Significanceof History of Grandmother
Genetics plays a crucial role when it comes to the concept of diseaseand its transmission across generations. The history of the maternalgrandmother provides information regarding the predisposition of JMto being affected by breast cancer. Genetics entails the transmissionof hereditary information from parents to offspring (McCance, &Huether, 2015). If JM’s mother inherited the genes that predisposeone to breast cancer, the chances arethat she would be affected by the condition(Shiovitz & Korde, 2015). It is essential that knowledgeregarding the maternal grandmother’s historyis provided. It would provide an idea as to whether JM was at risk ofdeveloping breast cancer. Because the maternal grandmother wasdiagnosed with breast cancer, the chances are that the followingmembers down the lineage could have a high chance of being affectedby the illness. The history serves as awarning factor for JM to take caution and monitor her condition earlyenough for timely intervention suppose she was diagnosed with breastcancer.
Significanceof Cystic Breasts
Cystic breasts occur in nearly 50% ofwomen (Kerlikowske et al., 2015). Theirpresence should not be a significant cause of alarm since itis normal. However, in exceptional conditions, it could make breastcancer detection challenging. Benign tumors fail to spread to otherbody parts. Malignant tumors are cancerous and their cells tend togrowth uncontrollably (Chaffer, & Weinberg, 2011). The cells havethe ability to invade the neighboring cells and spread to differentparts of the body as determined by specific signals. The cells moveaway and initiate growth at such regions.
Significanceof Birth Control Pill History, Late Child Birth, and Breast FeedingHistory
Knowledge regarding the three identified factors serves as a groundto determine the overall hormonal condition of JM and herpredisposition to the development ofbreast cancer. Some birth control pillshave been associated with the onset ofthe malignant tumor (Ehsanpour, Nejad,Rajabi, & Taleghani, 2013). Birth control pills contain thehormones estrogen and progestogen (Plu-Bureau, Maitrot-Mantelet,Hugon-Rodin, & Canonico, 2013). When ingested, they inhibit thefemale fertility. The use of such drugs has been linked to thedevelopment of cancer. High estrogen enables the cancerous cells togrow and spread. Breast cancer cells have receptors that can bindestrogen facilitating their growth. A history of birth control pillsfor the patient confirms the high possibility of development andprogression of breast cancer in the patient.
Equally, late birth predisposes one to the development of cancer.During the late stage, cancerous cells tend to be more responsive tothe estrogen (Baumgarten, & Frasor, 2012). It could explain thehigh chances the patient had over development of breast cancer.Finally, women who breastfeed for a long duration of time have a lesschance of development of breast cancer (Ban, & Godellas, 2014).It is because there is a decrease in menstrual cycles meaning a lowamount of estrogen is produced. The effect is a reduction in thedevelopment of breast cancer.
The metastasis is likely to occur through blood vessels to variousdistant. Specifically, it can metastasize to the lungs, liver, andbones (Scully, Bay, Yip, & Yu, 2012). Upon entry into thecirculation, the cancerous cells can then proceed to invade othercells that have potential to facilitate their growth. They get totumor cells where they continue to multiply and form a detectabletumorous cell. Metastasis can be portrayed as a hallmark of cancerand serves to distinguish the malignancy from a benign tumor(Chaffer, & Weinberg, 2011). Metastasis occurs especially duringlate stage cancer. Various factors are associated with metastasis.Malignant cells break from the original primary tumor and degradeproteins making up the extracellular matrix facilitating its escape.Cancer cells spread to tissues that facilitate their growth.Specificity is defined by chemokines (Chaffer, & Weinberg, 2011).
In conclusion, JM should take medical measures to help her manage thecondition. Periodic checks will help monitor progress of the diseaseand help in timely interventions.
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