Formativeand Summative Assessments that Align to ELD Standards and SDAIE
Formativeand Summative Assessments that Align to ELD Standards and SDAIE
Theproficiency level descriptors is a representative of the Englishlanguage development as the continuation of the skill improvement inlearning the language use, beginning with the mother tonguecompetencies that are possessed by the learners when they get toschool and concluding with the lasting language learning that isengaged by the language users. The three levels that are labeledrepresents the stages of ELD which describe the prospects on how bestthe student can use and understands the linguistic at every stage asthey progress to improve the skills of language and knowledge(Harris,2015). Thethree stages of English development levels include
Astudent in the Emerging stage- atthis level, the learner is typically progressing quickly by learninghow to use the English language for the needs that are immediate aswell as starting to comprehend and apply the educational language andother academic language characteristics.
Astudent in the Expanding stage- Atthis level of learning, the student are more challenged to increasetheir skills in terms of language in varied context and learning awider variety of the vocabulary and the structures of the linguisticsputting in practice the language practice competencies in the waysthat are more refined that is suitable to the age and the equal ofgrade.
Astudent in the Bridging stage of language acquisition- duringthis stage, students linger to learn and put into practice a varietyof high-level English language expertise in an extensive range ofcontext which comprises understanding and the production of themethodological texts of the highest caliper. The term bridgereferred to is a changeover to the packed involvement in score levelacademics errands and the actions in a variety of contents areas withno desire for the dedicated English language development instruction.But the learners of English at entire stages of English expertiseparticipate completely in the task of score level in the entiregratified areas with fluctuating level of degrees of support to growboth the content language and English.
Nevertheless,the proficiency level descriptors put more emphasis that the Englishlearners at the various levels of proficiency are able of thinkingthat is of great level and can take part in the multifaceted,cognitively challenging and the actions of academic that requireslanguage so long as they are given the linguistic support that isappropriate for the learning. However, the support extent that isrequired varied depending on the complexity and familiarity of thetopic and task as well as the proficiency level if the Englishlanguage of the student. Within the level of proficiencydescriptors, the 3 broad levels of support are recognized asconsiderable, light and moderate. The descriptors for the universalstages of provision are anticipated to signify the level of languagesupport that is most probable required for the executing the CAEnglish Learning Development criteria suitable at each level ofproficiency. They are not supposed to elucidate how to givesustenance or distinguish lessons for the English learners ate everylevel.
Formativeor summative assessment that aligns to the ELD standard
Integratinginto evocative ways- thissection provides a mark level CA English Learning Developmentstandard that gives the expectations for the learners of English totake part in relevant, eloquent and knowledgeably thought-provokingways in many settings in the models such as the productive,interpretive and collaborative.
Eruditionabout how English operate- thispart concentrates on the means in which the students of Englishhypothesize awareness about the available wealth for them in languagedevelopment. The manner in which the English language is structuredand organized and the way it can be made meaningful by use of thelanguage choices to enhance their ability to understand and come upwith the theoretical texts in the many content regions. The segmentis organized in the following methods of consuming linguistic to beused to the actions in the 3 models in part one. That is expanding,cohesive texts and inspiring ideas, connecting and shorteningthoughts.
Usingfoundation literateness skills-this part is separately delivered to help educators with thenecessary needs to offers instructions that are specialized to thelearners of English which assist in the development of the foundationliteracy skills. The specialized instructions are continuouslyupdated by integrating the standards of reading such as thefoundation literacy skills, cognitive level, and the previouseducational attainment or literacy skills. The foundation literacyskills are meant for guiding instructions for students in lowerlevels of learning such as the kindergarten to the fifth grade.Therefore they need to be adapted for the use of the suitableinstructional materials and strategies to encounter the intendedliteracy needs of English learning at an advanced level.
TheSDAIEclassroom strategies that are applicable include
Metacognitivedevelopment-the strategy provides the learners with the skills and vocabulary totalk about learning. The approach helps the students to put intopractice the learned skills and vocabulary through vocabularyassignments and self-assessment techniques. The continuousapplication of the policy will provide the students with the revisionmaterials that they can revisit in future to familiarize themselveswith the concepts that were learned previously.
Bridging-this helps in the establishment of the links between the studentprior knowledge and the material. The students can now compare thecurrent knowledge with their previous one hence can be able toidentify the difference and the areas of improvement. Also, thelearner can gauge him/herself by setting a goal to be achieved in agiven future period with the available resources and the existingenvironment. Therefore the necessary controls will be employed by thestudent to ensure that the target is achieved. For instance thinkpair share, anticipatory charts, and quick writers.
Schemabuilding-this strategy helps the student to identify the difference betweenvarious concepts during the learning of the language. For instance,compare and contrast, peer teaching, jigsaw learning, and theprojects. Therefore the learners can differentiate what is necessaryfor learning and be the role model for the other to copy. Thestrategy develops a sort of behavior where the other learners canemulate to attain their learning goals.
Contextualization-it helps the student to get familiarize with the learned conceptsthrough the direct life experience. The strategy acts as the reminderof what had taken place initially in the life of the learner orwithin the context in which the learner was present. Examples of suchstrategy ideas include the demonstration, manipulation, media,repetition and the opportunities that are found locally.
Representation-this is inviting the students to put into practice the understandingof the text and applies them in a new way. The learners, in thiscase, can apply the theoretical knowledge gained in the classroom andplay them practically in the real life situation to see itsusefulness. It is important in the language learning as the studentscan have a clear replicate what has been learned in the class and useit to improve its life. Examples of the representation include games,videos, and the creation of drawings by the students.
Modeling-speaking clearly and slowly modifying the language that you requirethe student to use and give samples of the work done by the students.The strategy will help the learners gain adequate knowledge onpracticing the language use. Therefore, the students can get theconcept clearly and integrate the knowledge learned in the classroomto the real-life situation.
Adescription of how and when you would implement the assessment
Inasmuchas there could be a time edge for every phase of language attainmentand assessment, the period spends by the student will vary with thestudent. For instance, it is possible to ask the reproductionscholars “where is…?”” or “who has ….?” queries. Theseare the queries that need circling, drawing, directing answer. It isalso right to ask the students at the reproduction stage a questionso frequently that calls for a one-word reply since they are requiredto transition them to the subsequent stage. This can take placewithin the first six months as the students have minimalcomprehension, are not in a position to verbalize, make drawings andpoints and nods ‘yes’ and ‘no’.
Forthe students in the early production, those queries that want aone-word reply which include YES or NO and whichever question areconsidered. The teacher can begin assessing the students by askingthe students the questions that need short sentence or phrases. Thisassessment should be carried out between the first six months and oneyear as the scholar has limited understanding, produces one ortwo-word response, uses keywords and phrases that are familiar andthe tense used is the present verb.
Inthe assessment of the emergence speech students, they should be askedto provide a response to the questions that calls for the shortsentence answers. Also, it is also advisable to ask these students togive a response to the question that requires numerous sentenceanswer but not advisable to ask them those queries that require aone-word response or pointing responses. The assessment should becarried out between the first and the three years as the students atthis stage have good comprehension, can make errors grammatically andduring pronunciation, they can produce sentences though theymisunderstand jokes in most cases.
Nevertheless,in carrying out an assessment of the students at the middle andfluency level, it is advisable to ask them queries that need a lot ofspoken output nonetheless is not appropriate to ask those questionsnecessitating insignificant verbal production. The assessment of theintermediate fluency students should carry out between three and fiveyears since they have excellent comprehension and the grammaticalerrors made are minimal. Some of the queries that can be askedinclude ‘what would happen if….?’ On the other hand, theadvanced fluency students should be asses between year five and sevenof the learning. At this stage, the student has a near-native speechin language. The students can be asked to decide if….. Or retell anepisode without excluding any important aspect on the plot…
Therelevance of the assessment to the corresponding stage of languageacquisition
Anybodythat has been where the children that are learning to talkunderstands that the learning is a process. First, the child mustlearn the language, then utterance of the words, two-word phrases,and the cycle continues. For the case of the students that arelearning the second language, they move through the five stages thatare predictable. That is the production, early production, emergenceof speech, intermediate fluency and the advanced fluency (Matas,2015). The speed at which the student progress through these stagesis dependent on some of the factors that comprise the level of formaleducation, the background of the family and the period at which thestudent have been in the country. It is vital that the instructionsare tied to for every student to every stage of language attainment.The importance of knowing this info concerning the students helps theteacher to work at the level of proximal development of the learner.This can, therefore, contribute to bridging the slit amid what thepupils can learn on their own and what they can learn with the aid ofthe teacher or more informed individual.
Nevertheless,teachers should also gain insights into their stages of the studentsof the subsequent language attainment to meet the necessities of 2001No Child Left Behind Act that requires English language learners toadvance in their content information and the proficiency in theirEnglish verbal.
Howfamily and community support can assist the student in preparationfor the assessment
Thecommunityand family play a significant role in preparing the student for theassessment to determine if the language learning is moving asexpected. Some of the ways that the community and family can performto help in the assessment of the students include the following
Connectingfamilies and the schools in the homework help
Familymemberscan help the student with the homework that is given in the school.They can assist in the literacy skills hence the student can be ableto read and write. The involvement of the family members will ensurethat the student`s concerns are addressed both at home and in theschool. The student can then get motivated to work hard as per themotivation received from the both ends. In addition to the help givento the student in the homework, they can provide them with thenecessary reading materials that can contribute to improving thelanguage skills. They can also advise the teacher on the weakness ofthe student and the best way the child can be handled since studentscome from diverse settings and have different cultural beliefs.Therefore, the teacher can have a plan that is in line with the needsof the student.
Connectingthe schools, community and family assist in the effective reforms.
Theconnection between the school, community, and the family help incoming up with the viable improvements. The community and the familycan identify the weaknesses of a student established in the learningprocess of the students as they interact in the community. They will,therefore, recommend some recommendation to the school and providethe necessary resources that can aid in the assessment of thestudents. The school can thus align their assessment needs with theguidance of the family and community. Also, the community and thefamily can assist in the provision of the necessary resources thatare vital for the running of the school which includes theassessment.
Thefamily and community can help the can involve the student in theco-curriculum activities that help the students practice thelanguage. Since the English language is the language of communicationamong various communities, the instruction that will be passed to thestudents using weekends while undertaking their community work canhelp boost the language confidence with the students. Since the taskperformed are repeated, the students will get used with the bestcommunication strategies to handle a particular issue. In theinstances where the students are not getting the concept well, theycan learn it through looking what the other community members andfamily members are doing. Also, they can be given a furtherexplanation using simple language and demonstration that can beeasily understood. The students can, therefore, borrow the skill frombeing involved in the community function thus making it easier duringthe assessment. They can also engage the students learning theEnglish language in community competitions that help in assessing thestudent understanding of the language. The teacher can thus use theoutcome to gauge the best strategies that can assist in the processof assessment.
Harris,Y. M. (2015). Instructionalproficiency strategies for middle school English LanguageLearners (Doctoraldissertation, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA).
Matas,A. (2015). DLE 915A: Teaching and Learning in the Content Area: ELD &SDAIE Methods.