Diabetes a Sedentary Adults – 45-years and Over

  • Uncategorized

Diabetesa Sedentary Adults – 45-years and Over

Diabetesa Sedentary Adults – 45-years and Over


Diabetesis a kind of condition that is characterized with high sugar contentwithin the blood. The condition normally goes on for a prolongedperiod of time, to such a point that it affects the normalfunctioning of the body and its systems (AmericanDiabetes Association, 2014).The disease may be caused by two occurrences. One of them is thefailure of pancreas to produce enough insulin. Insulin is a peptidehormone produced in the pancreatic islets (Johnson,Nakagawa, Sanchez-Lozada, Shafiu, Sundaram, &amp Lanaspa, 2013).The second occurrence is be due to insulin resistance, a conditionwhere the fat, muscles and liver cells of the body do not use insulineffectively.&nbsp

Thisdisease is of great importance, owing to the fact that cases are onthe rise, and as well, it has no cure, but rather dependent on justmanagement. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) contends thatover 422 million people had the disease by the year 2014. The figureis quite high given that in 1980, about 108 million people had it.The prevalence rates of adults who have diabetes have also risenconsiderably from 4.7% to 8.5% in 1980 and 2014, respectively. Thefigure is expected to go higher in the coming decades (Rydén,Grant, Anker, Berne, Cosentino, Danchin, &amp Marre, 2013).The World Health Organization projects that the number could doubleby the year 2030 (Hardie,2013).There is also a worrying fact that people who are aged between 40-59years appear to form a large proportion of those who have thedisease. There is high expectation that the case could change toaffect more people who are aged between 60-79 years by the year 2030.

Thecommon risk factors that are linked to diabetes are diet, age andsedentary lifestyles. Such factors appear to continue shiftingtowards the negative because most people today eat foods that havehigh content of sugar and fats (Ginter,&amp Simko, 2013).The increase in automation and a busy life means that lesser peopleget time to exercise, thereby increasing the optimum level ofperformance of different organs found in their bodies.

Theissues outlined point to the fact that it is of great importance forproper actions to be taken so as to deal with diabetes accordinglyand reverse the trend of occurrence towards the negative (Caplan,2013).This case could mean that the quality of life will be greatlyimproved and people will have to spend less towards the management ofthe cases. The burden of the health care system shall also be easedsignificantly as health care providers will have a reduced number ofpeople to take care of (AmericanDiabetes Association, 2013).The reduced cases of diabetes could also mean that fatality ratescaused by the disease will dwindle.

Descriptionof the project

Theproject shall focus on the prevention of onset of diabetes casesamong individuals. Prevention is normally the first level of healthpromotion and, therefore, quite cheaper and more effective method(Bauman,&amp Nutbeam, 2013).The organization shall aim to conduct regular health education andsensitization programs in relation to diabetes so as to make peopleaware of its scope and ways through which they may avoid it(Eldredge,.Markham, Kok, Ruiter, &amp Parcel, 2016).The Information, Education and Communication strategy (IEC) shallinclude the focus on the importance of taking proper action andpicking up healthy diets and more active lifestyles that will improvethe general wellbeing of the body.

Theprogram shall target people of all type of ages but the focus shallbe more on those above the age of 18 years. People in this age groupare old enough and are more likely to take proper actions that arebound to be of great importance to their health. Such people are alsoself-driven and may understand the importance of following through acertain lifestyle for the purposes of a good health.

Theprogram shall be offered in selected forums in learning institutionsand health facilities. The seminars shall be publicized appropriatelybefore the day in a bid to make more people attend them and gaininformation that could be quite vital to them. The facilitators shallfocus on the Health Belief Model (HBM) in order to make people changetheir behavior and adopt those measures that will be of great help tothem (Montanaro,&amp Bryan, 2014).The HBM model entails showing people why they are susceptible tohaving diabetes. They shall as well be made aware of the risk factorsthat are associated with the disease. They will, therefore, come tothe full realization that most of them take unhealthy foods and donot exercise more frequently (Sayegh,&amp Knight, 2013).The people will also learn about the severity of the disease. Thefacilitators will achieve such through presenting such people withthe symptoms associated with this condition. As a result, they may beable to appreciate the discomfort that is brought about by diabetes.Such people could also learn about other diseases that may be broughtabout by prolonged cases of diabetes (Jalilian,Hazavehei, Vahidinia, Jalilian, &amp Moghimbeigi, 2013).The learners will, as a result, be able to get the perceived benefitsof adopting healthy living lifestyles. They will be able to establishthe high quality of life that they could end up having if they adoptmeasures that will prevent the occurrence of the disease in the firstplace.

Thefacilitators shall conclude with self-efficacy, which shall entailproving to people that they have the capability to adopt good healthpractices. This will go a long way in motivating such people to keepon taking part in practices that will have far-reaching effects interms of protecting them from some diseases such as diabetes(Khorsand,Shamsi, &amp Jahani, 2013).The program shall also focus on the provision of IEC materials toprogram attendees in a bid to enable them understand more aboutdiabetes and how they may be able to protect themselves against it.

Theprogram shall include activities that will be geared towards makingolder adults have a more active thinking regarding their health. Oneof such activities would include having the people taking part in thepromotion plan undergoing several check-ups at selected healthfacilities so that any health problems may easily be noted. Theorganization may subsidize the check-up fees for the subjects in abid to motivate them and reduce the cost. This process could be doneperiodically, twice every year, for five years. The main goal will beto easily identify any health problems that people may be goingthrough. The objectives related to the goals will be to increase thelevel of rate of check-ups among the people as well as make the olderadults more willing to take up healthy practices through observingtheir diet and exercise. The third objective shall be to improvetheir level of information sharing among the older adults so thatthey may acquire proper knowledge, necessary for their survival.

Theproject strengths lie in the fact that this strategy is quite cheaperto implement since no specialized equipment or drugs are necessaryfor its application. The weakness is that the program may not reachas many people as it would be desired (Hemmelskamp,Rennings, &amp Leone, 2013).One of the innovative plans that the project manager shall undertakewill include putting IEC articles on home and living magazines readby most people in the area of interest.

Objectives,strategies and evaluation

Theprogram shall have the aim of lowering the rates of new cases ofdiabetes among people. The objective shall be complemented by havingpeople take up actions that will help them towards such effect. Oneof them includes motivating such people to improve their diets bytaking foods that are of great benefit to their bodies (Street,Gold, &amp Manning, 2013).This will involve lowering the intake of foods that are rich in fatand sugar content and increasing the intake of fruits, vegetables andwater. The individuals shall also need to reduce their sedentarylifestyles and pick up more active ones that may involve carrying outregular exercises and taking part in outdoor activities more than theindoor activities that basically make them less involved in burningexcess fats in their bodies (Haber,2013).The project shall also aim to make people monitor their body weightand Body Mass Index (BMI) regularly to ensure that they fall withinthe acceptable limits (Hsu,Araneta, Kanaya, Chiang, &amp Fujimoto, 2015).The BMI of a healthy individual normally falls between 18.5 and 25.The action shall be quite important as it will enable such peopleidentify problems while they are still in their budding stage andaddress them much earlier before they escalate to much worse levels.The project manager make use of life coaches who will take projectparticipants through a process whereby, they will be taught on thekind of diet that they may take as well as the time that they mayschedule for a given exercise.

Theachievement of the objectives shall be measured through taking noteof people who have reported taking up and consistently observing highstandards of healthy living through regular practice and healthydiet. It will also monitor the weight and BMI, especially of thosewho are in the critical level and find out if there is animprovement.

Workingin partnership with others

Theproject shall take into full consideration the importance ofinvolving various stakeholders in the process of the implementationof different strategies outlined for the purposes of ensuring highlevels of effectiveness (Naidoo,2016).One of them will include the Department of Health, which could comein handy in the provision of a framework that the project managersmay use to make the project a success. The Department shall also bekey in the provision of expert advice and facilitation of anyinformation that may be lacking on the part of the implementers in abid to make them more competent and in a great position to dispensetheir duties with high levels of confidence. The program shall alsoconsider seeking the partnership of various NGOs that may provideinstitutional and professional support towards this effect. One ofthese NGOs could be such as the Community Health Promotion NetworkAtlantic. The program shall also include private hospitals that mayprovide their ideas on how the program may be made more effective,owing to the fact that these facilities are normally in close contactwith patients suffering from diabetes and, therefore, have moreinsights regarding their behavior and how it may be improved to bemore geared towards the reduction of the cases of condition’soccurrence.


Directly involved in the project

Indirectly involved in the project

Department of health


Community Health Promotion Network Atlantic


Private hospitals


Theproject shall also involve the community in its planning andimplementation through picking some and having them in the steeringcommittee. Such people are able to provide ideas that will be ofessence to the implementation of the project. Such people may also beable to identify any grey areas that may exist in the process ofproject formulation and implementation and, as a result, increase thechances of addressing the problems for the purposes of making theproject a great success. The project shall also involve the communitythrough having them take part in the sensitization activities as theaudience and participants. The project managers shall disseminate theresults of the project back to the community through making onlinepublications to which members of the community may have access.








Office outlet rent



Electronic equipment supply and maintenance (14 Computers, 3 printers, 6 UPS systems)


Stationary and office supplies


Furniture (20 office desks, 41 office chairs, 6 launge couches, 7 filing cabinets )


Transportation (7 company hired vans)




IEC Materials


Conference room hiring and conference facilitation






Thebudget estimate for the project shall be about AUD 1,137,520 per yearand will go towards the financing of various fixed and recurrentexpenditure that will be necessary for the implementation of theproject.


















Resource mobilization


Project initiation


Implementation (health promotion seminars)




Continual implementation


Continual implementation



Monitoringof the project shall take place intermittently while the evaluationof the project will at take place at the end of the project


Theproject will deal with specific people who shall be monitored closelyduring the implementation of the project. This strategy will make iteasier for sustainability of the project to be effective because theproject implementers will need to deal with a small group of peopleafter the grant provided by donors has been spent out (Ebbesen,&amp Hope, 2013).The project shall mostly focus on monitoring of the people who wereincorporated into the project. This means that the number ofpersonnel needed for the process shall be quite little.

Themonitoring process shall, however, use some resources. The projectmanager will rely on seeking additional funding from other donorsbefore the depletion of the grants provided by other donors (Brook,&amp Pagnanelli, 2014).This is the approach that shall be taken to ensure that the projectgoes on constantly without any interruption of the activities slottedtowards the process of health promotion. The project managers shallalso invest some of the surplus amounts remaining from previousproject phases, on the consent of donors, to ensure more money iscreated towards boosting the funding that it has. The project teamshall, however, consider low-risk investments so as not to lose themoney set aside for the investment.


  1. American Diabetes Association. (2013). Economic costs of diabetes in the US in 2012.&nbspDiabetes care,&nbsp36(4), 1033.

  2. American Diabetes Association. (2014). Standards of medical care in diabetes–2014.&nbspDiabetes care,&nbsp37, S14.

  3. Bauman, A., &amp Nutbeam, D. (2013).&nbspEvaluation in a nutshell: a practical guide to the evaluation of health promotion programs. McGraw Hill.

  4. Brook, J. W., &amp Pagnanelli, F. (2014). Integrating sustainability into innovation project portfolio management–A strategic perspective.Journal of Engineering and Technology Management,&nbsp34, 46-62.

  5. Caplan, P. (Ed.). (2013).&nbspFood, health and identity. Routledge.

  6. Ebbesen, J. B., &amp Hope, A. (2013). Re-imagining the iron triangle: embedding sustainability into project constraints.&nbspPM World Journal,&nbsp2(III).

  7. Eldredge, L. K. B., Markham, C. M., Kok, G., Ruiter, R. A., &amp Parcel, G. S. (2016).&nbspPlanning health promotion programs: an intervention mapping approach. John Wiley &amp Sons.

  8. Ginter, E., &amp Simko, V. (2013). Type 2 diabetes mellitus, pandemic in 21st century. In&nbspDiabetes&nbsp(pp. 42-50). Springer New York.

  9. Haber, D. (2013).&nbspHealth promotion and aging: Practical applications for health professionals. Springer Publishing Company.

  10. Hardie, D. G. (2013). AMPK: a target for drugs and natural products with effects on both diabetes and cancer.&nbspDiabetes,&nbsp62(7), 2164-2172.

  11. Hemmelskamp, J., Rennings, K., &amp Leone, F. (Eds.). (2013).Innovation-oriented environmental regulation: theoretical approaches and empirical analysis&nbsp(Vol. 10). Springer Science &amp Business Media.

  12. Hsu, W. C., Araneta, M. R. G., Kanaya, A. M., Chiang, J. L., &amp Fujimoto, W. (2015). BMI cut points to identify at-risk Asian Americans for type 2 diabetes screening.&nbspDiabetes Care,&nbsp38(1), 150-158.

  13. Jalilian, F., Hazavehei, S. M. M., Vahidinia, A. A., Jalilian, M., &amp Moghimbeigi, A. (2013). Prevalence and related factors for choosing self-medication among pharmacies visitors based on Health Belief Model in Hamadan Province, West of Iran.&nbspJournal of research in health sciences,&nbsp13(1), 81-85.

  14. Johnson, R. J., Nakagawa, T., Sanchez-Lozada, L. G., Shafiu, M., Sundaram, S., Le, M., … &amp Lanaspa, M. A. (2013). Sugar, uric acid, and the etiology of diabetes and obesity.&nbspDiabetes,&nbsp62(10), 3307-3315.

  15. Khorsandi, M., Shamsi, M., &amp Jahani, F. (2013). The survey of practice about prevention of osteoporosis based on health belief model in pregnant women in Arak City.&nbspJournal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences,&nbsp12(1), 35-46.

  16. Montanaro, E. A., &amp Bryan, A. D. (2014). Comparing theory-based condom interventions: Health belief model versus theory of planned behavior.&nbspHealth Psychology,&nbsp33(10), 1251.

  17. Naidoo, J. (2016).&nbspFoundations for health promotion. Elsevier Health Sciences.

  18. Rydén, L., Grant, P. J., Anker, S. D., Berne, C., Cosentino, F., Danchin, N., … &amp Marre, M. (2013). ESC Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD.&nbspEuropean heart journal,&nbsp34(39), 3035-3087.

  19. Sayegh, P., &amp Knight, B. G. (2013). Cross-cultural differences in dementia: the Sociocultural Health Belief Model.&nbspInternational Psychogeriatrics,&nbsp25(04), 517-530.

  20. Street, R. L., Gold, W. R., &amp Manning, T. R. (2013).&nbspHealth promotion and interactive technology: Theoretical applications and future directions. Routledge.

Close Menu