable drive is theproblem avoidance which aims at eliminating chances of occurrence ofan anticipated problematic situation. The third incentive issatisfaction of a need that was previously not satisfied fully. Inthis case, the consumer may have utilized a different brand but wasunhappy and wishes to find a better product. The fourth ambitionwhich is still classified as a negative factor utilizes mixedapproach avoidance. The consumer may have used a product but realizesthat there are some benefits as well as disadvantages and wishes tofind a solution to the conflict between the two. The fifth motivationis as a result of normal depletion of the product. Once the consumeruses a product and is satisfied, seeking to maintain steady supply ona regular basis is inevitable.

Onthe affirmative side, the first motivation is the purpose to achievesensory gratification. The consumer strives for additionalpsychological enjoyment from the brand product (American ManagementAssociation, 2010). The second assenting drive is stimulationrelating to the consumer intellectual class. In this case, extrapsychological stimulation is usually the reasoning behind buyingdecision. Finally, the social approval aspect of a consumer steersthem towards seeking for any instances of gaining social rewards fromthe brand.

DataAnalysis and Suggestions

Intheir analysis of the impact of commercials on buying decisions,Percy &amp Rossiter (1992) classified the brand products into fourgroups based on two factors: the involvement level and themotivation. The type of decision made was affected by whether highinvolvement or low involvement level was applied or the underlyingdrive is positive (transformational) or negative (informational). Thenature of the product involved determines the combination of thelevel of involvement required from the marketer and the nature ofdrive experienced by the consumer. Based on these two factors,products can be grouped into four categories.

Forexample, consider an aspirin as one of the products under evaluation.For a consumer to make a buying decision, all they need isinformation about the product as the objective is to eliminate asuffering, which is classified under problem solving in the negativemotivations category. The level of involvement required here is lowand if the consumer has tried the product before, it forms sufficientgrounds for decision making. Having used the product aspirin at leastonce before implies that they can recall the impact it has upon itsuse. Other products that fall in this class include light beer,routine industrial products, and detergents. For emphasis purposes,brands that fall in this category require low level of involvementand informational negative drive (Percy &amp Rossiter, 1992).

Notall products that require low involvement falls in the negativemotivation classification. For instance, commodities such as soda,regular beer, cosmetics, and dessert snacks are transformational.They are used for enhancement purposes and as such, are positiveforms of motivation. Other products such as vacations, televisions,fashion clothing and fancy gadgets and cars require both high levelof involvement and positive drive combination (Percy &amp Rociter,1992). If the consumer is to make a decision, he needs to search andbe adequately convinced that the product will meet thetransformational impact desirable. Brands that produce products suchas professional calculations, housing and new industrial itemsrequire high involvement but lies in the negative driveclassification as they aim at problem reduction, avoidance, orelimination.

Thefindings can be summarized in a table as follows:

Type of Decision


Negative motivation



Affirmative drive


Low involvement

(Previous experience/trial experience is adequate in making purchase decision)

  • Aspirin

  • Detergents

  • Coffee

  • Regular industrial products

  • Soda

  • Cosmetics

  • Desserts and snacks

  • Regular beer

High level of


(Thorough search and conviction is involved before

purchase decision is made)

  • Housing

  • Cars

  • Professional calculators

  • Branded industrial products (new)

  • Vacations

  • Sports car

  • Plasma television

  • Fancy mobile gadgets

  • Fashion clothing

  • Corporate image

Figure1:Factors influencing purchasing decisions

Toformulate effective advertisements, marketers must first classify theitems in the classes in which they belong based on the motivationtype and level of involvement. For low involvement brand attitudeformation strategies, Percy &amp Rossiter (1992), suggest a numberof processes. To begin with, if the intended purpose is to portray acorrect emotion about the product, use of simple solution to problemsis highly recommended. The only way a consumer would utilize anadvert is if it offers solution to any of the negative driveshighlighted above in this study. Whether the people like the ad ornot is irrelevant. As long as it offers a solution to a certainconstraint, it will still be effective. Another strategy thatmarketers should employ in dealing with informational brand attitudedevelopment is use of adequate logical aids which the brand isperceived to deliver (Dean, 2010). In this approach, one or amultiple of benefits realizable from use of the product are covered.The emphasis must be on the benefits achievable, which should beexpressed in a single or several exposures.

Toillustrate the essence of underlying motivation, the researcher useda commercial made about candy bars. The basic thinking of a regularperson is that candy bars are popular because of their delicioustaste which constitutes satisfaction sensory motivation (Percy &ampRossiter, 1992). Sensory gratification lies under affirmative drivesand as such, it may be classified as affirmative rather than problemsolving. Upon further scrutiny however, the commercial on candy baradvises buyers to use it in the afternoon or evening before dinner.The new underlying incentive becomes avoidance of hunger just beforedinner is served. The nature of motivation changes from advancementto negative-hunger problem removal. In this advertisement, theproblem that needs solution that the candy bar readily offers is thelate-afternoon hunger before the main evening meal is served.

Attitudeof consumers towards a brand depend on a number of factors:Involvement, attitude towards a commercial, adequate support that thebrand delivers the perceived need and right levels of emotionalportrayal of the underlying motives. For instance, a rock star maynot be attracted by a super brand such as Roll Royce since they donot involve themselves with such products. This suggests that thelevel of involvement is an important element in influencing thepurchasing decision. Brand marketers must develop a strategy thatinvolves attitude classification depending on cognition from both theproduct and the target audience.

Percy&amp Rossiter (1992) reports on a successful application in acommercial that involved use of logic around low involvement aimed ata large audience. In ordinary circumstance, choosing an aspirin brandconstitute an area of low involvement. However, in this particularadvertisement, a buyer capitalized on a recent commercial thatappeared on television suggesting that use of aspirin is helpful intreating heart problems. The commercial, however, altered themotivation to positive by using a man who had suffered from heartattack just a few days before his wife, who is featured in a deliveryroom, had a baby. By using this form of advertisement, the sellertargets an area with high involvement market segment. Thus, both thelow involvement and the high involvement can be reached through thesame commercial if it is well formulated and implemented. What isimperative in this research is that brand attitude strategy is acombination of interrelated involvement and motivation which has tobe specific depending on the market targeted and the audience.

Puttingfocuses on the tactics of involvement for informational / reductionstrategies of attitudes towards brands, if the marketer’sobjectives are to portray a correct emotional drive, this should bedone early during the introduction stage of the new brand in themarket (Percy &amp Rossiter, 1992). The audience acceptance of themain points is mandatory irrespective of whether the ad is likable tothem or not. Consideration to the initial attitude of the targetedaddressees towards the brand should be the overriding factor.Refutation may be applied when some audiences show outrightobjection. When the competitors brand is well established,comparative approach of advertising may be applied. However, thisshould be done fairly as it may constitute unfair competition that isillegal in some localities (Perners, 2010).

Forhigh involvement advertising strategy which is aimed at transformingthe attitudes towards the brand, emotional motivation displayed mustbe authentic as this is paramount and should be designed in line withthe lifestyle of the targeted subject (Bao, Sheng &amp Nkwocha,2010). Several high involvement transformational strategies must beemployed during the advertisement process and adequate informationprovided. It is preferably better to overclaim the attributes in abrand than to under claim. Repetition is necessary as it serves animportant role in build-up stage.

Implicationsand Suggestions

Wehave observed that consumer awareness is key element to developmentof attitudes that may either lead to increased demand for a certainbrand or vice versa. Rampton (2015) points out five modern strategiesthat marketers can employ to increase the consumer’s awareness of abrand. To begin with, an international corporation or any entitywhose products are sold in an extended geographical region should andmust have a website that details the basic and sophisticatedqualities of products or commodities under the brand. Blogs may alsobe employed to reach broad market and interaction with consumers.These sites need to be spiced up with infographics, relevantarticles, videos and influential brand ambassadors’ commercials andmessages.

Thesecond strategy is use of as many social media platforms as possible.Consumers spend a substantial amount of their time in social mediawhere they also share videos, pictures and messages about fascinatingthings in their world. Utilizing such platforms imply that a lot ofpeople can be reached easily. Additionally, companies must beconsistent in their use of logo, design, colors and personality inall the media and channels employed in advertising or popularizingthe brand. Finally, optimization of key words, metadata, and titletags should be employed at every stage. Proper use of thesestrategies is critical in creation of a unique personality associatedwith the brand (Rampton, 2015).

Multi-attributemodel may also be employed in the study of attitude, especially whencertain beliefs held by the consumers are known. To develop aninternational brand, the attributes used must be an aggregateobtained from all market locations (Perners, 2010). Multi attributemodel uses weights to establish the importance of a factor indetermining a consumer behavior. Using an example of Nike’ssneakers, if a person is asked to rate the shoes in terms of durablelife and fairness in pricing, the weighted aggregate belief will beobtained by multiplying the score of the two attributes. Assumingthat the scale ranges from 1-10, where 1 means the least, 5 impliesaverage and 10 represents the highest score, if a buyer gives a scoreof 7 to durable life and 6 to fairness in pricing, the weightedaverage belief is 7(6)= 42. Since the maximum expected belief is10(10) = 100, it implies that the attitude of the consumer towardsthe brand is relatively weak.


Thiswork has revealed the essence of brand in marketing, consumers’attitude development, and impact of involvement in consumerpurchasing decision. Creating awareness about the existence of aproduct by popularizing significant attributes is an essentialpublicizing tool. The research shows that gender does not playsubstantial role in brand awareness but there are differences interms of shopping habits of males and females. Men are more likely topurchase expensive commodities for psychological gratification whilewomen are extra conservative. In addition, the second part of theresearch has clearly revealed the essence of motivation indetermining attitudes towards a brand and ultimately affectingpurchasing decisions. Marketers must understand the differencebetween informational and transformational drives. The level ofinvolvement in a product matched with the correct drive willeventually play crucial role in success of ads on the targetaudience.


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