Women’shealth is directly proportional to a nation’s health standing.Today, this is a primary issue among both developed and developingnations owing to the diminishing quality of life. Many scholars havemade it their mission to ensure that women receive the best healthcare equivalent to their roles in the society. Despite this, thewoman race often suffers from exposure to several diseases, whichthreaten not only their lives but also may destabilize a familystructure. In this essay, I will discuss dysuria and hypothyroidismas they affect females by illustrating their prevalence,significance, health promotion, screening, and diagnostic orlaboratory tests. Further, I will describe their common treatment,patient education, and follow up and identify the promotion andhealth screening needs, as well as, compare convectional andnon-conventional treatments of these diseases.
DiseasePrevalence and Significance
Accordingto Welk & Hickling (2016), dysuria is the burning, discomfort, orpainful sensation during urination. It has a number causes, which canbe urinary tract infections, malformations, hormonal conditions,inflammatory conditions, neoplasms, psychogenic conditions, andtrauma. Its symptoms include itching, genital swelling, bad smellingdischarge, bloody urine, abdominal, side and back pains, and feveramong others. In agreement with Finsterer et al. (2015), about5 to 15 percent of dysuria patients visit family physicians however,sexually active women between the ages of 25 and 54 are moresusceptible to the disease compared to men. Dysuria’s prevalenceregisters at 25 percent and 27 percent of women in the United Statesand the United Kingdom respectively. In the United States, thispercentage accounts for more than 5 million visits to the hospitaland more money in test and medication supplementary costs (Welk &Hickling, 2016).
Inagreement with Wintheretal.(2016), hypothyroidism serves as the condition where the thyroidgland fails to produce sufficient vital hormones to aid in bodymetabolism. Its main causes include autoimmune diseases, certainmedications, hyperthyroidism treatment, thyroid surgery, andradiation therapy. Hypothyroidism produces varying symptoms, whichinclude fatigue, weight gain, constipation, muscle weakness, jointswelling, stiffness, or pain, irregular or heavier menstrual periods,increased cold sensitivity, and high blood cholesterol concentrationsamong others. Wintheretal.(2016) note this condition is common in females having the totalprevalence registering at 1 to 2 percent, which intensifies with age(above 60 years).
HealthPromotion and Screening
Thehealth promotion and screening procedures of dysuria are providedduring nursing care. With reference to the latter procedure, anindividual should manage to drink larger quantities of water. It isimportant for a patient to inquire from their health provider theamount of water intake required daily. According to Peng et al.(2015), water helps by flushing out toxins and theinfection-triggering bacteria out of the body system. Furthermore, itprevents dehydration that tends to worsen the condition. Water alsonormalizes the body heat temperature and encourages consistenturination, which helps ease dysuria. Even with this, the careproviders need to assess a patient and ask those questions relatingto their symptoms, medication pattern, and their sexual history. Onceestablished, the health care professional will perform an abdominalexamination, an external genitalia assessment, as well as, agynecological evaluation for women (Welk & Hickling, 2016). Theythen perform screening tests to diagnose dysuria. These evaluationsmay include urine tests, cystoscopy, blood tests, and ultrasounds(Michels, Sands & Sands, 2015). The urine dipstick test is doneto determine bacterial and blood presence and provides more cluesrelating to the dysuria cause.
Themost common health promotion procedure for hypothyroidism involvesthe taking of iodine supplements. However, countries such as theUnited States, preventing hypothyroidism is difficult since theirfood contains iodine (Wintheretal.,2016). Due to this, the physicians recommend screening their clientsregularly for the disease. They do this by gathering their medicalhistory, family history, symptoms, and risk factors. They alsoperform physical examinations and further employ blood tests.
Thelaboratory tests associated with dysuria depend on the most likelydiagnosis. As stated by Michels, Sands & Sands (2015), thesediagnostic options are urine studies, radiologic studies, invasiveprocedures, and urethral and vaginal examinations for sexuallytransmitted diseases (STD). Since urinary tract infections are themost regular causes of dysuria, the urinalysis procedure is mainlyhelpful. The particularity of this dipstick evaluation helps inidentifying pyuria, hematuria, or bacteriuria (Peng et al.,2015). The white blood cell (WBC)-marked leukocyte esterase has 75%sensitivity when detecting a UTI whereas pyuria has 96% sensitivity.Even though a nitrite positive dipstick test suggests UTI presence, anegative one does not necessarily rule out diagnosis. Peng et al.(2015) claim the gold standard used to evaluate dysuria involvesspun, midstream urine sediment, and clean-catch microscopicexamination. The diagnosis of pyuria involves 3 to 5 WBC presence inevery high-power field, and hematuria’s involves 3 to 5 red bloodcell presence in every high-power field. Further, urine cultures alsoinvestigate dysuria. However, they can undergo deferment if thedysuria is largely external.
Theimaging studies are often utilized when diagnosis is inconclusive,when patients are immune-compromised or unwell, experiencecomplications, or fail to respond to any form of antibiotic therapy(Finsterer et al., 2015). The cystoscopy with the presence orabsence of urination serves as an invasive examination, which rulesurethral or bladder pathology. Further, urethral or vaginal smearsand cultures are significant in sexually active people and thoseexperiencing urethral or vaginal discharge. Even though N.gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis are gold standard cultures,methods including polymerase chain reaction and ligase chain reactiontests are commonly utilized (Michels, Sands & Sands, 2015). Onlyin cases relating to child abuse and sexual assaults are culturednecessary due to their 100% specificity. Potassium hydroxidemicroscopy, yeast culture, and vaginal pH measurements are necessaryin women suffering from recurrent dysuria with no known cause.
Themost sensitive and vital test for hypothyroidism diagnosis andmonitoring is the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) test (Dunn &Turner, 2016).It is a simple blood evaluation that quantifies the T4 that thethyroid makes. An unusually high TSH evaluation indicates thepresence of hypothyroidism. In many laboratories, the normal TSHrange is between 0.4 and 4.0 mU/L (Dunn & Turner, 2016).The range is higher in elderly people and lower during pregnancy.Therefore, if the TSH test measures above the 4.0 mU/L mark, on thefirst and subsequent tests, hypothyroidism may be present. Anothertest includes the T4 exam. The thyroid gland excretes the thyroxine(T4). Free T4 index and free T4 serve as basic blood test. Ifcombined with the TSH valuation, they provide a close diagnosisconcerning the thyroid functioning.
Pengetal.(2015)point out the most familiar dysuria cause to be a UTI. Since it is aninfection, it is treated with antibiotics. The care provider managesto choose optimal medication for their patients depending on theirpresent urinary tract infection pattern. They may also change themedication in accordance with the resistance level of a bacterialculture to the prescribed medicine. The prescribed antibiotic shouldbe taken to completion, even when a patient feels better (Michels,Sands &Sands, 2015).Additionally, pain medication is provided as general analgesic orspecified products, which will paralyze the urinary tract pain. Ifthe dysuria cause is non-infectious, further evaluations andtreatments experience recommendation.
Thecondition is not curable but treatable in most individuals where itis controlled completely. Treatment involves a replacement of thehormone concentrations that the thyroid finds difficult to make.Baskoy et al. (2016) assert this ensures that the TSH and T4remain in normal concentrations. Additionally, synthetic thyroxinepills (levothyroxine or L-thyroxine) contain hormones similar to T4and should be taken daily throughout one’s life. Like T4, eachsynthetic thyroxine dose works in human blood for approximately aweek. Baskoy et al. (2016) claim this keeps T4 levels steadyin blood ensuring a constant T4 supply for body cells.
PatientEducation and Follow up
Itis apparent that patients should experience training to detect anyearly symptoms of dysuria. They should always seek medical advice ifthey go through painful urination for more than a single day, noticeblood presence in urine, are pregnant and experiencing pain whenurinating, have vaginal discharge, and a fever (Finstereretal.,2015).If done, clients will have early treatment preventing the severity ofthe case. After treatment, a straightforward UTI does not usuallyneed follow up. However, if a person suffers from multipleinfections, additional tests may be necessary.Finstereretal.(2015)claim women can have a referral to visit urologists or undergocystoscopy or ultra sound tests to identify the specificity of thepain.
Peopleshould be educated on their symptoms and the effectiveness of earlytreatment. They should be aware that it is possible to treat them asoutpatients as long as they know how and where to acquire their dose.According to Yu & Wang (2016), after any thyroxine dose, patientsneed to get a TSH check approximately every six to ten weeks. In caseof additional medication and pregnancy, they must undergo more teststo ensure they have the right thyroxine concentration.
WomenHealth Screening and Promotion Needs
Inthe case of hypothyroidism, pregnant and elderly women should be ableto enjoy regular checkups for early detection of the disease. Throughproper screening, they will manage to get proper medication andprevent any form of mortality that may arise from the condition(Winther et al., 2016). They will also have a change oflifestyle once they undergo early screening, which will guarantee thecontrol of the disease.
Modernversus Conventional Treatment
Themain modern treatment of dysuria involves the administering ofprescribed antibiotics to patients. On the other hand, thetraditional treatment for dysuria involves the taking of spices suchas ginger, fenugreek seeds, and coriander seeds, as well as,cucumbers, plain yogurt, lemon, apple cider vinegar, and baking sodato counter the bacteria (Finstereretal.(2015).These medication options work well with people but traditionalmedication needs to be acknowledged by doctors.
Thetypical hypothyroidism treatment involves the administration ofsynthetic thryroxine that reverse its symptoms. On the other hand,natural extracts from sea vegetables, nuts, and whole berries amongothers that contain the thyroid hormone can act as substitutes sincethey contain both triiodothyronine and thyroxine (Dunn & Turner,2016). Patients should also exercise regularly and avoid excessiveusage of drug substances.
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