Differences in Implementation and Instructional Practices between National Board Certified and Non-National Board Certified Career and Technical Education Teachers

  • Uncategorized

Differencesin Implementation and Instructional Practices between National BoardCertified and Non-National Board Certified Career and TechnicalEducation Teachers

Submittedby

SerenaDianne Wiggins

ADissertation Proposal Presented in Partial Fulfillment

ofthe Requirements for the Degree

Doctorateof Education

GrandCanyon University

Phoenix,Arizona

August15, 2016

Tableof Contents

List of Tables v

List of Figures vi

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study 1

Introduction 1

Background of the Study 3

Problem Statement 5

Purpose of the Study 7

Research Question(s) and Hypotheses 9

Significance of the Study 14

Rationale for Methodology 15

Nature of the Research Design for the Study 17

Definition of Terms 19

Assumptions 20

The study shall take into consideration the following assumptions 20

Assumptions, 20

1. It is assumed that all the subjects taking part bear the same characteristics and, are, therefore, able to provide the necessary findings that will be crucial for making desirable conclusions. 20

Limitations, Delimitations 21

and Organization of the Remainder of the Study 21

Chapter 2: Literature Review 24

Introduction to the Chapter and Background to the Problem 24

Theoretical Foundations and/or Conceptual Framework 25

Review of the Literature 28

Summary 32

Chapter 3: Methodology 34

Introduction 34

Statement of the Problem 34

Research Question(s) or Hypotheses 36

Research Methodology 37

Research Design 38

Population and Sample Selection 40

Instrumentation OR Sources of Data 42

Sources of Data 42

Validity 44

Reliability 46

Data Collection and Management 47

Data Analysis Procedures 49

Ethical Considerations 50

Limitations and Delimitations 53

Summary 54

References 56

Appendix A The Parts of a Dissertation 59

Appendix B IRB Approval Letter 62

Appendix C Informed Consent 63

Appendix D Copy of Instruments and Permissions Letters to Use the Instruments 64

Listof Figures

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework 26

Chapter 1: Introduction to the StudyIntroduction

Thisstudy explored possible differences in implementation andinstructional practices between national board certified andnon-national board certified teachers of career and technicaleducation. In 1987, the National Board for Professional TeachingStandards (NBPTS) was formed. This non-profit professionalorganization was created by teachers and other stakeholders toenhance teaching proficiency and increase student achievement. Thereare currently over twenty-five different subject areas available toobtain this reputable advanced certification through the NationalBoard for Certified Teachers (NBCT) including Career and TechnicalEducation (CTE). Reflective practice is a defining attribute to theBoard Standards.

Accomplishedteachers reflect analytically throughout the instructional process,using multifaceted feedback to increase the efficacy of theirteaching, strengthen its impact on student development and model thesignificance of lifelong learning.[CITATION Gol07 p 135 l 2057 ]

Careerand technical Education (CTE) has often been an area of studyoverlooked in the school system, according to the US Department ofEducation (2011) therefore limited amount of research has beendedicated to determining best practices of teaching strategies. It isessential that Career and technical educators incorporate appropriateinstructive practices for providing young people with the academic,technical, and employability skills and knowledge to pursuepostsecondary training or higher education and enter a career fieldprepared for ongoing learning (Partnership for 21st Century Skills,2009 Education, &amp National Association of State Directors ofCareer Technical Education Consortium, 2010). Due to the lack ofresearch on instructional practices in the area of CTE, little isknown about how the implementation and instructional practices ofNBCT’s differ from that of non-NBCTs. The primary goal of NationalBoard of Certified teacher’s is to provide teachers with the toolsto aide in student achievements.

Thegap this research addressed is the research by Espedido (2011) thatprovided evidence of the effectiveness of the NCBTs in schools.According to the research, the NCBTs ranked higher than non-NCBT onvalue-added measures and written evaluations. The National BoardCertification is reported to enhance more student professionaldevelopment and achievement. Several reforms have been formulated tohighlight the best practices that will help improve education. Somefocus on standards and curriculum while others emphasis on the choiceof the parents and students. Nevertheless, the teacher acts as thecommon binding thread to all the initiatives towards improvement ofstudent’s performance. Among the main activities undertaken topromote quality teaching include instructional monitoring, teachercertification and quality. Policy makers have not agreed on exactlywhat the teachers are supposed to do to improve educationalperformance despite the fact that they acquiesce that teachers play acritical role in education[ CITATION Gli12 l 2057 ].

TheNational Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)established a process through which quality teachers could beidentified. This was to be done through having a teachercertification process that is accepted nationally. This is becauseon average, students from NCBT teachersproved to score higher than those from non-NBCTs. Nevertheless, whileit is true that there exist a gap between non-NBCTs and NBCTteachers, research on the differences in implementation ofinstructional practices for career and technical education betweenthe two types of teachers in minimal. Therefore, the researcher aimsat determining the differences that exist in implementationand instructional practices between national board certified andnon-national board certified teachers of career and technicaleducation.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

This section provides a brief overview of the research focus or problem, explains why this study is worth conducting, and discusses how this study will be completed. (Minimum three to four paragraphs or approximately one page)

Dissertation topic is introduced and value of conducting the study is discussed.

Discussion provides an overview of what is contained in the chapter.

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Background of theStudy

Therewas a need to explore differences in implementation and instructionalpractices between National Board Certified and Non-National BoardCertified Career and Technical education teachers. Strobel (2011)affirmed that there is a lack of research on instructional practicesin the area of Career and Technical Education (CTE) and little isknown about how National Board Certified Teachers instructionalpractices increase student achievement. There is consensus in theteacher education literature that a strong knowledge of the subjecttaught is a core component of teacher competence (e.g., AmericanCouncil on Education, 1999 National Mathematics Advisory Panel,2008). In a study conducted by Cardon (2000), statistics show that at-risk student are high rate enrollees of technical courses thereforeneeding CTE teachers to have diversified planning of instructionalmaterial, effective classroom management skills, and the capacity tohave positive interactions with students. A number of researchresults have reflected a positive relationship between statecertification, teacher quality, and its direct effect on studentachievement in a given subject area. Higher student performance isoften associated with superior teacher qualifications at thesecondary level (Baumert,Kunter, Blum, &amp Brumner, 2010). Thesecharacteristics are all components within the Goe’s Teacher QualityModel (See Figure 1). CTE once known as vocational education hasadopted new policies and thedevelopments are shaping the future of the field. A series of reportsfrom the U.S. organizations, including: The Department of Education,Council of Chief State School Officers, and The American Institutesof Research’s Center on Great Teachers and Leaders, argue thecritical importance of teacher quality within CTE. To date, more than4,000 teachers have achieved National Board Certification in CTEand it is assumed that there are different implementation andinstructional practices between NBCT and non-NBCT actualdifferences were not measured (Strobel 2011).

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

Background of the Study

The background section explains both the history of and the present state of the problem and research focus. It identifies the &quotgap&quot or &quotneed&quot based on a summary of the current literature and discusses how the study will address that &quotgap&quot or &quotneed.&quot (Minimum two to three paragraphs or approximately one page)

Provides a summary of results from the prior empirical research on the topic and identifies the need as defined by the prior research which this current study will address.

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Problem Statement

Theproblem that the researcher will focus on shall be based on thedifferences in implementation and instructional practices betweenNational Board Certified and Non-National Board Certified Career andtechnical education teachers. This is because students who passthrough the hands of instructors that have had some form ofcertification appear to be performing quite well compared to thosewho pass through the hands of technical education teachers. It is,therefore, important to establish that there is need to carry out astudy to ascertain whether certified instructors are more effectivecompared to technical education teachers. Gordon (2014) is quitecategorical in stating that technical education teachers have a hugerole to play, especially, as it relates to imparting specific skillson the students. The students could use these skills to further theirperformance in and outside school for the purposes of being of greatimportance and help to the society through the solving of someproblems that seemed quite hard to deal with, at the beginning. Itmay, therefore, not be wise to jump into conclusion that technicaleducation teachers are less effective without taking great heed toinvestigate further on their role and establishing if they are trulyof help, or not.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

Problem Statement

This section includes the problem statement, the population affected, and how the study will contribute to solving the problem. This section is summarized in Chapter 3. This section of Chapter 1 should be a minimum of three to four paragraphs with citations from empirical research articles to support statements. (Minimum three or four paragraphs or approximately one page)

States the specific problem proposed for research by presenting a clear declarative statement that begins with “It is not known if and to what degree/extent…” (quantitative) ~or~ or “It is not known how/why and…” (qualitative)

Identifies the general population affected by the problem.

Suggests how the study may contribute to solving the problem.

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Purpose of the Study

Thissection of the prospectus describes the implications of the study.First, it describes the effects of the potential results. Second, itdiscusses how the research may extend or contribute to the models ortheories being used for the theoretical foundation. Third, itdescribes professional and practical applications to the field ofpractice.

Themain aim of the study is to determine the differences inimplementation and instructional practices between a national boardcertified and non-national board certified teachers of career andtechnical education. The findings of this research will be criticalin the field of Career and Technical Education (CTE) that has oftenbeen overlooked in the school system. CTE is a vital area of studythat prepares learners in professional world by introducing andexposing them to workplace competencies. In the problem statement, itwas noted that students taught by NBCT teachers tend to performbetter than those instructed by non-NBCTsinstructors. Therefore, theknowledge on the importance of National Board Certification in CTEwill be critical in encouraging more teachers to acquire thecertification to enable them to make academic content that isaccessible to learners by enriching it with hands-on context.

Thestudy will add to the body of knowledge of the existing teacherquality frameworks such as Goe’s Model that forms the theoreticalplatform for this paper. Teacher quality is one of the factors thatplays a major role in influencing the success and achievement of thestudent. In this paper, various observational measures, professionalstandards, and teacher evaluation checklists will be highlighted.This information will be crucial in advocating for multi-methodapproaches towards the research on teacher quality to ensure thatteachers are aware of what they are required to do in order to helptheir students understand career and technical education concepts.

Thestudy will contribute to the existing literature in the field ofeducation. The implementation and instructional practices used byboth NBCT and non-NBCT teachers will be researched and explained indetail. These findings will provide useful information toadministrators, teachers, and other stakeholders in the field aboutthe practices that the National BoardCertification brings about to the teaching environment. This willimprove the current body of knowledge on the best practices for NBCteachers.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose statement section expands on the problem statement and identifies how the study will be accomplished. It explains how the proposed study will contribute to the field. This section is summarized in Chapter 3. (Minimum two to three paragraphs)

Presents a declarative statement: “The purpose of this study is….” that identifies the research methodology and design, population, variables (quantitative) or phenomena (qualitative) to be studied and geographic location.

Identifies research methodology as qualitative, quantitative, or mixed, and identifies the specific research design.

Describes the target population and geographic location for the study.

Quantitative: Defines the variables, relationship of variables, or comparison of groups.

Qualitative: Describes the nature of the phenomena to be explored.

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Research Question(s)and Hypotheses

Thisdissertation will be based on the following research questions.

  1. What does it entail to be a NBCT?

Thisresearch question is qualitative in nature. The main phenomenon isNBCT. The researcher will be seeking the opinion of the participantson what it entails to be an NBCT.

  1. What is the importance of pursuing National Board Certification?

Theresearch question is qualitative in nature. The researcher will beseeking for the aspect of ‘importance’ from the participants ofthe central phenomenon ‘National Board Certification’.

  1. What impacts does National Board Certification brings in the field of CTE?

Thisresearch question is qualitative. The researcher will seek an opinionof how National Board Certification influences the central phenomenon‘CTE’.

  1. Is National Board Certification enough indicator for a highly qualified teacher as illustrated through their classroom practices?

Thisquestion will seek for a Yes/No response, hence quantitative innature. The main phenomenon is teacher qualification and classroompractices. Judgment will be made based on the number of participantswho say yes or no.

H10:National Board Certification is not an enough indicator for a highlyqualified teacher as illustrated through their classroom practices

H4a:National Board Certification is an enough indicator for a highlyqualified teacher as illustrated through their classroom practices

  1. What is the main differences in qualifications between NBCT and Non-NBCT CTE Teachers?

Thisquestion seeks to determine the main difference between the NBCT andnon-NBCT teachers. It is qualitative in nature. The main phenomenonis teacher’s qualification.

  1. Do NBCT teachers demonstrate advanced levels of teacher self-efficacy compared to a matched sample of the non-NBCTs teachers in the areas of student engagement and learning in CTE?

Theresearch question is quantitative in nature. The researcher seeks foryes or no response from the participants. The main phenomenon isteacher self-efficacy in the areas of studentengagement and learning in CTE

H60- NBCT teachers do not demonstrateadvanced levels of teacher self-efficacy compared to a matched sampleof the non-NBCTs teachers in the areas of student engagement andlearning in CTE

H6a- NBCT teachers demonstrateadvanced levels of teacher self-efficacy compared to a matched sampleof the non-NBCTs teachers in the areas of student engagement andlearning in CTE

  1. Do NBCT teachers assume similar classroom practices as a matched sample of the non-NBCT CTE teacher?

Theresearch question is quantitative in nature. The researcher seeks foryes or no response from the participants. The main phenomenon isteacher classroom practices.

H70: NBCTteachers do not assume similar classroom practices as a matchedsample of the non-NBCT CTE teacher

H7a: NBCTteachers assume similar classroom practices as a matched sample ofthe non-NBCT CTE teacher

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

Research Question(s) and/or Hypotheses

This section narrows the focus of the study by specifying the research questions to address the problem statement. Based on the research questions, it describes the variables and/or groups and their hypothesized relationship (quantitative study) or the phenomena under investigation (qualitative study). It describes how the research questions are related to the problem statement and how the research questions will facilitate collection of the data needed to answer the research questions. (Minimum two to three paragraphs or approximately one page)

Qualitative Designs: States the research question(s) the study will answer and describes the phenomenon to be studied.

Quantitative Designs: States the research questions the study will answer, identifies the variables, and states the hypotheses (predictive statements) using the format appropriate for the specific design.

This section includes a discussion of the research questions, relating them to the problem statement.

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

AdvancingScientific Knowledge

Itis pertinent that research is done to explore the differences inimplementation and instructional practices of NBCTs and non-NBCTs inthe field of Career and Technical Education for the benefit andadvancement of the future generation approaching the 21stcentury job market. This study will use a qualitative comparativecase study method to explore this phenomenon of teacherimplementation and instructional practices based on three areas

  1. Teacher Qualifications

  2. Teacher Characteristics

  3. Teachers planning, management, and interaction practices.

Thereis a need to explore instructional practices of Career and TechnologyEducation of National Board Certified Teachers (NBCT). Instructionalimprovement is a critical part of efforts to improve educationaloutcomes for underprepared students (Lesgold &amp Welch-Ross, 2011). As stated in the previous background of problem, there is littlenoteworthy studies that measured teacher implementation andinstructional practices of NBCT in Career and Technology Education(CTE). Numerous studies have been conducted on other general areas ofeducation measuring result of NBCT from student academic scores toteacher effectiveness (Goldhaber &amp Anthony, 2007) but theliterature examining the achievement effect of NBCT in Career andTechnical Education cannot be found. Addressing this problem willhave practical value for the real world by exposing rather advancepedagogical knowledge base practices will enhance CTE teachers to andproduce more prepared students to embark upon real world career andtechnical professions after high school graduation.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

ADVANCING SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

This section specifically describes how the research will advance the body of knowledge on the topic. The study can yield a small step forward in a line of current research, but it must add to the current body of knowledge in the literature in the learner’s program of study. It identifies the “gap” or “need” based on the current literature and discusses how the study will address that “gap” or “need.” This section also identifies the theory(ies) or model(s) that provide the theoretical foundation for the study and how the study will contribute to the research on the theory(ies) or model(s). This section summarizes part of the Background (focused on identifying the “gap” or “need” from the literature) and Theoretical Foundations sections (expanded in Chapter 2). (Minimum two to three paragraphs)

Clearly identifies the “gap” or “need” in the literature that was used to define the problem statement and develop the research questions.

Describes how the study will address the “gap” or “identified need” defined in the literature and contribute to the body of literature.

Identifies the theory(ies) or model(s) that provide the theoretical foundations or conceptual frameworks for the study.

Connects the study directly to the theory and describes how the study will add or extend the theory or model.

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Significance of theStudy

Thestudy will contribute to the existing literature in the field ofeducation. The implementation and instructional practices used byboth NBCT and non-NBCT teachers will be researched and explained indetail. These findings will provide useful information toadministrators, teachers and other stakeholders in the field aboutthe practices that the National BoardCertification brings about to the teaching environment. This willimprove the current body of knowledge on the best practices for NBCteachers.

Oneof the ways through which the findings of this study could be putinto practical use would be through passing instructors throughrigorous evaluation before they are given certification. Such anaction will attempt to show the crucial roles that both NBCTand non-NBCT teachers play in the development of the wellbeing ofthose students who are under their care. Such a strategy will also bequite pertinent in making the instructors who pass the evaluationprocess very confident and highly motivated as they will have a greatfeeling that they do hold a very important role on the part of thestudents that are under them. They will also feel that they have beenaccorded so much and as a result, they shall put great efforts inensuring that the tasks that are put upon them are well completedwith high levels of effectiveness. The importance of this research,therefore, confirms that it is a worthy course that may be essentialin raising the standards of education in schools such that they endup being much higher than they are, currently.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

Significance of the Study

This section identifies and describes the significance of the study and the implications of the potential results based on the research questions, the problem statement, and the hypotheses or the investigated phenomena. It describes how the research fits within and will contribute to the current literature or body of research. It describes potential practical applications from the research. (Minimum three to four paragraphs)

Describes how the proposed research fits within the prior research and how the study will make an academic research contribution in the field of study.

Describes how the study will make a practical contribution in the field of study.

Describes how addressing the problem will add value to the population, community, or society.

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Rationale forMethodology

Thisstudy will use a qualitative case study, which will explore an in-depth process of instructional practices of NBCTs and non-NBCTs. Thecase study shall be mostly exploratory in that the researcher shallaim to establish the specific practices of NCBCTs and non-NBCTs withthe aim of finding out whether they are more effective compared tothe technician education teacher (Taylor, Bogdan, &amp DeVault,2015). The more information obtained from the various sources ofdata, the better the researcher will be at coming up with conclusionsthat are able to stand out and be meaningful, not only to himself,but also to all the interested parties that may go through theresearch findings. The cases are bound by time and activity, andresearch will be collected with detailed information using a varietyof data collection procedures over a sustained period of time (Stake,1995) including: observation, interviews, and documentation review.This exploration will allow new information to surface fromstudying the implementation and Instructional Practicesbetween National Board Certified and Non-National Board CertifiedTeachers of Career and Technical Education. This is a study of asingle distinctive set of a small group of people. Notes collectedduring observations, questionnaires and interviews. The choice of aqualitative procedure is based on the identified gap needing to besupported through furthering research. First, there is a need to seeand understand teacher practices which include: planning,instructional delivery, classroom management and interactions withstudents. Secondly, there is a need to determine teacher qualitywhich combines experience, aptitude, subject matter/knowledge,preparation and certification. Finally, there is a need to explorethe possible differences in implementation and instructionalpractices between national board certified and non-national boardcertified teachers of career and technical education.

Theintent of this study is driven by the desire to gain knowledge aboutthe National Board certification for CTE educators. This topic isworthy of research because it raises awareness about theeffectiveness of National Board Certified teachers in the field ofCareer and Technical Education.

Criterion*

(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

Rationale for Methodology

This section clearly justifies the methodology the researcher plans to use for conducting the study. It argues why the methodological framework is the best approach to answer the research questions and how it will address the problem statement. It uses citations from textbooks and articles on research methodology and/or articles on related studies to justify the methodology. (Minimum two to three paragraphs)

Identifies the specific research methodology for the study.

Justifies the methodology to be used for the study by discussing why it is the best approach for answering the research question(s) and addressing the problem statement.

Uses citations from seminal (authoritative) sources (textbooks and/or empirical research literature) to justify the selected methodology. Note: Introductory or survey research textbooks (such as Creswell) are not considered seminal sources.

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Nature of the Research Design for the Study

Theresearch study shall apply a descriptive research design in that theresearcher wishes to collect information regarding a specific topicas at a given time. Since a case study is employed in the researchmethod, it will be quite appropriate for the provision of informationpertaining to instructional practices between National BoardCertified and Non-National Board Certified Teachers of Career andTechnical Education. The descriptive design is preferred given thefact that it is able to provide the information needed at thespecific time. The information provided will also be most likely,quite conclusive and have a high ability to enable the researcher tocome up with valid and reliable conclusions that may go beyond whatis generally known and address many other pressing questions. Assuch, the method will be quite pertinent in highlighting the problemstatement and research questions provided. This also includesproviding relevant answers to some of the hypotheses that may betabled all around (Silverman, 2016). All these can be answeredclearly since the research design applied is quite appropriate forthis topic. The method is far much better compared to others such ascorrelation studies that may involve venturing much deeper into thepast of a given person with the aim of establishing some of theactions that such a person did or the circumstances that theindividual was exposed to, which could have had an effect on hiscurrent wellbeing.

Thestudy shall entail a very small group of people who shall act as thesubjects. These people will be chosen through stratified randomsampling. This is where a population is divided into strata andpeople are randomly chosen from each stratum. This method is quiteeffective given the fact that it avoids the element of biasness thatmay be created in the long run, even as the researcher chooses towork with respondents that he is comfortable with. The number shallrange from 10-15. The researcher shall focus more on observing thesubjects chosen for the study so as to get the information required.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

Nature of the Research Design for the Study

This section describes the specific research design to answer the research questions and affirms why this approach was selected. It describes the research sample being studied as well as the process that will be used to collect the data on the sample. It identifies the instruments or sources of data needed to answer the research questions. It provides citations from seminal sources such as research textbooks, research articles, and articles on similar studies.(Minimum three to four paragraphs or approximately one page)

Describes the selected design for the study.

Discusses why the selected design is the best design to address the problem statement and research questions as compared to other designs.

Briefly describes the target population, and the sample for the study, the data collection procedures to collect data on the sample, and the instruments or sources of data needed to answer the research questions.

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Definition of Terms

NBCT-National Board for Certified Teachers- This is a regulatoryinstitution that controls the operations of professional teachers

CTE-Career and Technical Education – This is a form of education thatis geared towards enabling people acquire skills so that they may becompetitive in the job market.

Criterion*

(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

Definitions of Terms

This section defines the study constructs and provides a common understanding of the technical terms, exclusive jargon, variables, phenomena, concepts, and sundry terminology used within the scope of the study. Terms are defined in lay language and in the context in which they are used within the study. (Each definition may be a few sentences to a paragraph.)

Defines any words that may be unknown to a lay person (words with unusual or ambiguous meanings or technical terms) from the research or literature.

Defines the variables for a quantitative study or the phenomena for a qualitative study from the research or literature.

Definitions are supported with citations from scholarly sources.

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions may be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

AssumptionsThestudy shall take into consideration the following assumptionsAssumptions,

  1. It is assumed that all the subjects taking part bear the same characteristics and, are, therefore, able to provide the necessary findings that will be crucial for making desirable conclusions.
  2. It is assumed that the participants have not taken part in a study such as this before and will, as a result, not provide misleading responses that will result in invalid data.

Limitations,Delimitations

Thefollowing limitations/delimitations were present in this study:

  1. The sample size chosen would not be enough for conducting the research study and coming up with the desired results.

  2. The researcher will complement the research with data from secondary sources so as to generate concrete results.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

Assumptions, Limitations and Delimitations

This section identifies the assumptions and specifies the limitations, as well as the delimitations, of the study. (Minimum three to four paragraphs)

States the assumptions being accepted for the study (methodological, theoretical, and topic-specific).

Provides rationale for each assumption, incorporating multiple perspectives, when appropriate.

Identifies limitations of the research design.

Identifies delimitations of the research design.

The Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Summary andOrganization of the Remainder of the Study

Chapterone has touched on the background to the problem as well as bringingout the problem statement. It has also been key in showing thesignificance of the study that helps to explain the reason as to whythe researcher decided to venture into the topic in the first place.It has also explained the importance of the study as well as thenature of the study design that includes the descriptive studydesign. The subsequent chapters of the study will focus on theliterature review as well as the study methodology that shall beapplied.

Criterion*

(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

Chapter 1 Summary and Organization of the remainder of the study

This section summarizes the key points of Chapter 1 and provides supporting citations for those key points. It then provides a transition discussion to Chapter 2 followed by a description of the remaining chapters. The Proposal, but not the Dissertation, provides a timeline for completing the research and dissertation. (Minimum one to two pages)

Summarizes key points presented in Chapter 1.

Provides citations from scholarly sources to support key points.

Describes the remaining Chapters and provides a transition discussion to Chapter 2. For proposal only, a timeline for completing the research and dissertation is provided.

The Chapter is correctly formatted to dissertation template using the Word Style Tool and APA standards. Writing is free of mechanical errors.

All research presented in the Chapter is scholarly, topic-related, and obtained from highly respected academic, professional, original sources. In-text citations are accurate, correctly cited, and included in the reference page according to APA standards.

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Chapter 2: Literature ReviewIntroduction to the Chapter and Background to the Problem

Thischapter discusses the literature review in relation to the topic,which is basically the Differences in implementation andinstructional practices between National Board Certified andNon-National Board Certified Career and technical education teachers.The researcher has taken keen interest to bring out various theoriesthat relate to the topic as well as highlighting the conceptualframework relevant to the study.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION (TO THE CHAPTER) AND BACKGROUND (TO THE PROBLEM)

This section describes the overall topic to be investigated, outlines the approach taken for the literature review, and argues the evolution of the problem based on the &quotgap&quot or &quotneed&quot defined in the literature from its origination to its current form. (Minimum two to three pages)

Introduction: Provides an orienting paragraph so the reader knows what the literature review will address.

X

Introduction: Describes how the chapter will be organized (including the specific sections and subsections).

X

Introduction: Describes how the literature was surveyed so the reader can evaluate thoroughness of the review. This includes search terms and databases used.

X

Background: Discusses how the problem has evolved historically into its current form.

X

Background: Describes the “gap” or “need” defined in the current literature and how it leads to the creation of the topic and problem statement for the study.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Theoretical Foundations and/or Conceptual Framework

Thecurrent study is informed by democratic utilitarian experientialpragmatism values in harmony with humanism values as main platformsfor the principles in Career and Technical Education (CTE)[ CITATION Mar07 p 32 l 2057 ].In his framework, Martinez (2007) states that interlacing of humanismand democratic utilitarian experiential pragmatism constructs canonly be realized if the following critical questions are asked (a)What is true? (for human experience changes constantly). (b) What isgood? (c) What is valuable to human beings and gives room forself-actualization and (d) what is right? (the democratic ideals andfreedom values, justice, and self-worth). Moreover, Martinez arguesthat acceptance of this pragmatic humanistic view allows forexploration of fundamental values that act as touchstones to guide isdeveloping the principles. The legislative trends and historicalprinciples play a crucial role in Career and Technical Education togive the following values: (1) accountability, (2) accessibility, (3)learning, (4) safety (5) usefulness.

Thecurrent study seeks for the articulation of these principles ascornerstone for the CTE teacher re-evaluation and redesigningprograms. This will help in attracting the students and prepareindividuals who are skillful towards the increasing demands of 21stcentury and changing workforce. The comparison of these principlesfor the NBCT and non-NBCT teachers will act as the backbone for thisresearch. This is represented below.

Figure1: Conceptual Framework

Source[ CITATION Mar07 l 2057 ]

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

theoretical foundations and/or conceptual framework

This section identifies the theory(ies) or model(s) that provide the foundation for the research. This section should present the theory(ies) or models(s) and explain how the problem under investigation relates to the theory(ies) or model(s). The theory(ies) or models(s) guide the research questions and justify what is being measured (variables) as well as how those variables are related (quantitative) or the phenomena being investigated (qualitative). (Minimum two to three pages)

Identifies a model(s) or theory(ies) from seminal source(s) that provide a reasonable conceptual framework or theoretical foundation to use in developing the research questions, identifying variables/phenomena, and selecting data collection instruments.

X

Accurately cites the appropriate seminal source(s) for each theory or model.

X

Includes a cogent discussion/synthesis of the theory or model and justifies the theoretical foundation/framework as relevant to the study. Connects the study directly to the theory and describes how the study will add or extend the theory or model.

X

Builds a logical argument of how the research questions directly align to the theoretical foundation for the study.

X

Reflects a deep understanding of the foundational, historical, research relevant to the theoretical foundation/framework.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Review of theLiterature

Studieshave shown that differences National Board Certified and Non-NationalBoard Certified Career teachers have been quite instrumental inimproving the standards of education of students as well as ensuringthat they are well prepared for the outside job market where they areable to deliver their services with high levels of enthusiasm andprofessionalism.

Intheir article, The ModernResearcher: A classic work on research and writing completely revisedand brought up to date Barzun &ampGraff (1992) allude to the fact that technical educationteachers have a great duty of instilling the important skills tostudents. These skills are varied both in their approach and the rolethat they may play in building the capacities of the learners tohandle various situations. They state that one of the ways throughwhich accredited professionals can have a great impact on thestudents is through having a close cooperation with them. As such,these students become more open and eager to learn, thereby, graspingmore of the information that they are being provided and benefittinglargely as a result.

Thesame assertions are also aired by Petty et al. (2015) in theirargument, only that he goes on to indicate the importance ofcertified career and technical Education teachers in improving thequality of education of learners and having a great role to play intheir future engagements. This, as a result, goes a long way inexplaining the great relationships that these different types ofprofessionals have as it relates to boosting the capacity of learnersboth in their individual capacity as well as being able to handledifferent situations that could be hard for them, otherwise.

Otherstudies have also indicated the importance of certification as itrelates to boosting the morale of people involved. A study conductedby Espanoza et al. (2013) aimed to bring out factors that go along way in boosting the performance of people in their duties wasquite categorical in indicating that certification is quite animportant element. This is mostly because it has a way of making thecertified professionals have a feel that they are credible and,therefore, other people can trust them. As such, there is a greatindication that making plans to certify professionals in a certainfield could be quite vital in boosting their workmanship as well asmaking them highly interested in their profession. Such a measurealso helps to ensure that such people take proper actions that aregeared towards improving their quality of service delivery throughthe acquisition of more skills and their level of interaction withother people. It is, therefore, imperative to state that thepractices between National Board Certified and Non-National Boardcertified career and technical education teachers might be boostedthrough the certification process that these professionals gothrough.

Hinchclifet al. (2013) however, go ahead to argue that the level ofperformance and effectiveness among different professionals isusually determined by various factors and not just the fact that theyare deemed credible. One of these elements lies in the quality oftraining that these professionals received. It is quite true that notall people who have gone through some form of professional trainingare able to dispense the same quality of services as someinstitutions and disciplines are considered to be more thoroughcompared to others. As such, there is bound to be a chance that therecould be some differences experienced in the implementation andinstructional practices between National Board Certified andNon-National Board Certified Career and Technical Education Teachers.This situation is, however, not conclusive and majorly based on theassumptions that are presented in the findings of the research studythat was quite categorical in pointing out the situation that bringsabout the differences that may be experienced in the process.

Allthese research studies have been quite pertinent at showing thedifferent variables that are of great essence as far as theperformance of the different personnel who are involved in the fieldof education is concerned. They indicate that while training andaccreditation are quite important, it is, however, just the firststep towards ensuring that the teachers are able to be of great valueto the students that are operating under them. The accreditation isnot only an important process it helps to ensure that the saidprofession is well controlled and regulated so that learners areshielded from those people who may be out to take advantage of theirignorance and, thereby, provide substandard services.

Thelevel of cooperation among the different players in the teachingfield and the learners is also a vital element is ensuring that theprocess of teaching is a great success. The professionals involvedalso need to inculcate better practices towards this effect as theywill be able to benefit greatly through being of great value to thelearners who are under them.

Theresearch studies have also indicated that the quality of trainingalso plays a paramount role in increasing the level of performance ofsuch people. It is, therefore, expected that the different players inthe teaching field will be keen on the standards of training thatthey do receive while undergoing capacity building so as to ensurethat they are of great help to their students and other people in thesame field.

Table1Correct Formatting for a Multiple Line Table Title isSingle Spacing and Should Look Like this Example

Variable

Column A

M (SD)

Column B

M (SD)

Column C

M (SD)

Row 1

10.1 (1.11)

20.2 (2.22)

30.3 (3.33)

Row 2

20.2 (2.22)

30.3 ( 3.33)

20.2 (2.22)

Row 3

30.3 (3.33)

10.1 (1.11)

10.1 (1.11)

Note. Adapted from “Sampling and Recruitment in Studies of Doctoral Students,” by I.M. Researcher, 2010, Journal of Perspicuity, 25, p. 100. Reprinted with permission.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

This section provides a broad, balanced overview and synthesis of the existing literature related to the proposed research topic. It identifies topics, themes, trends, and conflicts in research methodology, design, and findings. It describes the literature in related topic areas and its relevance to the research topic and research approach. It provides an overall analysis and synthesis of the existing literature examining the contributions of this literature to the field identifying the conflicts and relating the topics, themes, and results to the study topic and research approach. Accurate, empirical research citations are provided for all ideas, concepts, and perspectives. The researcher`s personal opinions or perspectives are not included. (Minimum 30 pages)

This section must be a minimum of 30 pages. The purpose of the minimum number of pages is to ensure that the overall literature review reflects a foundational understanding of the theory or theories, literature and research studies related to the topic. A well-written comprehensive literature review that reflects the current state of research and literature on the topic is expected and will likely exceed 30 pages. Literature review should be updated continuously. This is an ongoing process to dissertation completion.

X

Quantitative Studies: Describes each research variable in the study discussing the prior empirical research that has been done on the variables and the relationship between the variables.

Qualitative Studies: Describes the phenomena being explored in the study discussing the prior research that has been done on the phenomena.

X

Themes or Topics (Required): Discusses and synthesizes studies related to the proposed dissertation topic. May include (1) studies describing and/or relating the variables (quantitative) or exploring related phenomena (qualitative), (2) studies on related research such as factors associated with the themes, (3) studies on the instruments used to collect data, (4) studies on the broad population for the study, and/or (5) studies similar to the proposed study. The themes presented and research studies discussed and synthesized in the Review of Literature demonstrates a deep understanding of all aspects of the research topic.

X

Methodology Section (required): Discusses and synthesizes the various methodologies and designs that have been used in prior empirical research related to the study. Must use authoritative sources to justify the proposed design.

X

Instrumentation Section (required): Provides discussion and justification for the instrumentation selected for the study. This section must argue the appropriateness of the dissertation’s instruments, measures, and/or approaches used to collect data. Empirical research must be used to justify the selection of instrument(s).

X

Structures literature review in a logical order, includes actual data and accurate synthesis of results from reviewed studies as related to the learners own topic, not just a summary of the findings.

X

Includes in each major section (theme or topic) within the Review of Literature an introductory paragraph that explains why the particular theme or topic was explored relative to the overall dissertation topic.

X

Includes in each section within the Review of Literature a summary paragraph(s) that (1) compares and contrasts alternative perspectives on the topic and (2) provides a synthesis of the themes relative to the research topic discussed that emerged from the literature, and (3) identifies how themes are relevant to the proposed dissertation topic.

X

Provides additional arguments for the need for the study that was defined in the Background to the Problem section.

X

Ensures that for every in-text citation a reference entry exists. Conversely, for every reference list entry there is a corresponding in-text citation. Note: The accuracy of citations and quality of sources must be verified by learner, chair and committee members.

X

Uses a range of references including founding theorists, peer-reviewed empirical research studies from scholarly journals, and government/foundation research reports. Note: A minimum of 50 peer-reviewed, empirical research articles are required for the literature review.

X

Verifies that 75% of all references are scholarly sources within the past 5 years. The 5 year time frame is referenced at the time of the proposal defense date and at the time of the dissertation defense date. Note: Websites, dictionaries, publications without dates (n.d.), are not considered scholarly sources and should not be cited or present in reference list.

X

Avoids overuse of books and dissertations. Books: Maximum of 10 scholarly books that present cutting edge views on a topic, are research based, or are seminal works. Dissertations: Maximum of 5 published dissertations.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Summary

Thischapter dealt with the literature review in that the researcher waskeen on introducing the topic as well as explaining various studiesthat relate to differences in implementation and instructionalpractices between National Board Certified and Non National BoardCertified Career and technical education teachers.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

Chapter 2 Summary

This section restates what was written in Chapter 2 and provides supporting citations for key points. The summary section reflects that the learner has done his/her &quotdue diligence&quot to become well-read on the topic and can conduct a study that will add to the existing body of research and knowledge on the topic. It synthesizes the information from the chapter to define the &quotgaps&quot in or &quotidentified research needs&quot arising from the literature, the theory(ies) or model(s) to provide the foundation for the study, the problem statement, the primary research question, the methodology, the design, the variables or phenomena, the data collection instruments or sources, and the population to be studied. It then provides a transition discussion to Chapter 3. (Minimum one to two pages)

Synthesizes the information from all of the prior sections in the Literature Review using it to define the key strategic points for the research.

X

Summarizes the gaps and needs in the background and introduction describing how it informs the problem statement.

X

Identifies the theory(ies) or model(s) describing how they inform the research questions.

X

Justifies the design, variables or phenomena, data collection instruments or sources, and population to be studied.

X

Builds a case (argument) for the study in terms of the value of the research and how the research questions emerged from the review of literature

X

Reflects that the Learner has done his or her “due diligence” to synthesize the existing empirical research and write a comprehensive literature review on the research topic.

X

Summarizes key points in Chapter 2 and transitions into Chapter 3.

X

The Chapter is correctly formatted to dissertation template using the Word Style Tool and APA standards. Writing is free of mechanical errors.

X

All research presented in the Chapter is scholarly, topic-related, and obtained from highly respected, academic, professional, original sources. In-text citations are accurate, correctly cited and included in the reference page according to APA standards.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Chapter 3: MethodologyIntroduction

Thischapter shall consider the research design to be used for the study.It will also highlight the methods of data collection as well as howdata analysis shall be done so as to come up with results. It willalso entail the ethical issues that will come up as it relates to thecollection of data and how the researcher may ensure sound practiceswhile doing the same.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

CHAPTER 3 INTRODUCTION

This section includes both a restatement of the research focus and the Purpose Statement for the study from Chapter 1 to reintroduce reader to the need for the study and a description of contents of the chapter. (Minimum two to three paragraphs)

The Introduction summarizes the research focus, and the purpose statement to reintroduce the reader to the study. This section also outlines the expectations for this chapter.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Statement of theProblem

Theproblem that the researcher will focus on shall be based on thedifferences in implementation and instructional practices betweenNational Board Certified and Non-National Board Certified Career andtechnical education teachers. This is because students who passthrough the hands of instructors that have had some form ofcertification, appear to be performing quite well compared to thosewho pass through the hands of technical education teachers.

Itis, therefore, important to establish that there is a need to carryout a study to ascertain whether certified instructors are moreeffective compared to technical education teachers. Gordon (2014) isquite categorical in stating that technical education teachers have ahuge role to play, especially, as it relates to imparting specificskills on the students. The students could use these skills tofurther their performance in and outside the school for being ofgreat importance and help to the society through the solving of someproblems that seemed quite hard to deal with, at the beginning. Itmay, therefore, not be wise to jump into conclusion that technicaleducation teachers are less effective without taking great heed toinvestigate further on their role and establishing if they are trulyof help, or not.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This section restates the problem for the convenience of the reader. This section is a summary of the related section in Chapter 1. (Minimum one to two paragraphs)

The research problem is restated for the convenience of the reader. This section aligns to the related section in Chapter 1.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Research Question(s)or Hypotheses

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND/OR HYPOTHESES

This section restates the research question(s) and the hypotheses or phenomena and explains why the selected design is the best approach to answer the research questions. Further, it defines the variables and/or groups. The section also discusses the approaches to collecting the data to answer the research questions. This section expands on the related section in Chapter 1. (Minimum one to two pages)

For a qualitative study, restates the research questions and the phenomena for the study from Chapter 1.

For a quantitative study, restates the research questions from Chapter 1, presents the matching hypotheses and operationalizes the variables. Research questions must align directly with the problem and purpose statements,

X

Describes the nature and sources of necessary data to answer the research questions (primary versus secondary data, specific people, institutional archives, Internet open sources, etc.).

For a quantitative study, the section describes the instrument(s) or data source(s) to collect the data for each and every variable.

For a qualitative study, The section describes the instrument(s) or data source(s) to collect the data to answer each research question.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Research Methodology

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This section describes the research methodology for the study (quantitative, qualitative, or mixed) and explains the rationale for selecting this particular methodology as opposed to the alternative methodologies. (Minimum one to two pages)

Elaborates on the research methodology (from Chapter 1) for the study (quantitative, qualitative, or mixed). Provides the rationale for selecting the particular methodology supported by empirical studies in the research literature. Justifies why the methodology was selected as opposed to alternative methodologies.

X

Uses authoritative source(s) to justify the selected methodology. Note: Do not use introductory research textbooks (such as Creswell) to justify the research design and data analysis approach.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Research Design

Theresearch study shall apply a descriptive research design in that theresearcher wishes to collect information regarding a specific topicas at a given time. Since a case study is employed in the researchmethod, it will be quite appropriate for the provision of informationpertaining to instructional practices between National BoardCertified and Non-National Board Certified Teachers of Career andTechnical Education. The descriptive design is preferred given thefact that it is able to provide the information needed at thespecific time. The information provided will also be most likely,quite conclusive and have a high ability of enabling the researcherto come up with valid and reliable conclusions that may go beyondwhat is generally known and address many other pressing questions. Assuch, the method will be quite pertinent in highlighting the problemstatement and research questions provided. This also includesproviding relevant answers to some of the hypotheses that may betabled all around (Silverman, 2016). All these are able to beanswered clearly since the research design applied is quiteappropriate for this topic. The method is far much better compared toothers, such as correlation studies that may involve venturing muchdeeper into the past of a given person with the aim of establishingsome of the actions that such a person did or the circumstances thatthe individual was exposed to, which could have had an effect on hiscurrent well being. The study shall also employ the use of researchquestionnaires that may be used to collect relevant data. Theresearcher shall also use interview questions to collect data that iscrucial for the study.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

RESEARCH DESIGN

This section describes in detail the specific design for the study and describes why it is the best design to collect the data to answer the research needed for the study. It explains exactly how the selected design was used to facilitate collection of data for each and every variable (for a quantitative study) or how the selected design was used to facilitate collection of data to describe the nature of the phenomena in detail (for a qualitative study). It identifies the specific instruments and data sources to be used to collect all of the different data required for the study. This section expands on the Nature of the Research Design for the Study section in Chapter 1. (Minimum one to two pages)

Elaborates on the research design from Chapter 1. Provides the rationale for selecting the particular research design supported by empirical references. Justifies why the design was selected as the best approach to collect the needed data, as opposed to alternative designs.

X

Describes how the specific, selected research design will be used to collect the type of data needed to answer the research questions and the specific instruments or data sources that will be used to collect this data. For quantitative studies provide the variable structure and state the unit of analysis.

X

Uses authoritative source(s) to justify the design. Note: Do not use introductory research textbooks (such as Creswell) to justify the research design and data analysis approach.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Population and SampleSelection

  1. Location: a random selected teachers, administrators, and Career and Development Coordinators (CDC) in two to three high schools located in the Guilford County School System, Career and Technical Education Department.

  2. Population: School Systems in the United States

  3. Target Population: Approximately 10 to 12 CTE teachers, administrators, and the Career Development Coordinators (CDC) in Guilford County Schools.

  1. Alternative plan- I will select high schools in neighboring county, such as the Forsyth County School System.

  1. Sample: 2 to 3 high schools in the Guilford County School System-CTE departments High Schools include selected teachers, administrators, and Career and Development Coordinators (CDC)

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

POPULATION AND SAMPLE SELECTION

This section discusses the setting, general population, target population, and study sample. The discussion of the sample includes the research terminology specific to the type of sampling for the study as well as how the sample population and final sample will be protected. This section provides a detailed description of the population and sample which were identified in the Research Design for the Study section in Chapter 1 as well as research considerations relevant to the sample and population. (Minimum one to two pages)

Describes the general population (i.e., students with disabilities), target population (i.e. students with disabilities in one specific district – geographic location) and the study sample (students with disabilities in the district that participated in the study – actual study sample).

X

Describes the study sample size. Provides evidence (based on the empirical research) literature that sample size is adequate for the research design and meets GCU required sample size requirements (listed in criteria below).

X

Quantitative Sample Size Requirements:

Absolute Minimum: 50 cases or participants or 40 cases per cell. Applicable to studies that use frequencies/descriptive statistics and parametric statistical tests (t-tests, ANOVA, correlation, regression analysis)—additional requirements related to the use of certain statistical analysis procedures may increase that number. General rule of thumb on survey research = 10 subjects per survey question. An a-priori and/or post hoc Power Analysis is required to justify the study sample size based on the anticipated effect size and selected design.

Qualitative Sample Size Requirements:

Case Study: Minimum 10 participants or cases Recommended Target=20 due to attrition minimum of 3 sources of data must demonstrate triangulation of the data. Case study interviews may include closed-ended questions with a dominance of open-ended questions should be no less than 30 minutes at least 15 pages of transcribed data, single spaced, 12 pt. Times New Roman.

Phenomenology: 10-15 interviews no closed ended questionnaires allowed Interviews should be 60-90 minutes. There should be a minimum of 60 pages of transcribed data, single spaced, 12 pt. Times New Roman.

Descriptive: 12-15 interviews or cases with at least 3 sources of data 30-60 pages of transcribed data, single spaced, 12 pt. Times New Roman.

Narrative or Grounded Theory: Minimum of 30 pages of transcribed data from interviews, open-ended questionnaire, or other data sources. Transcript to be 12 Point and single spaced. Studies typically have a minimum of 10-20 interviews or40-60 open-ended questionnaires. Interviews are 60-90 minutes in length. Grounded theory studies must yield a theory or model.

X

Defines and describes the sampling procedures (such as convenience, purposive, snowball, random, etc.) supported by scholarly research sources. Includes discussion of sample selection, and assignment to groups (if applicable), and strategies to account for participant attrition.

X

Describes the site authorization process, confidentiality measures, study participation requirements, and geographic specifics.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Instrumentation or Sources of Data Sources of Data

Thedata collection approaches to determine teacher quality, andinstructional practices of NBCT in the field of Career and TechnicalEducation (CTE) will include three forms of data collection:observation, interviews, and documentation review.

Observation.This form can be used to observe live situations or behaviors ofteachers and students in the classroom. It will be essential to spendadequate time in the classroom of NBCTs as well as non-NBCTs in thefield of Career and Technical Education (CTE) to get a deepunderstanding of teacher quality through their implementation,instructional practices, classroom management skills, interactionwith students, and overall characteristics. This data can be used toobserve a phenomenon displayed through media or audiovisual material.

Interviews. The interviewer asks the interviewee or participant a series ofspecific questions for which they have a fixed range of answersavailable. The interview questions will include open-ended questionsand often additional probing questions, and structured datacollection. The interviews will include approximately 12 teachers,administrators, and Career Development Coordinators.

Documentation,The recorded responses from the various participants in the studywill reveal a great amount of information to determine the purposeof the study.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

INSTRUMENTATION OR SOURCES OF DATA

This section identifies and describes the types of data that were collected as well as the specific instruments and sources used to collect those data. For quantitative studies it also describes the specific type of scale of measurement used in an instrument or used to define the different groups. (Minimum one to three pages)

Data Collection Instruments: Provides a detailed discussion of the instrumentation and data collection which includes validity and reliability of the data. Includes citations from original publications by instrument developers (and subsequent users as appropriate).

X

Data Collection Instruments: Describes the structure of each data collection instrument and data sources (tests, questionnaires, interviews, observations data bases, media, etc.). Specifies the type and level of data collected with each instrument.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Validity

Thissection describes and defends the procedures used to determine thevalidity of the data collected. Validity refers to the degree towhich a study accurately reflects or assesses the specific conceptthat the researcher is attempting to measure. Ask if what is actuallybeing measured is what was set out to be measured. As a researcher,you must be concerned with both external and internal validity.External validity refers to the extent to which the results of thestudy are generalizable (quantitative) or transferable (qualitative)to the population. Internal validity refers to the rigor with whichthe study was conducted (study design, theory instrumentation,measurements, etc.). For this section, provide specific validitystatistics for quantitative instruments, identifying how they weredeveloped. Explain specific approaches on how validity will beaddressed for qualitative data collection approaches.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

VALIDITY

This section describes and defends the procedures used to determine the validity of the data collected appropriate to the methodology conducted. (Minimum two to four paragraphs or approximately one page)

Quantitative Studies: Provides specific validity statistics for quantitative instruments, identifying how they were developed. Validated surveys cannot be used in part or adapted. Validated instruments borrowed by the learner must be included in the proposal/dissertation appendices as a pdf or jpeg document along with the learner’s word file of his/her version of the instrument (whose content should be identical with that of the original pdf). NOTE: Learners should not modify or develop quantitative instruments without permission from the Director of Dissertations.

Qualitative Studies: Establishes validity to ensure the data that is collected is true and certain. Processes include collection of multiple sources of data triangulation member checking quasi-statistics review of data analysis by others expert panel review of developed instruments and/or practicing interviews and observations.

X

Appendices must include copies of instruments, qualitative data collection protocols, codebooks, and permission letters from instrument authors (for validated instruments, surveys, interview guides, etc.)

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Reliability

Thissection describes and defends the procedures used to determine thereliability of the data collected. Reliability is the extent to whichan experiment, test, or any measuring procedure is replicable andyields the same result with repeated trials. This section providesspecific reliability statistics for quantitative instruments,identifying how the statistics were developed. It explains specificapproaches on how reliability will be addressed for qualitative datacollection approaches.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

RELIABILITY

This section describes and defends the procedures used to determine the reliability of the data collected appropriate to the methodology conducted. (Minimum two to four paragraphs or approximately one page)

Quantitative Studies: Provides specific reliability statistics for quantitative instruments, identifying how the statistics were developed. Explains specific approaches on how reliability will be addressed for qualitative data collection approaches.

Qualitative Studies: Establishes consistency and repeatability of data collection through in-depth documented methodology detailed interview/observation/data collection protocols and guides creation of research data-base and/or use of triangulation.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Data Collection and Management

  1. Location: a random selected teachers, administrators, and Career and Development Coordinators (CDC) in two to three high schools located in the Guilford County School System, Career and Technical Education Department.

  2. Population: School Systems in the United States

  3. Target Population: Approximately 10 to 12 CTE teachers, administrators, and the Career Development Coordinators (CDC) in Guilford County Schools.

  1. Alternative plan- I will select high schools in neighboring county, such as the Forsyth County School System.

  1. Sample: 2 to 3 high schools in the Guilford County School System-CTE departments High Schools include selected teachers, administrators, and Career and Development Coordinators (CDC)

Table2t Test for Equality of Emotional Intelligence MeanScores by Gender

t test for Equality of Means

t

df

p

EI

1.908

34

.065

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

DATA COLLECTION AND MANAGEMENT

This section details the entirety of the process used to collect the data. It describes each step of the data collection process in such a way that another researcher could replicate the study. (Minimum one to three pages)

Quantitative Studies: Describes the procedures for the actual data collection that would allow replication of the study by another researcher, including how each instrument or data source was used, how and where data were collected, and recorded. Includes a linear sequence of actions or step-by-step of procedures used to carry out all the major steps for data collection. Includes a workflow and corresponding timeline, presenting a logical, sequential, and transparent protocol for data collection that would allow another researcher to replicate the study.

Qualitative Studies: Provides detailed description of data collection process that would allow replication of the study by another researcher, including all sources of data and methods used, such as interviews, member checking, observations, surveys, and expert panel review. Note: The collected data must be sufficient in breadth and depth to answer the research question(s) and interpreted and presented correctly, by theme, research question and/or instrument.

X

Describes the procedures for obtaining informed consent and for protecting the rights and well-being of the study sample participants.

X

Describes (for both paper-based and electronic data) the data management procedures adopted to maintain data securely, including the length of time data will be kept, where it will be kept, and how it will be destroyed.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Data AnalysisProcedures

Themethod used for data analysis shall be qualitative, whereby theresearcher shall focus more on details provided in the open-endedquestionnaires that the respondents shall answer. The researchershall also rely on data from secondary sources to improve the qualityof findings that may be obtained.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

This section describes how the data were collected for each variable or group (quantitative study) or for each research question (qualitative study). It describes the type of data analyzed, identifying the descriptive, thematic, inferential, and/or non-statistical analyses. This section demonstrates that the research analysis is aligned to the specific research design. (Minimum one to three pages)

Lists the research question(s). Also includes the null and alternative hypotheses for quantitative studies.

X

Describes in detail the relevant data collected for each stated research question and/or each variable within each hypothesis (if applicable).

X

Describes in detail the data management practice including how the raw data was organized and prepared for analysis, i.e., ID matching of respondents who may respond to more than one survey/instrument, coding/recoding of variables, treatment of missing values, scoring, calculations, etc.

X

What: Describes, in detail, statistical and non-statistical analysis to be used and procedures used to conduct the data analysis.

X

Why: Provides the justification for each of the (statistical and non-statistical) data analysis procedures used in the study.

X

How: Demonstrates how the statistical and non-statistical data analysis techniques align with the research questions/design.

X

Quantitative Analysis – states the level of statistical significance for each test as appropriate, and describes tests of assumptions for each statistical test.

Qualitative Analysis – evidence of qualitative analysis approach, such as coding and theming process, must be completely described and include the analysis /interpretation process.

X

Provides evidence that quantity and quality of data is sufficient to answer the research questions. This must be present in this section or in an appendix including data samples.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Ethical Considerations

Moralleadership and proficiency are the central point of concern in thefield of Career and Technical Education given the fact that it iswhere people are normally trained on how they may be able to becomeresponsible members of society. Some of the ethical issues of concernthat may come up during the study could include the preservation ofthe identities of people who may take part in the study, as well asthe use of consent so that the subjects willfully accept to take partin the study without having any feeling whatsoever that they arebeing coerced to do something that they are completely not willing totake part in. In order to successfully map the future goals,research conduct is required and IRB approval is necessary to conductsuch. Written permission contracts will be drawn up to receiveconsent to conduct the study within three different high schoolswithin the Guilford County School System. Site authorization will begranted from not only the high school principal but the NorthCarolina Schools Superintendent. With permission, the teachers fillout a questionnaire, they will be observed, and interviewed.

Theadministrators as well as the Career Development Coordinators (CDC)will fill out a questionnaire and be interviewed to gain valuableinformation on existing knowledge of instructional practices ofCareer and Technical Educators that are National Board CertifiedTeachers. The potential ethical issues are minimized by using athematic analysis where data will be categorized from notes todiscover patterns and developing themes. As Boyatzis (1998) writes inTransforming Qualitative Information, thematic analysis is a processof &quotencoding qualitative information&quot (p. vii).&nbspTheidentities of the subjects taking part in the study shall bepreserved according to the participant`s codes to replace theirnames.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

This section discusses the potential ethical issues surrounding the research as well as how human subjects and data will be protected. It identifies how any potential ethical issues have been and will be addressed. (Minimum three to four paragraphs or approximately one page)

Provides a discussion of ethical issues related to the study and the sample population of interest.

X

Describes the procedures for obtaining informed consent and for protecting the rights and well-being of the study sample participants.

X

Addresses anonymity, confidentiality, privacy, strategies to prevent coercion, and any potential conflict of interest.

X

Describes the data management procedures adopted to store and maintain paper and electronic data securely, including the length of time data will be kept, where it will be kept, and how it will be destroyed.

Note: Learners are required to securely maintain and have access to raw data/records for a minimum of three years. If asked by AQR reviewer or CDS representative, learner must provide all evidence of data including source data, Excel files, interview transcripts, evidence of coding or data analysis, or survey results etc. No dissertation will be allowed to move forward in the review process if data are not produced upon request.

X

Includes copy of IRB Informed Consent (Proposal) and IRB Approval letter (Dissertation) in an Appendix.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Limitations and Delimitations

Thisstudy generally has its limitations. First of all, the time necessaryfor carrying out the study may not be enough for obtaining theresults that the researcher is interested in. The sample size mayalso not be enough for more valid results, although with the costconstraints involved, it may not be possible to increase the number.The data analysis process will, however, be a delimitation for thestudy in that the approach taken shall come in handy in providing thebetter conclusions. This is because a descriptive qualitativeanalysis shall be done.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

LIMITATIONS AND DELIMITATIONS

This section discusses in detail the limitations and delimitations related to the research methodology and design and potential impacts on the results. (Minimum two to three paragraphs)

Describes any limitations and delimitations related to the methodology, sample, instrumentation, data collection process and analysis. Explains why the existing limitations are unavoidable. Note: This section must be updated as limitations emerge in the data collection/analysis, and then incorporated in Chapter 5 the limitations overall and how the study results were affected.

X

Presents strategies to minimize and/or mitigate the negative consequences of limitations and delimitations.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Summary

Chapterthree mostly touched on the methodology and research design thatwould be used to carry out the study. A descriptive qualitative shallbe done. It shall employ the use of a cases study to make thefindings more worthy. It shall also use a pilot study to increase thevalidity of the research as well as carrying out a small sample sizeto increase the reliability of the results. These approaches shall bequite appropriate while handling the results and discussion inchapter 4.

.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY

This section restates what was written in Chapter 3 and provides supporting citations for key points. It then provides a transition discussion to Chapter 4. (Minimum one to two pages)

Summarizes key points presented in Chapter 3 using authoritative, empirical sources/citations.

X

Presents alignment of the 10 strategic points, illustrating how the research questions align with the problem statement, methodology, design, instrumentation, data collection, procedures and data analysis approach.

X

Demonstrates in-depth understanding/mastery of the overall research methodology, design and data analysis techniques.

X

Ends Chapter 3 with a transition discussion to focus for Chapter 4.

X

The Chapter is correctly formatted to dissertation template using the Word Style Tool and APA standards. Writing is free of mechanical errors.

X

All research presented in the Chapter is scholarly, topic-related, and obtained from highly respected academic, professional, original sources. In-text citations are accurate, correctly cited and included in the reference page according to APA standards.

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

References

Barzun,J., &amp Graff, H. F. (1992). The Modern researcher: Aclassic work on research and writing completely revised and broughtup to date. San Diego: HarcourtBrace Jovanovich.

Brands,H. W. (2000). The first American: the life and times of BenjaminFranklin. New York: Doubleday.

Calabrese,R. L. (2006). The elements of an effective dissertation &ampthesis: a step-by-step guide to getting it right the first time.Lanham, MD: Roman &amp Littlefield Education.

Creswell,J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative,and mixed methods approaches, 4thedition. ThousandOaks: Sage Publications, Inc.

Hacker,D., Somers, N., Jehn, T., &amp Rosenzweig, J. (2008). Rulesfor writers. Boston, MA:Bedford/St. Martin`s.

Nock,A. J. (1943). The memoirs of a superfluous man. New York:Harper &amp Brothers.

Petty,T., Good, A.J., Handler, L, K. (2015). Impact on Student Learning:National Board Certified Teachers’ Perception.

PublicationManual of the American Psychological Association. (2010).Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. (6th edition)(ISBN 10: 1-4338-0559-6 ISBN 13: 978-1-4338-0561-5 ISBN 10:1-4338-0561-8).

Silverman,D. (Ed.). (2016).&nbspQualitative research. Sage.

Sprague,J., &amp Stuart, D. (2000) The speaker’s handbook,Harcourt College Publishers.

Squires,D. A., &amp Kranyik, R. D. (1995). The comer program: changingschool culture. Educational Leadership, 53(4), 29-32.

Strunk,W. I., &amp White, E.B. (1979). The elements of style. NewYork: Macmillan Publishing, Inc.

Taylor,S. J., Bogdan, R., &amp DeVault, M. (2015).&nbspIntroduction toqualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. JohnWiley &amp Sons.

Criterion

*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3)

Learner Score

Chair Score

Methodologist Score

Content Expert Score

QUALITY OF SOURCES &amp REFERENCE LIST

For every in-text citation a reference entry exists conversely, for every reference list entry there is an in-text citation. Uses a range of references including founding theorists, peer-reviewed empirical research studies from scholarly journals, and government/foundation research reports. The majority of all references must be scholarly, topic-related sources published within the last 5 years. Websites, dictionaries, and publications without dates (n.d.) are not considered scholarly sources and should not be cited or present in the reference list. In-text citations and reference list must comply with APA 6th Ed.

Ensures that for every in-text citation a reference entry exists. Conversely, for every reference list entry there is a corresponding in-text citation. Note: The accuracy of citations and quality of sources must be verified by learner, chair and committee members.

X

X

Uses a range of references including founding theorists, peer-reviewed empirical research studies from scholarly journals, and government /foundation research reports. Note: A minimum of 50 peer-reviewed, empirical research articles are required for the literature review.

X

X

Verifies that 75% of all references are scholarly sources within the last 5 years. The 5 year time frame is referenced at the time of the proposal defense date and at the time of the dissertation defense date. Note: Websites, dictionaries, publications without dates (n.d.), are not considered scholarly sources and should not be cited or present in reference list.

X

X

Avoids overuse of books and dissertations.

Books: Maximum of 10 scholarly books that present cutting edge views on a topic, are research based, or are seminal works.

Dissertations: Maximum of 5 published dissertations.

X

X

Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.

X

X

*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:

0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.

1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.

2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.

3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.

Reviewer Comments:

Appendix ATheParts of a Dissertation

GCUuses the Publication Manual of the American PsychologicalAssociation, 6th edition for its dissertationformatting and style guide. The GCU dissertation template complieswith APA 6.0 with exceptions as noted in the template and in thisformatting guide. A dissertation has three parts: preliminary pages,main text, and supplementary pages. Some preliminary or supplementarypages may be optional or not appropriate to a specific project. Thelearner should consult with his or her dissertation chair andcommittee regarding inclusion/exclusion of optional pages.

Preliminarypages. The following preliminary pages precede the main text ofthe dissertation.

  • Title Page

  • Author’s Name

  • Copyright Page (optional)

  • Committee and Deans Approval Page

  • Learner Signature Page

  • Abstract

  • Dedication Page (optional)

  • Acknowledgements (optional)

  • Table of Contents

  • List of Tables (if you have tables, a list is required)

  • List of Figures (if you have figures, a list is required)

Maintext. The main text is divided into five major chapters. Eachchapter can be further subdivided into sections and subsections basedon the formatting requirements for each college.

  • Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study

  • Chapter 2: Literature Review

  • Chapter 3: Methodology

  • Chapter 4: Data Analysis and Results

  • Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

Supplementarypages. Supplementary pages follow the body text, includingreference materials and other required or optional addenda.

  • References (required)

  • Appendices (required)

  • IRB Approval Letter

  • Informed Consent Form

  • Copies of Instruments and Permission Letters

  • Appendices (optional)

  • Data analysis, tables and charts if referenced in Chapter 4

  • Lengthy tables or large figures if referenced in other chapters

  • Photographs, artifacts or media related to study results

  • Vitae (optional)

  • Glossary (optional)

  • List of Abbreviations (optional)

Keepin mind that most formatting challenges are found in the preliminaryand supplementary pages. Allocate extra time and attention for thesesections to avoid delays in the electronic submission process. Also,as elementary as it may seem, run a complete spell and grammar checkof your entire document before submission.

Appendix BIRB Approval Letter

Thisis a required Appendix.

Appendix CInformed Consent

I……………………………………………do confirm that I have agreed to take part in this research study atwill, without any coercion. I hold this reservation with theexpectation that the researcher shall treat the information that Ishall provide with utmost adherence to ethics.

Respondent

Sign……………………….. Date……………………..

Researcher

Sign……………………….. Date……………………..

Appendix DCopy of Instruments and Permissions Letters to Usethe Instruments

Close Menu