Genetics and Malignancy

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Geneticsand Malignancy

Geneticsand Malignancy

Significanceof History of Grandmother

Genetics plays a crucial role when it comes to the concept of diseaseand its transmission across generations. The history of the maternalgrandmother provides information regarding the predisposition of JMto being affected by breast cancer. Genetics entails the transmissionof hereditary information from parents to offspring (McCance, &ampHuether, 2015). If JM’s mother inherited the genes that predisposeone to breast cancer, the chances arethat she would be affected by the condition(Shiovitz &amp Korde, 2015). It is essential that knowledgeregarding the maternal grandmother’s historyis provided. It would provide an idea as to whether JM was at risk ofdeveloping breast cancer. Because the maternal grandmother wasdiagnosed with breast cancer, the chances are that the followingmembers down the lineage could have a high chance of being affectedby the illness. The history serves as awarning factor for JM to take caution and monitor her condition earlyenough for timely intervention suppose she was diagnosed with breastcancer.

Significanceof Cystic Breasts

Cystic breasts occur in nearly 50% ofwomen (Kerlikowske et al., 2015). Theirpresence should not be a significant cause of alarm since itis normal. However, in exceptional conditions, it could make breastcancer detection challenging. Benign tumors fail to spread to otherbody parts. Malignant tumors are cancerous and their cells tend togrowth uncontrollably (Chaffer, &amp Weinberg, 2011). The cells havethe ability to invade the neighboring cells and spread to differentparts of the body as determined by specific signals. The cells moveaway and initiate growth at such regions.

Significanceof Birth Control Pill History, Late Child Birth, and Breast FeedingHistory

Knowledge regarding the three identified factors serves as a groundto determine the overall hormonal condition of JM and herpredisposition to the development ofbreast cancer. Some birth control pillshave been associated with the onset ofthe malignant tumor (Ehsanpour, Nejad,Rajabi, &amp Taleghani, 2013). Birth control pills contain thehormones estrogen and progestogen (Plu-Bureau, Maitrot-Mantelet,Hugon-Rodin, &amp Canonico, 2013). When ingested, they inhibit thefemale fertility. The use of such drugs has been linked to thedevelopment of cancer. High estrogen enables the cancerous cells togrow and spread. Breast cancer cells have receptors that can bindestrogen facilitating their growth. A history of birth control pillsfor the patient confirms the high possibility of development andprogression of breast cancer in the patient.

Equally, late birth predisposes one to the development of cancer.During the late stage, cancerous cells tend to be more responsive tothe estrogen (Baumgarten, &amp Frasor, 2012). It could explain thehigh chances the patient had over development of breast cancer.Finally, women who breastfeed for a long duration of time have a lesschance of development of breast cancer (Ban, &amp Godellas, 2014).It is because there is a decrease in menstrual cycles meaning a lowamount of estrogen is produced. The effect is a reduction in thedevelopment of breast cancer.


The metastasis is likely to occur through blood vessels to variousdistant. Specifically, it can metastasize to the lungs, liver, andbones (Scully, Bay, Yip, &amp Yu, 2012). Upon entry into thecirculation, the cancerous cells can then proceed to invade othercells that have potential to facilitate their growth. They get totumor cells where they continue to multiply and form a detectabletumorous cell. Metastasis can be portrayed as a hallmark of cancerand serves to distinguish the malignancy from a benign tumor(Chaffer, &amp Weinberg, 2011). Metastasis occurs especially duringlate stage cancer. Various factors are associated with metastasis.Malignant cells break from the original primary tumor and degradeproteins making up the extracellular matrix facilitating its escape.Cancer cells spread to tissues that facilitate their growth.Specificity is defined by chemokines (Chaffer, &amp Weinberg, 2011).

In conclusion, JM should take medical measures to help her manage thecondition. Periodic checks will help monitor progress of the diseaseand help in timely interventions.


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Baumgarten, S. C., &amp Frasor, J. (2012). Minireview: inflammation:an instigator of more aggressive estrogen receptor (ER) positivebreast cancers. Molecular Endocrinology, 26(3),360-371.

Chaffer, C. L., &amp Weinberg, R. A. (2011). A perspective on cancercell metastasis. Science, 331(6024), 1559-1564.

Ehsanpour, S., Nejad, F. S. A., Rajabi, F. M., &amp Taleghani, F.(2013). Investigation on the association between breast cancer andconsumption patterns of combined oral contraceptive pills in thewomen of Isfahan in 2011. Iranian Journal of Nursing and MidwiferyResearch. Retrieved from

Kerlikowske, K., Zhu, W., Tosteson, A. N. A., Sprague, B. L., Tice,J. A., Lehman, C. D., &amp Miglioretti, D. L. (2015). Identifyingwomen with dense breasts at high risk for interval cancer: a cohortstudy. Annals of Internal Medicine, 162(10), 673–681.

McCance, K. L., &ampHuether, S. E. (2015). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis fordisease in

adults andchildren. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Plu-Bureau, G., Maitrot-Mantelet, L., Hugon-Rodin, J., &ampCanonico, M. (2013). Hormonal contraceptives and venousthromboembolism: an epidemiological update. Best Practice &ampResearch Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism, 27(1),25-34.

Scully, O. J., Bay, B., Yip, G., &amp Yu, Y. (2012). Breast CancerMetastasis. Cancer Genomics and Proteomics, 9, 311–320.

Shiovitz, S., &amp Korde, L. A. (2015). Genetics of breast cancer: Atopic in evolution. Annals of Oncology, 26(7),1291–1299.

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