EPIDEMIOLOGY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH
Epidemiologyfor Public Health Practice
Epidemiologyfor Public Health Practice
Disease registry is a public surveillance system for collecting and maintaining information about a certain disease for a particular population within a specified period (Friis & Sellers, 2014). It is also used to analyze and interpret the information about a common illness or critical health condition. There are different types of disease registries such as cancer, diabetes, strokes, and mental disabilities among others (Bonita et al., 2006). For a record to be successful, it requires adequate funds and commitment of staff in collecting and submitting collected data about a disease.
National Health Survey is a cross-sectional study conducted in the United States after every six years to examine risk factors or trends in an individual illness that can change-over-time (Friis & Sellers, 2014). It provided information on the occurrences of the primary non-contagious diseases such hypertension, diabetes and connected risk factors like smoking and obesity (Bonita et al., 2006). Similarly, it examines the use of essential healthcare services, mental health, screening of chronic diseases and overall personal wellbeing conditions.
NHANES I is the first study among others, conducted between 1971 and 1974 to assess the nutrition and physical health of kids and adults in the US and it combined both physical examinations and interviews (Friis & Sellers, 2014). HHANES is a study conducted in the United States between 1982 and 1984 to collect data on nutrition and healthiness of 3 Hispanic groups including Puerto Ricans, Cuban and Mexican Americans (Friis & Sellers, 2014).
Severalreasons can lead to the rapid decline in deaths in the US due to aparticular cause per year. First, mortality resulting from low birthweights in newborns and heart-related diseases among other chronicdiseases in the elderly are monitored and prevented (Institute ofMedicine, 2011). Second, the death decline can be credited to theimprovement in medical care mainly use of high-tech health treatment(Bonita et al., 2006). Third, the variety of well established socialprograms as well as rising incomes has contributed toward the accessof valued medical technology that reduces the cases of the mortality.Finally, eating better and healthy diets has also contributed towardthe abrupt decline in mortality (Institute of Medicine, 2011).
Thereis an available funding for infancy injuries deterrence program, andthe staff will choose either establishing a surveillance system orconduct a survey in order to obtain childhood injuries baseline data.Therefore, it is crucial for them to know the advantages anddisadvantages of each method. One of the benefits of a surveillancesystem is that it is cheap to establish because it does not requireexternal resources to be used (Bailey & Handu, 2013). Thus, itmeans that it can rely on the available staffs and existing systemsto obtain data. Additionally, it can allow the extension of datacollection period to gather enough cases for the study even if thespecified period is over. In this regard, it permits the monitoringof the trends over time (Bailey & Handu, 2013).
However,the disadvantage of establishing surveillance system is that it doesnot provide a representative image of the prevalence or the incidencenot unless reporting sites are selected carefully and completereporting is assured. Also, the quality of the data regardingconsistency, control and time dedication in the collection processmay be an issue because the collectors have other responsibilities todo (Bailey & Handu, 2013).
Onthe contrary, a survey is advantageous because it ensures controlover the data quality because collectors are trained to collectaccurate data and hence consistency and quality are assured.Moreover, in-depth information is gathered in each case becausecollectors have a lot of time to collect all the required data(Bailey & Handu, 2013).
Nevertheless,it is costly to conduct because of hiring interviews, training andsupervising them as well as establishing questionnaires (Bailey &Handu, 2013). Similarly, it represents a snapshot of time and doesnot show trends and changes over a time (Bailey & Handu, 2013).
Bailey,S., & Handu, D. (2013). Introductionto epidemiologic research methods in public health practice.Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Bonita,R., Beaglehole, R., Kjellström, T., & World HealthOrganization. (2006). Basicepidemiology.Geneva: World Health Organization.
Friis,R. H., & Sellers, T. A. (2014). Epidemiologyfor public health practice.Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Instituteof Medicine (U.S.). (2011). Anationwide framework for surveillance of cardiovascular and chroniclung diseases.Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.