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27 February 2020

Invasionby European Colonies in North America

Newworld was a term used to describe the western hemisphere of theplanet specifically Americas. This phrase was developed in earlysixteenth century when the Europeans invaded North America. Theinfiltration led to what is referred to as Americas in discovery age.The following essay discusses four questions regarding the invasionof the European into North American territory.


AsEurope leaders and adventurers’ comprehension of the New World cameinto focus, their perspective changed as well. No longer was NorthAmerica simply an obstacle on the way to the Orient. The move markedthe stage of fixation. Following the establishment of an initialsettlement that served as an entrepot, the European investorsexplored the interior of American continent to search for valuablesincluding silver and gold. Unfortunately, vast bullions that werefound did not extend further towards the North. Therefore, animalproducts such as beaver pelts, cod, and timber ended up beingvaluable for the explorers. They sent the yields back to theircontinent in exchange of manufactured supplies enough to sustain thesmall population of the New World. Trade in North America becameincredibly diverse. North America was no longer an obstacle but heldits very own potential as a wealth hub (Coltenand Geoffrey 29).


TheSpanish had secured large gold stores as well as convertingTenochtitlan into their capital city. The territory served as aviceroyalty of New Spain. France did however show little interest inthe New World. The country strived to search for a shortcut to theAsian continent. According to Coltenand Geoffrey, theFrench merchants agreed to set up permanent settlements which theywere ready to exchange with the fur-trading and fishing rights (37).The British on the other hand, claimed Virginia as their most prizedpossession due to the local farmer’s success in growing andexporting tobacco. All these were economical appeals by the New Worldto the three powerful colonies. Question 3

Thetext just mentions the other immigrating European groups for instancethe Danes, Dutch, Germans, Swedes, Scots, and the Finns. Theseminorities did not play much role in the colonization of theAmericas. Their influence was not highly felt compared to that of theBritons, French and the Spanish Smith supports this when he claimsthat “The British forces expelled the Dutch intruders and createdthe charter colony of New York” (Coltenand Geoffrey 43).

.These groups mostly migrated in search of land and wealth that waspresent in Americas but not to influence the local politics. Thethree main colonies were powerful and they controlled many activitiesin America.


Adaptingto unfamiliar environment was also harsh to the colonial population.The successes of the Britons and their dominance in America comparedto their French and Spanish counterparts, were due to their chiefobjective of transplanting several aspects of their society to thenew world. The British colonies introduced institutions whichpromoted their cultural, political and religious practices. Unlikethe French and Spanish colonies, the British settlers originated fromall walks of life. They intended to set up permanent residents in theNew World. Social influence of the British became prevalent and thiswas evident with some communities approaching the administrators foradvice, decision making and for interaction. Religious influence wasevident since several groups sought the foreigners to seek religioustolerance.

Theyalso exercised political control in North America by establishingSavannah and Georgia which were used to deter the French and Spanishincursions into the Carolinas territory. The British had threedistinct colonies namely royal, corporate and proprietary (Colten,and Geoffrey 46).The corporate one undertook its operation under King’s charter.They secured thirteen regions whereby three were proprietary and twocorporate. The King assumed total control of the remaining eight.


Iagree that globalization started five centuries ago when theEuropeans invaded North America to explore and search for wealth. Thepolitical, cultural and social situation in Canada and United Statesin today’s life was relatively shaped by the European groups whosettled in the area (Coltenand Geoffrey 45).The colonialists from Europe established a host society whereby thesubsequent communities would integrate.


Colten,Craig E, and Geoffrey L. Buckley.&nbspNorthAmerican Odyssey: Historical Geographies for the Twenty-FirstCentury., 2014. Web.

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27 February 2020

Triumph:The Untold Story of Jesse Owens and Hitler`s Olympics

Themain idea of the book is unity. Schaap defines how sports can bringpeople together in the face of social division. A prime example iswhere Hitler hosts the 1936 Olympics. The games were expected to bethe striking stage whereby the ideology of Nazi regarding racialsuperiority was to be manifested for the whole world to see (Schaap14). At a critical time in the history of the world, Nazism was to beupheld for the entire universe, roughly a galvanizing declaration onhow humankind should perceive the racial disparity (Schaap 105).Jesse, son of the Black sharecroppers who originated from the South,a region that was racially segregated, came out on this stage. Hissuccession during the Olympic Games exhibited fundamental flaws inthe Nazi ideology of social supremacy. A provocative light was shoneon the racial segregation present in countries like America by such acircumstance.

Theathletic ability of Jesse transformed into a rather politicalstatement and was an instant where the idea that athletics can be asource of unity in a universe full of divisions. The triumph of Jesseshould was not only perceived as a victory but a proof of how aplaying arena could express excellent displays. The exhibitiontranscended race, power as well as class. Through these instances,the author portrays the idea of how athletics’ purity may act as anantidote to venom existing in social orders that lead tomarginalization and exclusion (Schaap 133).

Inaddition, during the sports, Jesse was befriended by a rival. LuzLong, a German athlete helped Owen to obtain a gold medal from theOlympics despite their racial differences. The German had the notionthat their countryman was supposed to compete fiercely against Owenrather than helping him win (Schaap 138). The sports eliminated theobstacles and prejudices and the German assisted to Jesse claim fourgold medals. Schaap intends to cut through apocryphal stories thatsprang up in the event of Jesse’s record-breaking Olympics’performance. Hitler snubs Owen by failing to congratulate him. Theleader was known for segregating black athletes. The African-Americanin most cases grew up in poverty, and Owen was no exception.According to Schaap, he pumped gas for long hours just to ensure thathe meets his family’s needs (135). This form of discrimination bythe state and failure to be awarded a scholarship while in secondaryschool despite portraying good performance shows his alienation tothe state. However, after succeeding in the athletics, the staterecognizes him thus presenting another example of a relationshipunified by sports.

Anotherexample indicating how discrimination is neutralized by sports iswhereby Owen is accused of illegally gaining money from Ohio’slegislature. According to Schaap, Jesse also faced scrutiny from thestate of on questions relating to the genetic advantage ofAfrican-American athletes (16). The same state that put theaccusations later opted to unite with the athlete after he won medalsin the Olympics. Also, the state had stipulated that it was notethical for African-Americans to participate in these games. Theargument was evident through how the players were snubbed by thegovernment only to be recognized for bringing honor to the country.

Myprimary criticism of the book lies in its flow. Schaap gets offtopic. Although he wanted to provide some background information onthe existing social feeling, he sometimes strays from the Olympics. Also, the author clipped so much from the magazines and newspapers.It is also debatable when the author claims that was born in Ohiowhile other sources provide is Alabama is his native state.


Schaap,Jeremy.&nbspTriumph:The Untold Story of Jesse Owens and Hitler`s Olympics.Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2007. Print.

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27 February 2020

MediaInteraction with Olympics

Inrecent times, Olympic Games have emerged to be popular events in theworld. Various sporting activities have not only entertained peoplebut improved the lifestyle of the participants and the financialpositions of media firms. The institutions have turned to Olympics togenerate seasonal revenue. As Taylor observes, “Giventhat it represents one of the few opportunities for reach that runsinto the hundreds of millions in addition to having a historicaltheme of international unity, the Olympics are a particularlyexciting event for the global advertising community”(459).Instagram,Facebook and television stations for instance make a kill during theevents. Does media has a significant role to play or they justparticipate in these events to generate money? The following essaydiscusses the function of the media during the Olympic Games.


England,Canada, America, Australia and other first world nations use socialmedia to ensure supporters feel much closer to the heroesrepresenting their countries. In addition, various sports personnelhave indicated how followings on the social platforms have motivatedto achieve their objectives. The athletes also claim that they workextra hard due to the knowledge that their supporters are watching.To avoid disapproval at home and around the world, they strive tocompete fiercely.

MediaPlatforms Promoting Olympic Events

Theinformative platforms play an instrumental role in creating awarenessof Olympic events worldwide. People from across the world can viewthe schedules and get information on their favorite athletes (Grieset al., 213) Fans from different countries can also follow theresults of all the events even if they do not witness theirhappening. Without information sources including the televisionFacebook and Snapchat, it would be impossible to follow the liveactivities from home. To create such awareness, several companiesvolunteer to sponsor the events

Thecompanies are known to people worldwide since the events are aired bythese television stations. Prior to the opening day of the games,channels advertise the event in a manner that everyone watching themwould long for its commencement. The way the opening-ceremony ispresented on various channels, makes the event colorful promptingsome people to allow all the activities till the end.

Mediaas a platform of airing opinions

Priorto the games, the media engages various professionals to comment andgive their opinions on the upcoming acidities. Consequently, afeeling of yearning builds up among the fans. The news on mostchannels and the social platforms provides the public with a chanceto develop various predictions of the scheduled events. Individualsgive their verdict in various topics including the preparedness ofthe host nation, the current political situation and the climaticconditions. Equal criticism is aired through the media, whereby someparticipating nations may be accused of cases such as doping,participants having health issues like flu viruses or Ebola virus.

InRio, for instance, the prevalence of Zika virus that was experiencedearlier this year saw various media houses interviewing stakeholdersto derive their opinions on the safety of the participants. Despitethe criticism, Olympic committee through the same media reclaimed thecountry’s image by providing credible statistics on the trends ofthe disease. Social media is one of the ways people across the globecatch up with various events at the Olympics. The supporters,irrespective of their geographical locations and distance from thehost, are able to update each other using these platforms . In theOlympics, almost every participant has an account in which they cancommunicate with their supporters. The participants are also able toinform their fans how well prepared they are for major events. Thereare numerous trends on twitter relating to various sporting eventsduring Olympic Games. Some of the tweets by people include opinions,results, the medal tallies and breaking of records. The NationalOlympic Committee of various nations and participants also posts suchinformation on their pages to update people.

TheMedia as a Source of Employment

DuringOlympics various media firms increase their man power to cover mostof the activities. In most cases, more employment journalists andcamera men is done. They travel to the host countries and follow theevents taking place. They send information and pictures to thepeople back in their country through live recordings and reporting.The journalists also interview the participants, the committeesinvolved and members of the public who are present in the stadiums.The public also provide views and their opinions become sources ofinformation for columns in different platforms. In most cases ifthere were no such events, the institutions would have stuck withtheir usual number of journalists. By employing young people, thesefirms give individuals a chance to polish their skills.

TheMedia Determines the Success of Olympics

Discussionsover the social media channels and over the web mostly determine thesuccess of the event. Most stakeholders claim the eminence of thegames is evaluated by media coverage and the audience size. Accordingto the organizers, increased media engagement is critical ingarnering the support of individuals in the Olympics (Schroederand Lori 213).The colorfulness of the games relies on the popularity given by themedia. For instance, during the 2012 Olympics in London, the mediafollowing totaled to 4.7 million across all the platforms. In Sochi,where the events were held next, a following of about five millionwas registered and this was attributed mostly by Facebook which was asite popular among the Russians.

AssistingYoung Athletes

Themedia also help young people who aspire to one day represent theircountries in major events in the Olympic Games. The young people copytechniques being used by the athletes. They implement them in theirattempt to become great athletes in future. These children can askthem about their secrets behind their awesome performance via thesocial media platforms. The participants can send videos of theirtraining techniques to young people which may be of much help tothem.

InRio Olympics2016 for instance, #Rio2016 was treading fast and therewere so many people tweeting. Approximate fifty two million Facebookusers generated one hundred and nine million interactions, twenty onemillion members of Instagram recorded approximate fifty one millionposts and comments.Facebook created a live platform for users towatch live videos, while Instagram helped the Olympics athletes reachout their supporters via posts inside the stadiums. Media platformslike Snapchat facilitated its users’ engagement with Olympic Gamesin Rio, whereby it ensured as many users as possible experienced theexcitement of the colorful event.

Mediaas a source of security during Olympics

Allmedia platforms play a major role in ensuring tight security duringevents. Smartphones’ apps are developed for people to alert thesecurity authorities in matters regarding any suspicious event in thestadiums. Other platforms like telephones are made present duringOlympic Games to ensure security personnel communicate with thesupporters and also among themselves in case of any threat. As Grieset al puts it, “Terrorismand crime can result in tourists’ avoiding a destination orreducing traveling in general” (223).Schroeder and Lori observe that withoutsuch media platforms, Olympic events would appear less secure andterrorists would take advantage (229).

Roleof the Media in Promoting Olympic Participants

Themedia plays a major role in promoting individuals taking part invarious events during Olympics and it may help participants in theevent to obtain sponsorship from companies (Taylor 460). Forinstance, after being presented in televisions as one of thesuccessful athletes in Olympic events, participants may be hired bybeverage companies to represent their firms in advertisements whichwould consequently make them earn some more money. If televisions andother media platforms like Facebook did not present the players tothe public and made them famous, then they would not have been knownto the public.

Insummer of 2001 for instance, United States Olympic Committee designeda promotional campaign meant for developing interrelation of theOlympic team of United States and the general public. Severaltelevision commercials were made. They portrayed strong Americansportsmen and women. After being aired by several televisionstations, participants became so popular in America and otherneighboring countries. Due to their popularity, firms got interestedand requested the players to get involved in promoting their productsat a fee (Taylor 460). Were it not for the television adverts, theplayers would not have been recognized both locally andinternationally. Additionally, these participants would also have notobtained sponsorships from various companies.

DickEbersol who was the NBC Sports chairman by then claimed that his firmundertakes this policy of creating more awareness of participants(Taylor 461). He added that the media firm tends to make the athletesor the participants more familiar to the viewers since most of peoplewould not have known their representatives in the Olympics. He alsosaid that he does this to inform the public what the athletes do oruse to gain their fitness and participate well in major events.

Finally,another way that shows media interaction with the Olympics is the wayparticipants in these events manage to interact with their family andfriends back at home. Social media and other communication platforms,link the athletes and other people present in the events with theirloved ones who are far away from them. Participants claim that thisconnection makes them perform comfortably knowing that theirrelatives are in good condition.


Thepublic needs to know that media alone cannot lead to revolutions.People need to be skeptical as regards to certain statements thatexaggerate the impact of the media and if people think of the eventspurely as content of media, then fraction of its powers ofcommunicating, lies in the ability to involve the public andspotlight variety of issues outside sport. In future events it ishighly expected that the media will attract a large audience andwhether these platforms will have some meaningful effect in shapingthe narratives of the game beyond echoing the corporate partnershipsand a mainstream media is yet to be seen. After all, common newsreporting of the lead-up to these events has itself been harsh aswell as hardly evocative of the atmosphere which the organizers wantthe general public to feel. Indeed, if people think of the sportingactivities as spaces for evolution of the media as well as itsconsumption, then the battles for success of such events takes placeas much via assorted storytelling platforms and channels as they doin Olympic stadiums.

Itis evident that media plays major roles in ensuring Olympic Games aresuccessful and entertaining. The prosperity of the event is attainedthrough the tight security that is ensured by media. Without themodern platforms, people who are not present in the stadiums wouldnot be updated. Also participants of the events would not know alltheir supporters since they cannot meet them in person, but thesocial platforms facilitates this. Olympic Games would only beenjoyed by those present in the stadiums, were it not for media.Although progressively cluttered, the strength of people’s mediaspace as regards to the Olympic event and corporations of the medialies precisely in its capacity to reveal something unexpected. Aslong as a possibility to do that still remains in people’s mind andas long as the general public is willing to engage in extra diggingwork for it, then citizens should expect interesting things in futureOlympic events as well as some more entertaining memes.


Schroeder,Ashley, and Lori Pennington-Gray. &quotPerceptions Of Crime At TheOlympic Games: What Role Does Media, Travel Advisories, And SocialMedia Play?.&quot Journal OfVacation Marketing 20.3 (2014): 225-237.Business Source Premier.Web. 16 Aug. 2016.

Taylor,Charles R. TheLondon Olympics 2012:What advertisers should watch:Villanova University, 2012. Print

Solberg,Harry Arne, and Holger Preuss. &quotMajor Sport Events And Long-TermTourism Impacts.&quot JournalOf Sport Management21.2 (2007): 213-234. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Aug. 2016.

Gries,Peter Hays, H. Michael Crowson, and Todd Sandel. &quotThe OlympicEffect On American Attitudes Towards China: Beyond Personality,Ideology, and Media Exposure.&quot JournalOf Contemporary China 19.64 (2010): 213-231. AcademicSearch Premier. Web. 16 Aug. 2016.

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27 February 2020

Guns,Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies

Thisis a trans-disciplinary non-fiction article written by a JaredDiamond, a professor of physiology and geography. Diamond explainsthe reason Eurasian civilizations and other conquered communitiessurvived uniquely in their environments. He argues against thethought that hegemony of the Eurasian is a result of any thecommunity’s intellectual or intrinsic genetic superiority. Hepoints out that that the differences in power, as well as technologyamong human societies, are results of environmental differences.While Eurasians have been favored by the genetic and culturaldifferences, Diamond affirms that the advantages occur due to thegeographical influence on cultures and society. This essay gives asummary, analysis, and discusses various themes of the book.

Thefive themes include location, movement, interaction, region andplace.


Theauthor observes that the reason behind a society’s advantageousposition over others is not solely upon the intelligence of itspeople, but rather due to geography. It is claimed in the book thatsome favorable factors in a certain area ease the production of food.The people in the less fertile areas find extra time to perform otheractivities since they do not spend a lot of time taking care of theircrops compared to those who dwell in areas where plants maintenanceis paramount. The author asserts that the successful group of peoplemay not be regarded as being progressive due to high intelligence butbecause it settles in an area where the environment issues somecultural advantages. To sum up this premise, he gives an example ofindividuals dwelling in fertile lands. For instance, those who livein the Mediterranean yield much from their agricultural activitiescompared to those living in African Sahara or the Arctic region(Diamond 31).


Itrefers to the way people relate to each other in different humanenvironments. It also illustrates how individuals adapt to theirsetting and the modifications they implement to suit variedactivities. In the book, the author claims that people like thenomadic pastoralist, foragers or hunters may remain unsuccessful inlife. This is because they have a conservative way of life. They donot interact much with other people who may give them contemporaryideas of improving their traditional economic and social activities(Diamond 42).


Locationcan be relative or absolute. In the book, Diamond states that theEurasian landmass is located on the East-West axis which wasfavorable for the distribution of crops and animals. The area is alsoauspicious for sharing and distribution of ideas. For instance,America is stretched out on the North-South axis which traversedseveral climatic zones as well as geographic boundaries encouragingtrade (Diamond 43). Consequently, the citizens were exposed to amyriad of beneficial agricultural commerce ideas.


Movementmay involve the translocation of goods or people. Geography eases thetransportation of essential commodities from one place to another.Diamond states that areas that experience smooth movements becomeprogressive. People in such regions relocate freely to explorevarious productive opportunities. Those who dwell in areas with poorinfrastructural development may find it challenging to take advantageof presenting opportunities. The strained movement impacts negativelyon development. Adequate means of transport attract professionalswho are instrumental in the transfer of progressive ideas (Diamond47).


Placemay be regarded as physical or rather, human characteristics. Interms of human characteristics, the author states that people from aspecific area have certain characteristics which may boost or hinderdevelopment in the area. For instance, he states that the hunters andthe gatherers may remain poor since they don’t have that‘human-characteristic’ of thinking about alternative activitiesor means of improving their lives. He states that individualspossessing dynamic human characteristics in certain places developrules that favor their existence. They designate some people to focuson certain activities that would better their way of living. Suchmotives make the society complex and liberal. The organized andstabilized communities often emerge as conquerors in diverseactivities (Diamond 53).


Author’sObjective and Universal Lessons

Thebook elaborates on various reasons for some societies or communitiesbeing relatively successful than others. He attributes this societalprosperity to geographical location, food production, immunity togerms, and use of steel. The gatherers and the hunters lack socialstability since they do not practice crop cultivation and rearing ofanimals. Labor specialization is another aspect that is vital tosocietal success since it enables other people to focus on theirskills that are beneficial to the society.

Inthe book, major Eurasia’s portions had some natural geographicadvantages which allowed perfect agricultural activities and animaldomestication. The Eurasian landmass is located on East-West axis.This facilitated distribution of ideas, animals, and crops. Thedensity and the diversity of Eurasian’s populations developedimmunity to germs which would later get rid of the more isolatedAmerica’s populations (Diamond 67).


Theauthor also dwells on the opposite direction of his key theme.Instead of focusing on how societies succeed, he explores the reasonswhy some societies fail. He stipulates that some of theseshortcomings end up being permanent failures. The problem exacerbatesif the certain environmental factors are not met. Communities whosecitizens are forced to undertake activities like gathering andhunting due to their geographical location are always at adisadvantage.

Anothercondition explored by Diamond regarding the reason for the failure ofa society is the inability of it to attract a fairly densepopulation. This is attributed to some unfavorable conditions in thearea. For instance, poor climatic conditions or lack of adequatesupply of raw materials that may be essential for humans. Thecommunity needs to domesticate animals and crops for it to besuccessful. Failure to implement such activities may make economicprogression an enormous task to accomplish (Diamond 73).


Theauthor attempts to articulate the fact that geography can be thecritical determinant of a community’s success and dominance. FromJared’s theory, it is easy to explore how location, climate,natural resources and native species make a society ideal. Theirfavorability renders a society stronger and powerful. From the book,it is clear that modifying the environment in various ways including,domestication of animals and crop cultivations can propel a region`sdevelopment. Another lesson learned is that people within the societyneed to uphold the specialization of skills whereby each contributesfully to the progression of the community.


Inconclusion, the author’s idea that cultural success is derived fromgeographic factors instead of inherent characteristics is animportant concept for several reasons. First, it portrays thatpeople’s modern constructs of third-world or the first-world statesare derived from absolute happenstance. Also, it confirms that theposition of various communities in the universe is a majordeterminant of their current economic and social characteristics.


Diamond,Jared M.&nbspGuns,Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies.New York: W.W Norton &amp Company, 2005. Print.

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