• Uncategorized

Developing Women Leadership China 7

The Name of the Class

Professor (Tutor)

The Name of the School(University)

The City and State

The Date

Chapter3: Developing WomenLeadership China

This sectionprovides an insight on collection and analysis of the data. The mainobjective of the study is to understand the position of womenleadership in China. From this objective, the section examines someof the data related to this topic and provides a hypotheses underinvestigated. Chapter Three is divided into sub-sections that expoundon the manner in which the data was collected and analysed. Notably,it discusses the research design used in the study, with keenattention to its suitability for the study. There is also theformulation research questions and hypothesis. From the hypothesisand research questions, it is possible to understand the type ofresearch design used. Additionally, this chapter entails the samplingtechniques used. It also outlines the data collection methods andprocedures used in this analysis. Lastly, the chapter ends with alook at the type of data analysis employed in this research.


To providesubstantial results and analysis for this research, the study usesmixed research design. In this section, both the qualitative andquantitative designs give a clear understanding of the data analysis.In analysis of the quantitative data collected through thequestionnaires, quantitative design. Furthermore, the quantitativedesign is also used in the analysis of data on the perception ofvarious people towards the leadership of women (Adams, Gupta, andLeeth, 2009, p.182). The analysis, were in numerical form, therefore,takes a statistical approach. The basis of the findings are in termsof the data collected about the perceptions of various individuals onwomen leadership. To effectively utilize the qualitative design,theoretical perspective of analysis is has been used in ensuring thatthe placement of women in the society is well addressed (Matter,2012, p.19). The life experiences and the theories put forward aboutthe women in China and globally is analyzed through the qualitativedesign. Both the qualitative and the quantitative were collected atthe same time. These data are expected to be two distinct sets aboutthe women leadership perception in China fraternity and are expectedto be of unequal weights (Chun, Sosik, Yun, 2012, p.212). Thesimultaneous timing of these sets of data is important, and itentails the qualitative and quantitative constituents that areinvolved in this study. The sets of information are collected,recorded and analysis simultaneously. It is anticipated that the twogroups of data would mix the two research designs at their initialstages. This would occur when the qualitative statistics are embeddedin quantitative information. Subsequently, the qualitative would beused in making better the quantitative research design (Bruckmüller,and Branscombe, 2010, p.27).

ResearchQuestions and Hypothesis

The mainobjective of this study is to understand the perceptions of womenleadership in China. The questions below have been formulated to giveinsights on some of the pertinent issues that should be used inanalyzing this topic. More emphasis is put on the ways in which thesewomen leadership positions could be enhanced to better their liveswhile at these positions (Nadkarni, and Noonan, 2013, p.241). Thisresearch has three sets of questions that try to address the menacethat is facing the women in China and global stance. These questionsare as outlined below:

RQ1: What account for women’sleadership development in China being less than the globallevel?&nbspRQ2: What are the most prevalent barrier andconstraint to develop women leadership in China?&nbspRQ3: Whatare opportunities for developing women’s leadership in China?&nbsp

From the above research questionthe following hypotheses could be derived.

H1: The main issue that accountfor China women’s leadership development being less than global istheir gender placement in the society.

H2: The most prevalent barrierand constraint to develop women leadership is the conceptual beliefthat women are capable of being a good leader by numerous communitiesand societies across the world.

H3: There are numerousopportunities for developing women’s leadership in China such asmentoring, demystifying their gender placement and restructuring ofthe human resource in various organizations among others.

From the above research questionsand hypotheses, it is evident that the real problem that is facingwomen could be revealed. Additionally, the research questions areentirely objective since they revolved around the topic of the study,which is women leadership. Additionally, the study hypotheses arewell structured since they give much attention to the notion of realproblems and remedy to leadership positions of the women(Assouline-Dayan, 2013, p.211). The main aim of this study was tobring to light the remedies that women have in enhancing theirleadership positions in China to meet and surpass global ratings. Thehypotheses are well structured in such a way that they do not onlymention the cause of this predicament but also give remedies thatthese women should use to attain and maintain these leadershippositions (Valcour, 2014, p.21).


To carry out a comprehensive datacollection, the study uses two sets of sampling techniques for thisresearch. The first technique is the stratified sampling method. Evenas the employees were selected, they were grouped into diversegroups, which contain of almost all the similar characteristics. Thesample of participants was then selected by choosing these formedgroups now called the strata. The research utilized this form ofsampling technique since it reduces the advents of biases (Judge,2003, p.321). Additionally, gender equality is very important in thisanalysis. The use of this method ensures that the sample is gendersensitive this making it authentic. Another sampling technique usedin this research was a random sampling. While tackling the questionsto do with the perceptions of participants on the placement of womenin the China’s society, this sampling technique was veryinstrumental in ensuring that the data collected is quite authentic(Sheaffer, Bogler, &amp Sarfaty, 2011, p.310). This is because thetechnique allows for wider coverage of participants, which allowsqualitative data to be quite reliable. These two sets of samplingtechniques were used simultaneously to create an advent offamiliarity, therefore, bringing authenticity to the research. Asnoted earlier, the research entails qualitative and quantitativedesign. These two techniques cuts across the two research design andblend them well for further analysis (Haslam, and Ryan, 2008, p.192).

Data collection

The data collection was done withreference to the three sets of questions and hypotheses. Thisarrangement of data collection has been adopted to create clarity onthe type of data used for each research question.

RQ1: What account for women’sleadership development in China being less than the global level?&nbsp

In July 2016, the author sent outquestionnaires from students to leaders at all organizational levelsto understand how they view their careers, workplaces, and women’sroles at work. Based on collected 48 valid questionnaires, thissection captures the current perspectives from China’s women andmen, the main barriers to women advancement and the action thatcompanies, families, and individuals can take to help more women inChina fulfill their leadership aspirations.

To have a more specific andaccurate result, the researcher distributed the questionnaires torespondents who were in three groups. The groups included students(include college students, masters, and doctoral students), staff(the person who is working but not holding leading positions) andleaders (a person who leaders). From this distribution of thecollected questionnaire, it was established that 65% of respondentswere students, 18% of respondents are staff, and 17% are leaders.

It is obvious that the responsesobtained from the questionnaires represented each respondent’sobservations and attitude about the gender issues in China’sleadership development. This summary and analysis can make readershave an in-depth understanding of the gender issues in leadershipdevelopment and encourage more Chinese women to fight for their equalrights in their workplaces (Rink, Ryan, and Stoker, 2012, p.192).

RQ2: What are the mostprevalent barrier and constraint to develop women leadership in Chinaand how do they affect their leadership positions in management?&nbsp

Over the years, advancement insociety has also seen progress in the women’s social status.Looking at the current situation in China, can one still affirm thatthere is gender imbalance? Based on this question, the researcherprogressed to analyze the data from questionnaires.

From the data collected, most ofthe students think that the proportion of male and female in schoolor university is balanced and within a reasonable range. Less than10% of students observed that, none of the female or male students’populations is rare. It means the number of men and women are almostequal in the campus. Statistically, this observation can be proved.According to large-scaled statistics, China’s college graduates sexratio achieved balance a decade ago (Fernández, 2013, p.312). In2004, the number of male college graduates in China was 1.4 million,while the number of female graduates was 1.16 million.

At the leadership level, thescope and extent of the gender imbalance is significant. According tothe questionnaire, only 25% of respondents believe the sex ratio ofleaders in their workplaces is balanced. On the contrary, 67% ofrespondents noted that there are few women leaders. Only 9% ofrespondents found that the number of male leaders is a disadvantagein their workplace (Kim, and Rowley, 2009, p.32).

The results obtained lead to aconsiderable phenomenon. The issue is that, although the number ofeducated men and women are almost the same, there is a higherimbalance in the practical workplace, and in the leading positions,this gender imbalance situation becomes more obvious (Figure1).

Figure 1: As thedevelopment of career, the percentage of female decline

This finding also can also beproved by statistics from Chinese Government Census and StatisticsDepartment. According to Chinese People`s Political ConsultativeConference (CPPCC) proposals in the year 2011, the number of femalesin China has accounted for 40% of the total number of Human Resourcesin Science and Technology (HRST), but the proportion of females inhigh-level and decision-making positions is very low. For example,women make up only 6.8% in China’s Committee of Experts and only2.1% in expert consultants group (Bowles, 2012, p.87). Even in somesectors, which are widely believed to be more easily for developingwomen’s leadership, like the humanities and social science, thepercentage of male leaders also, exceed women leaders (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Statistics aboutthe percentage of male and female leaders in different sectorsofficial websites

RQ3: What are opportunities fordeveloping women’s leadership in China?&nbsp

From the figure 1, it can beestablished that in terms of transition from education to leaders,the number of women reduced drastically. This makes women become avulnerable party in comparison to men in leadership positions. Thisadverse position is a barrier to the development of women’sleadership and cause more women to lose opportunities. Finding thebarriers that make most females not to have productive careerpromotion is the first step to solving women leadership developmentissues (Jacka, 2014, p.327).

This phenomenon also providesinsight to the fact that gender discrimination is a detrimentalfactor in progression of women to leadership roles. To explore this,the same question was set to either gender: ‘Do you feel genderdiscrimination in your work or daily life and do you have genderdiscriminating action toward others?’ From collected data, theresults were astounding.

According to the data collected,78% of female respondents felt discriminated based on gender in bothdaily life and at work. 17% of the women felt that the males werepropagating serious gender discrimination (Katuna, 2014, p.79). Onthe other hand, nearly 70% of male respondents did not believe thatthere was gender discrimination in their daily life and work (Figure3).

Figure 3: Male and femalerespondents’ feeling toward discrimination in their work and dailylife

It is worth mentioning that fromquestionnaire more than 80% of the male respondents think they havenever been discriminatory towards females. No more than 20% of malerespondents think they have discriminated women before. Only 1% ofmale respondents think they have extreme gender bias (Figure 4).

Figure 4: Male respondents’attitude towards discrimination

It is strange that most males donot think they have ever discriminated women before. This explainswhy the number of women given felt that they were being discriminatedin their daily life and work. How does one account for thissignificant cognitive difference between female and male’sfeelings? By comprising this data, this finding in China may conformto the theory named second-generation bias to some extent. Thistheory illustrates that recently organizations’ bias towards womenhas shifted from intentional to invisible cultural and potentialgender bias (Ashby, Ryan,and Haslam, 2006, p.198).

Data from the questionnaires areindicative of China’s unique culture and society formation of thesecond-generation bias in existence. It is worth mentioning that, asthe principle of gender equal rights has been written into theinternational conventions and Chinese laws, specific sexdiscrimination in the mainstream has almost disappeared, nonethelesssexism may still exist in a potential way. In the development ofwomen’s leadership, there is almost no leadership team saying thatwomen ‘cannot’ lead a team, (as author describes Lenovoexperience in the introduction). At the same time a judgment standardexists to let women themselves think that they have own problems sothat they are &quotnot suitable&quot or &quotshould not&quot tobe leaders (Ely, andRhode, 2010, p.177).

Furthermore, after in depthreview of the questionnaire, it emerged that there was increasingtrend in gender discrimination among the investigated females. Thetrend is mainly noted in instances where women are highly educated orearn high income. Contrary, this discrimination becomes more obviouswhen women are serving in higher positions. These observations arehighly disappointing. It is worth noting that only relying onimproving the women’s education background and income levels do notautomatically change society gender bias. There is still a lot thatneed to be done for the development of women leadership (Graves,Sarkis, and Zhu, 2013, p.54).

Data Analysis

To get the substantial resultsfrom the research, there are three sets of analysis that would becarried to the data collected. One of them is the descriptivestatistics. Here we would carry out a statistical analysis thatentails calculating the measure of central tendency. This entail thecalculation of the mean, mode, and median of the data collected. Thedata from the research question 1 would be analyzed using descriptivestatistics. Research question 1 entails the ranges of causes thatmakes the women leadership stance in China to be rated lower thanthat of the global stance (Acar, 2015, p.99). There is a range offactors that would be analyzed through the lens of mean, mode, andmedian. Additionally, it would entail the parameters such as thestandard deviation and variance of the data presented. From thisanalysis, one would able to understand the most prevalent factor thatderails the China’s women leadership.

Another method of data analysisthat has been used for this research is regression analysis. Thiswould entail finding the relationships between the dependent andindependent variable for the research questions. Regression analysisis applied to the research question 2 which creates a relationshipbetween the factors that acts as barriers to women leadership and theleadership positions of these women in China (Ely, and Rhode, 2010,p.65). In this prospect, the independent variables would entail thefactors that act as barriers and constraints. The dependent variableswould be leadership positions of these women in China. From theregression equation formed, the analysis of the whole concept ofleadership positions and these impediments could be revealed.Further, the coefficient of determination R2 and the adjusted R2would allow us understating the dependability of the data collectedfor analysis. In this prospect, the real authenticity of the datawould be revealed with keen attention to giving the correct resultsfrom the analysis (Law, 2013, p.89).

The last analysis technique thatwould be used for this research is the analysis of variance (ANOVA).This technique entails getting to know the variations that arepresent within the data collected and understanding theirsignificance. The variations will help in answering the researchquestion 3. The proposed methods of empowering women in leadershippositions would be used as the tenets of collecting data. Thevariability of the data as connoted by the ANOVA would help usprovide substantial grounds in the most proper way which womenleadership could be encouraged and empowered to embrace theseleadership positions.


From this chapter, the method ofcollecting and analyzing the data about the research topic isexplained. The research takes a mixed study design. This designentails the use of both the qualitative and quantitative analysis.Here the qualitative design would be supplemental to the quantitativedesign. The research questions are well explained, and they try torevolve around the topic of the study. The same questions have beenused to formulate the hypothesis which forms the objectives of thestudy. Two sets of sampling techniques have been used. Thesetechniques entail the stratified and the random sampling. The two hasbeen used to exemplify the whole context of mixed research design(Adams, Gupta, and Leeth, 2009, p.441). These sampling techniqueshave also been used in providing the authenticity to the researchdata. The research utilizes questionnaires and interview to collectits data. These data collection types are very critical collectingauthentic data from the respondents. Lastly, three sets of dataanalysis techniques are used in the research. These techniques entaildescriptive statistics, Regression analysis, and ANOVA. Thesetechniques are very important in analyzing the data collection withkeen attention to authenticity of the results.


Acar, F.P., 2015. GenderDifferences in Promotions to Top Level Management Positions: AnExamination of Glass Cliff in the IT Sector. Procedia-Socialand Behavioral Sciences,210,pp.223-230.

Adams, S.M., Gupta, A. and Leeth,J.D., 2009. Are female executives over‐representedin precarious leadership positions?. BritishJournal of Management,20(1),pp.1-12.

Ashby, J.S., Ryan, M.K. andHaslam, S.A., 2006. Legal work and the glass cliff: Evidence thatwomen are preferentially selected to lead problematic cases. Wm.&amp Mary J. Women &amp L.,13,p.775.

Ashby, J.S., Ryan, M.K. andHaslam, S.A., 2006. Legal work and the glass cliff: Evidence thatwomen are preferentially selected to lead problematic cases. Wm.&amp Mary J. Women &amp L.,13,p.775.

Assouline-Dayan, Y., 2013. Thepreference for an endoscopist specific sex: a link between ethnicorigin, religious belief, socioeconomic status, and procedure type.Patient preference andadherence, 7,pp.897-903.

Bailyn, L. and Fletcher, J.K.,2007. Collaborative interactive action research. Workand Family Encyclopedia, Boston, MA: Sloan Work and Family ResearchNetwork, available online at http://wfnetwork. php.

Bowles, H.R., 2012. Claimingauthority: How women explain their ascent to top business leadershippositions. Research inOrganizational Behavior,32,pp.189-212.

Bruckmüller, S. and Branscombe,N.R., 2010. The glass cliff: When and why women are selected asleaders in crisis contexts. BritishJournal of Social Psychology,49(3),pp.433-451.

Carroll, W., Hennessey, S.M. andMacDonald, R., 2013, July. IS THERE A&quot GLASS CLIFF?&quot:EXAMINING THE PHENOMENON USING BOARD OF DIRECTOR APPOINTMENTS INCANADA. In AlliedAcademies International Conference. Academy of OrganizationalCulture, Communications and Conflict. Proceedings(Vol. 18, No. 2, p. 9). Jordan Whitney Enterprises, Inc.

Chen, X.P., Eberly, M.B., Chiang,T.J., Farh, J.L. and Cheng, B.S., 2014. Affective trust in Chineseleaders linking paternalistic leadership to employee performance.Journal of Management,40(3),pp.796-819.

Chun, J.I., Sosik, JJ, Yun,NY,(2012). A longitudinal study of mentor and protégé outcomes in aformal mentoring relationship. Journalof Organizational Behavior,33,pp.1071-1094.

Confederation, N. H. S. (2007).Management in the NHS: the facts. London:NHS Confederation.

Cooke, F.L., 2013. Women inmanagement in China. Womenand Management: Global Issues and Promising Solutions,pp.285-308.

Downs, J.A., Reif, M.L.K.,Hokororo, A. and Fitzgerald, D.W., 2014. Increasing women inleadership in global health. Academicmedicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges,89(8),p.1103.

Ely, R.J. and Rhode, D.L., 2010.Women and leadership. Handbookof leadership theory and practice,pp.377-410.

Fernández, J., 2013.Perspectivas y medidas de masculinidad y feminidad.

Graves, L.M., Sarkis, J. and Zhu,Q., 2013. How transformational leadership and employee motivationcombine to predict employee proenvironmental behaviors in China.Journal ofEnvironmental Psychology,35,pp.81-91.

Haslam, S.A. and Ryan, M.K.,2008. The road to the glass cliff: Differences in the perceivedsuitability of men and women for leadership positions in succeedingand failing organizations. TheLeadership Quarterly,19(5),pp.530-546.

Jacka, T., 2014. Ruralwomen in urban China: Gender, migration, and social change.Routledge.

Jonsen, K., Maznevski, M. L., &ampSchneider, S. C. (2010). Gender differences in leadership-believingis seeing: implications for managing diversity. Equality,Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal,29(6),549-572.

Judge, E., 2003. Women on board:Help or hindrance. TheTimes, 11(21),pp.543-562.

Katuna, B.M., 2014. Breaking theGlass Ceiling? Gender and Leadership in Higher Education.

Kim, N. and Rowley, C., 2009. TheChanging Face of Korean Management.

King, M., 2009. King Code ofGovernance for South Africe 2009 (King III). EuropeanCorporate Governance Institute website. Available at: www. php.

Kottke, J.L., Pelletier, K.L.,Beckles, V., Hutabarat, D.J., DiPonio, G.L., Nguyen, B.N. andGonzalez, A.E., Revisiting Leadership Characteristics of the GlassCliff Phenomenon: Gender Typed?.

Kulich, C., 2015. Glassceiling/glass cliff. WileyEncyclopedia of Management.

Kulich, C., Ryan, M.K. andHaslam, S.A., 2013. The political glass cliff: understanding how seatselection contributes to the underperformance of ethnic minoritycandidates. PoliticalResearch Quarterly,p.1065912913495740.

Lan, H.R. and Fong, V.L., 2015.Women in republicanChina: A sourcebook.Routledge.

Law, W.W., 2013. Culture, genderand school leadership: school leaders` self-perceptions in China.Compare: A Journal ofComparative and International Education,43(3),pp.295-322.

Liden, R.C., Panaccio, A.,Meuser, J.D., Hu, J. and Wayne, S.J., 2014. Servant leadership.

Liu, Y., Wei, Z. and Xie, F.,2014. Do women directors improve firm performance in China?. Journalof Corporate Finance,28,pp.169-184.

Luscombe, B., 2010. Woman power:the rise of the sheconomy. TimeMagazine.

Madsen, S.R., Storberg-Walker, J.and och Dag, K.N., 2014. Advancing Research on Women and Leadership:Developing an HRD Scholarly Agenda.

Matter, W., 2012. Making thebreakthrough. McKinsey&amp. (paperback:ISBN-0-8039-6234-7, $18 clothbound: ISBN-0-8039-6233-9)

Morgenroth, T., Rink, F., Ryan,M.K. and Stoker, J., 2015. The Glass Cliff: Understanding thePrecariousness of Women’s Leadership Position and the UnderlyingMechanisms. In Auswahlvon Männern und Frauen als Führungskräfte(pp. 127-133). Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Nadkarni, V. and Noonan, N.C.eds., 2013. Emergingpowers in a comparative perspective: The political and economic riseof the BRIC countries.Bloomsbury Publishing USA.

Nadler, J.T. and Bailey, S.,2015. Group Discussions and the Glass Cliff Context: An ExploratoryStudy of Gender and Leadership. NorthAmerican Journal of Psychology,17(3),p.617.

Özdemir, A.A., 2015 AmbivalentSexism and Gender as Predictors of Turkish College Students’Attitudes toward Women Managers.British Journal of Social Psychology,49(3),pp.433-451.

Pini, B. ed., 2013. Womenand representation in local government: international case studies(Vol. 39). Routledge.

Regan, H.B. and Brooks, G.H.,2005. Out of Women`sExperience: Creating Relational Leadership.Corwin Press, Inc., 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320(paperback: ISBN-0-8039-6234-7, $18 clothbound:ISBN-0-8039-6233-9)..

Rink, F., Ryan, M.K. and Stoker,J.I., 2012. Influence in times of crisis how social and financialresources affect men’s and women’s evaluations of glass-cliffpositions. Psychologicalscience, 23(11),pp.1306-1313.

Ryan, M.K. and Haslam, S.A.,2005. The glass cliff: Evidence that women are over‐representedin precarious leadership positions. BritishJournal of management,16(2),pp.81-90.

Ryan, M.K. and Haslam, S.A.,2007. The glass cliff: Exploring the dynamics surrounding theappointment of women to precarious leadership positions. Academyof Management Review,32(2),pp.549-572.

Ryan, M.K., Alexander Haslam, S.and Postmes, T., 2007. Reactions to the glass cliff: Genderdifferences in the explanations for the precariousness of women`sleadership positions. Journalof Organizational Change Management,20(2),pp.182-197.

Ryan, M.K., Haslam, S.A. andKulich, C., 2010. Politics and the glass cliff: Evidence that womenare preferentially selected to contest hard-to-win seats. Psychologyof Women Quarterly,34(1),pp.56-64.

Ryan, M.K., Haslam, S.A., Hersby,M.D. and Bongiorno, R., 2011. Think crisis–think female: The glasscliff and contextual variation in the think manager–think malestereotype. Journal ofApplied Psychology,96(3),p.470.

Schull, V., Shaw, S. and Kihl,L.A., 2013. “If A Woman Came In… She Would Have Been Eaten UpAlive” Analyzing Gendered Political Processes in the Search for anAthletic Director. Gender&amp Society, 27(1),pp.56-81.

Shah, D.K., Karasek, V., Gerkin,R.D., Ramirez, F.C. and Young, M.A., 2011. Sex preferences forcolonoscopists and GI physicians among patients and health careprofessionals. Gastrointestinalendoscopy, 74(1),pp.122-127.

Sheaffer, Z., Bogler, R., &ampSarfaty, S. (2011). Leadership attributes, masculinity and risktaking as predictors of crisis proneness. Genderin Management: An International Journal,26(2),163-187.

Shui, J. and Jaschok, M., 2014.The Culture of ‘Associational Leadership’in the Hui MuslimWomen’s Mosques of Central China. AsianJournal of Social Science,42(5),pp.641-656.

Stachowitsch, S., 2013.Professional Soldier, Weak Victim, Patriotic Heroine: GENDERIDEOLOGIES IN DEBATES ON WOMEN`S MILITARY INTEGRATION IN THE US.International FeministJournal of Politics,15(2),pp.157-176.

Steinberg, J. R., True, M., &ampRusso, N. F. (2008). Work and Family Roles. Psychologyof Women. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, ABC-CLIO.

Sweetman, C. ed., 2011. Womenand leadership. Oxfam.

Turock, B.J., 2001. Women andleadership. Journal ofLibrary Administration,32(3-4),pp.115-137.


Valcour, M., 2014. LeadershipDevelopment of Women Executives.Henry Stewart Talks.

Varia, A., Patel, M.K.,Tanikella, R., Machicao, V.I., Fallon, M.B. and Lukens, F.J., 2014.Gender preference for the endoscopist among Hispanics: The results ofa prospective study. Journalof Immigrant and Minority Health,16(5),pp.990-993.

Walker, A., Hu, R. and Qian, H.,2012. Principal leadership in China: An initial review. SchoolEffectiveness and School Improvement,23(4),pp.369-399.

Wallace, J.E., 2014. Gender andSupportive Co‐WorkerRelations in the Medical Profession. Gender,Work &amp Organization,21(1),pp.1-17.

Wallis, C., 2015. Technomobilityin China: Young migrant women and mobile phones.NYU Press.

Wang, A.C., Chiang, J.T.J., Tsai,C.Y., Lin, T.T. and Cheng, B.S., 2013. Gender makes the difference:The moderating role of leader gender on the relationship betweenleadership styles and subordinate performance. OrganizationalBehavior and Human Decision Processes,122(2),pp.101-113.

Welbourn, D. and Liddell, A.,2006 Accountable care: aligning incentives with outcomes. Journalof Integrated Care.

Wilson, M.C., 2006. Closingthe leadership gap: Why women can and must help run the world.Penguin Group USA.

Zeng, J., 2016. TheInstitutionalization of the Authoritarian Leadership in China. In TheChinese Communist Party’s Capacity to Rule(pp. 153-180). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Zhang, J. and Lee, W.N., 2015.Testing the concepts of market mavenism and opinion leadership inChina. American Journalof Business, 30(3),pp.178-195.

Zhou, J., 2013. Keys to women’sliberation in Communist China: An historical overview. Journalof International Women`s Studies,5(1),pp.67-77.

Zhu, Y., 2013. Televisionin post-reform China: Serial dramas, Confucian leadership and theglobal television market(Vol. 9). Routledge.


  • Uncategorized

Developing Women Leadership China 8


TheName of the Class


TheName of the School (University)

TheCity and State


DevelopingWomen Leadership China


Thissection gives an instinctive analysis on the various literatures thatconcern the leadership stance in women as postulated by variousauthors across the world. The section discusses five main topics,which are expected to digest on the position of women leadership inChina and across the world. Notably, it dwells on the globalperception on the leadership in women. Various theories are discussedand they include the glass ceiling theory, gender and leadershiptheory and glass cliff theory. Thissection aims at providing an instinctive analysis on the variousliteratures that concern the leadership stance in women as postulatedby different authors across the world. While carrying out theanalysis, the paper will also explore and explain the currentsituation of women leadership in China, the barriers they face intheir leadership positions. This section concludes by a discussion onthe ways of developing leadership within global context.

GlobalWomen Leadership Analysis

Inthe global context, there are various macro decisions that are madeby the government and the world leaders. These decisions are deemedto have far-reaching effects to the humanity in a societal stance.Nonetheless, most of the individuals who make the decisions are menand rarely do women hold the influential decision making positions. Various multinational companies have also followed suit in notconsidering the placement of women in the leadership positions, whichindeed impact negatively on these women. One of the reasons why therehave been fewer women in the leadership positions is their placementin the society as dictated by the culture (Ashby,Ryan, and Haslam, 2006, p.176).Additionally, there is the claim that the personality of women doesnot allow them to be in these positions. Furthermore, even when theyare accorded the chance to serve, it is thought that they would notmake informed decisions that would help the humanity. Women arelikely to be bias in their decisions, as it will be determined byemotions and not impartiality. The following theories expound on thereasons that make women not to be in these powerful positions (Zhu,2013, p.32).

TheGlass Ceiling Theory

Accordingto Bruckmüller, and Branscombe, (2010, p.42), glass ceiling is anyform of barrier that would demean the minority group of the societyfrom getting to the top positions in leadership. This metaphor wascoined from the perception of the barrier of the feminist group fromadvancing their career. In any top management of an organization,there are strategic decisions that need to be made. The decisionsmade often affect the operations of a firm or organization in bothshort and long term. Critical and impartial analysis, therefore,needs to be done. The main reason for this is to ensure that themanagement gets the best course of actions before the implementationprocess begins. Several barriers exist that have hindered women frommaking influential decisions and hence they are left out of thesepositions. Chun, Sosik, and Yun (2012, p.27) on the other handperceives the advent of glass ceiling as those unseen circumstancesthat have been put in place to hinder the feminine gender fromelevating to the upper realms of corporate ranks. This notion happenswithout any regard to the academic qualifications and experiencesabout the women in context. It means that these women would behindered from clinching their leadership position even if they haveall the qualifications needs (Zhang,and Lee, 2015, p. 16).

Forthe condition of disparity to exist, there are certain conditionsthat need to be present. One of them is that the racial or genderdisparity should exist independently where it should not be explainedby the characteristics of job relevance of the worker. In addition,the racial or the gender disparity is deemed to advance as the careerimproves. This disparity again should be such that it is expected tohave a greater advantage at higher levels than at lower levels ofoutcome. A cross sectional study was recently done by Downs,Reif, Hokororo, and Fitzgerald, (2014). With the use of statisticsof the transitions of the CEOs of the Fortune 500 firms for the last14 years, they analyzed the probabilities of promotion and the tenureof leadership of women and other minorities. The persons who faceglass ceiling were categorized to be the women and the men of color.From the study, it emerged that if the performance of any companydecline during the reign of these minority groups, the white men CEOswould replace them. This move to them is known as the savior effect,which indeed has made the feminine gender to be derailed and losehope in the quest to advance their career (Zeng, 2016, p. 76).

Focusingon this postulation, it emerges that there is no trust that has beenbestowed upon the women even if they try to be at their best (Acar,2015, p.44). The role of women in the society is one of thecontributing factors that have led to their demeaning while servingin leadership positions. In the first instance, their physical makeand the notion of the energy they can utilize makes them lessattractive to the management role. This is a perception that has beeninculcated in many individuals which if not demystified will continueto haunt the advancement of women in the society. It is also believedthat the position women hold is same as that held by children. Thisthen implies that a woman is to be seen and not to be heard. In thisprospect, they are viewed as irrational beings whose role is to takeorders from the men and do as requested (Katuna, 2014, p.189). Thetheory has been used in many forums to help in finding solution tothe problems women currently face.

TheGlass Cliff Theory

Thistheory postulates that even as the women have broken the glassceiling and become the top-notch managers, they are still faced withvarious difficulties (cliff) even as they carry out their duties.There are obstacles that these women face in their leadershipposition that would make them fail or not feel the urge to managethese institutions. Some of the barriers that hinder women frommaintaining leadership positions include prejudice, stereotyping, andfervent discrimination that is witnessed among those who arestigmatized. In its immediate context, the women are deemed to bestigmatized in their leadership perspective. Women are treated inthis manner, as it is evident that they exemplify the traits that areconsidered to be of low power and status. This makes others in thesociety to devalue them for their traits (Shui, and Jaschok, 2014,175). It is due to this advent that women would receive more negativereactions and sentiment in their leadership positions than men. Morenegative influences that they get from the fraternity that they leadforms the (cliff). The cliff is the barrier that disallows them to bework exceptionally well. Therefore, it is only expected that it wouldbe difficult for them to gain influential respect and leadership inthese organizations. Lately there is a rise in the number of womenwho are within leadership positions (Assouline-Dayan, 2013, p.231). The interest groups and lobby groups have made it possible for thesewomen to be heard and given the opportunity to attain these serve indifferent groups.

Genderand Leadership

Therehas been high level of discrimination in the attainment of leadershippositions based on the gender. For example a recent study carried outby the Gallup polls in the United States indicated that 14% of the USpopulation would find it quite undesirable to vote for a woman tobecome the next president. Additionally, it would be proper tomention that 10% of this population connotes that they would not votefor the women even if they are qualified for these positions (Wilson,2006, p.37). Furthermore, for the remaining 89% who would vote forthe women, 15% are still not certain that they would vote for thewoman to be in the leadership position. The bias seen in the votingline portends the notion of high level of negative perceptions thatpopulace have of the leadership of women. The same type of bias alsotranscends the workplace where the women are instinctivelydiscriminated. Here most of the employees prefer their bosses to bemale (39%) while those who prefer women are few at 18% (Welbourn, andLiddell, 2006, p.87). This discriminatory stance has given muchattention to the notion of biasness in decision making in theleadership positions where the female bosses’ instructions are nottaken seriously. The inadequacy to influence the decisions of othersamong the female are one of the ‘cliffs’ that women face in theirleadership positions (Wang, Chiang, Tsai, Lin, and Cheng, 2013,p.39).

Acloser look at the world presidents, it is important to note thatthere are few female presidents globally. During the times of USelections of 2007 for example, there was high level discriminationtowards women like Hillary Clinton. There were various mimics thatportrayed prejudice in the media during the US elections in the year2007. For example there were various sexisms that were depicted inthe media which were instinctively directed to Hillary Clinton(Wallis, 2015, p.27). It should be noted as well that these politicalin gestures were not considered newsworthy. The media blatantlyignored the postulation of Hillary Clinton which made her not to winthe 2007 elections. This phenomenon has been happening in variouspart of the world with keen concern of demeaning the female gender.Certainly, like Katie Couric connoted:

‘‘Someof the immense messages of that operation is the sustained andconventional responsibility of chauvinism in American existence,predominantly the press. If President of the United States Obama wasforced to meet head-on the bigoted correspondent to an ‘flatten MyShirt’ placard at crusade public meetings or a Hillary blackmailerput up for sale at airstrips the indignation will not be aannotation, it will be frontage folio newspaper’’

Thesesex prejudices in control originate from sexual categoryresponsibility and sexual category typecast anticipations. Certainly,populaces who contain supplementary conventional perceptions of theroles and rights of female gender in the social order displayssuperior bias towards feminine managers cognitive or Stereotypes,unscrupulous connotations such that they consign distinctiveness togroupings and constituents of clusters irrespective of realdiscrepancy in populace’s individuality, can also influencediscernments of women (Assouline-Dayan, 2013, p.21). Althoughtypecasts often restrain a ‘kernel of integrity’, certainly thereexist gender disparities between women as well as men, and could betransformative for dispensation the great quantity of societal datawe come across every day, they could be mal-transformative andfavoritism the manner we digest news. A theatrical instance of theinfluence of femininity labels on awareness can be perceived in themedley of singers to work of art ensembles in the 1970s and 1980s(Bailyn,and Fletcher, 2007, p.241).The male-dominated groups witnessed an outstanding augment in femalesamongst their levels subsequent to building one diminutive yetinfluential transformation: candidates were requested to interviewbehind a display therefore invalidating any outcomes of sexualcategory typecasts in the choice progression. The labels thatmanipulate women in control are the invasive and pliant sex typecastsupholding that female gender pay attention and male gender takecontrol (Walker, Hu, and Qian, 2012, p.38). Women are type casted tohave mutual distinctiveness that emphasizes a distress for others,while male are perceived to have hereditary distinctiveness that giveemphasis to assurance, autonomy, and supremacy. These typecasts aretriggered effortlessly and repeatedly and are frequently veryrestrained creating them to be predominantly destructive.

Apartfrom the femininity-based anticipations, there is a common knowledgeof the composition of a boss. The figure of a boss in anyorganization is linked to the normal figure of a man. It is believedthat a boss should be authoritative and principled when makingcritical decisions, an aspect that is largely associated with men.This kind of prejudice among the women make them not be not progressin various leadership positions and treat some of the positions asmen-oriented (Valcour, 2014, p.54). Moreover, because efficientcontrol is reliant on devotees’ reactions to their influentials,not appropriate in the idyllic figure of a person in charge canconsequence in actual opposition in management efficiency as cohortsare less probable to agree to the control of principals who areprofessed and appraised in an unhelpful luminosity. The orthodoxrepresentation of a person in charge is somebody who has genetic,mannish personality, and in proportion to responsibility congruitysupposition, bigotry aligned with women develops from the absurditybetween the person in charge responsibility and femininity role. Thisinappropriateness was initially established by Schein (2013), whoexemplified that depictions of gentlemen were much supplementaryanalogous to the depictions of executives than were portrayals ofwomen, and has been long-established in several research ever since.Compliant with these sexism beliefs, male personalities are moreprobable to come out and get on the bureaucrat position anddesignation of a person in charge, while women are supplementary aptto get on unceremonious management positions and interrelateddesignations such as societal launch pad or coordinator(Assouline-Dayan, 2013, p.231).

GenderDifferences Advantages and Disadvantages

Bothhousehold responsibilities and current workplace civilizationsdifferently influence men and women in the leadership domain.Resulting from the conventional labor specialization in which familychores are most probably to be left to the female gender, we wouldnot completely tackle subjects of sex and management in the communalarena with no probing how tasks in the clandestine arena influencethis affiliation (Ryan, and Haslam, 2005, p.99). Even though therehas been decline of females being tasked with house chores, they arestill in charge of issues that concern children. For instance, amongwedded parents working around the clock, more females (71%) spendbigger time taking care of kids than males (56%) while they expendextra hours caring for these kids (Ryan, and Haslam, 2005, p.119).Additionally, these feminine genders are likely to carry outhousehold chores, such as lawn care and cooking, and they use up moretime undertaking the duty (88% 3.1 h daytime) than the malecounterparts (54% 2.4 h daytime) (Turock, 2001, p.177).

Havingwomen and men at the workplace is beneficial in many ways. Firsthaving different genders, men and women in a workplace, there arehigh chances that top talent will be attracted. A workplace that isattractive to men and women will eventually provide the employerswith an opportunity to get the best out of the working pool. Giventhat women are increasingly getting more educated than men, aworkplace that is not attractive to women stands chance of losing thebest talent to its competitors.

Havingthe diversity of gender also helps in reduction of expenses. Usually,replacement of an employee costs approximately 75% or more of theirannual wage. Given that more women and men are likely to remainwithin an organization they perceive as fair, the turnover ofemployee for an organization that takes up both gender can be reducedthus decreasing the high expenses that are involved in therecruitment process. Also, the advantage of the gender differences isthat there is better performance registered in most of the areas. Alarge amount of research also suggests that organizations thatembrace gender differences have better performance. Even though thereare several reasons to expound on the association, it is undoubtedlythat having the different genders in workplace bring along with itvaried perspective. Also, there are chances that there is detailedanalysis of issues that organizations face and thus there is improveddecision-making. Decisions are made from well-articulated points andwell-informed positions.

Likewise,women go through greater difficulty instituting informal counseloraffiliations which can be fundamental to career development. Womenalso unreasonably occupy professions in areas that get lessvisibility and contain fewer endorsement opportunities such asbookkeeping, education, and HRM. Besides being less probable to be inspots that lead to sponsorship, when women are endorsed to managementpositions they are more probably than men to be allotted to glasscliffs insecure situations linked with greater risk and condemnation.

CurrentWomen Leadership in China

Currently,the Chinese population is close to 1.4 billion. This population isthe largest in the world. The women account for 48% of thispopulation. Proportionally, women are the minority. Their lesspopulation makes them to be the devalued and demeaned by their malecounterparts. The current statistics shows that less than 20% of thetop leadership positions are held by the women in this country (King,2009, p.98). Some of the pertinent issues that hinder the women inthis country to be on the leadership edge are culturally related. Tothe Chinese fraternity there are specific roles that the womenfraternity is entitled. The family household chore is one of them.Currently, there is high gender imbalance in China as there are moremen than women. This gender imbalance has been caused by the formerone child policy that was instituted by the government in the past.The one child policy dictated that every couple was to bear only onechild. This reduced the rates of population tremendously which indeedcreated the imbalance (Bowles, 2012, p.198).

Accordingthe China statistics, women still lag behind in matters of politicalrepresentation. To this effect, the data shows that among the womenwho are in the workforce, only about 2.3% hold active leadershippositions. The notion conforms to the world data of the placement ofwomen in the leadership position. In the recent past, there it isfact that the prominent and most influential female in China, LiuYandong is due to contend for presidency. The woman is seen to befrom the political class (Assouline-Dayan, 2013, p.21). Record showsthat she is related to the former president and also the daughter ofthe former agricultural minister in the China republic. Researchshows that even if she is elected to this position, this electionwill not change the lives of the China women. It is believed thatthose who are surrounding her in terms of the ranks, such as theministers and the local leaders are likely to take control of thegovernment in a clandestine manner. Breaking the ceiling and dealingwith the cliff is one of the daunting tasks that these women have toface. The provisions made in this connotation include being quiteinfluential to the humanity and making sure that you transform theirperception on the women. The underestimation of the women in thissociety has brought much strain in the context of variouspropositions (Bowles, 2012, p.198).

Womenindeed are not respected in China as their leadership capabilitiesare questioned by their male counterparts. This notion has beenstrengthened by the believe that they have less support from theirfellow women as well. The gender imbalance experienced in China hasalso given little chances for the women to be heard as leaders(Jonsen,Maznevski and Schneider, 2010).Just like in the global stance, women who are in leadership positionstend to face many negative reactions from their subordinates. Thenegative criticism usually make them to get lose focus on their livesand abandon being formidable in the implementation of theirorganizational agenda. The men on the other hand face less criticismfor they are known to have the leadership qualities that would helpin the progress of the organizations. On the account of physicalcharacteristics, the women in China, just like in the world over, areconsidered to be the weaker sex. The physical characteristics do notallow them to assume these tough positions of leadership. The mindsetof this population is that the female fraternity has not power tocontrol the very powerful positions while there are men who can dosuch works perfectly (Regan and Brooks, 2005). This perception hasmade them not to climb the ladder of management.

InChina’s population, the aging population is rising. Currently, thechild fertility rates are approximately 1.7 births per woman. Thisrate is quite low and is considered to be going below the replacementlevels. It would only mean that this notion would put China at a riskof being a society which ageing. In the year 2015, approximately 10%of the population of China was having an age of 65 years and above.This age is deemed to be quite detrimental to the economy of China.This population is expected to rise to over 20% in 35 years to come(King, 2009, p.98). The increase is attributed to the two childbearing policy that limits these people from getting children. Thereis therefore the need to take care of the old. During the inceptionof the two children and the one child policy, it is stipulated thatthe couples are suppose to take care of their four parents while attheir energetic age (Kulich, 2015, p.287). This notion is true for afact that the married couples are charged with the responsibility oftaking care of their parents from both divide. However, it isimportant to note that the persons that take most time to care forthe parents are the women. They take most of their time doing thedaily chores for these parents. The men on the other hand find itquite important to concentrate on their jobs. Most commitments ofwomen therefore, end up with their household duties.

Inany working organization, commitment is very important and this wouldearn one promotion and good support from the company. The fact thatmost of the women in China concentrate more on the household dutiesmakes them not to get the support needed for the leadership position(Sweetman, 2011). Therefore, less of these women are represented inthe leadership positions. Furthermore, most of the companies havebeen on the verge of making sure that they get the best out theiremployees. Profitability is very important to them. In order toremain in the competition, these organizations have to use the notionof natural selection to be on the competitive end (Cooke, 2013).Research also says that the men usually respected in the leadershipposition than their fellow women. Men in China therefore are morelikely to hold these positions than the women (Assouline-Dayan, 2013,p.31). The first reason is because according to the principle ofnatural selection, the men are deemed to be better leaders thanwomen. In this prospect, they are usually preferred than women. Theprobability of electing women in an active leadership position istherefore deemed to be quite low.

Fromthe connotations of Feng Menglong, the author tries to give muchbrevity and honor to the unmarried gentry women who as time becomesprostitutes in the society without any husband to take care of thembut are still managing to fend for themselves. Much weight is put onthe fact that Feng Menglong is keen to dissociate himself fromimmorality but is also very quick to mention what the unprecedentedcircumstances that these same women undergo. The subgroup of womenthat has been despised in this prompts are the courtesans. This setof subgroup has been portrayed as have mixed reactions and feeling asregards being autonomous. Women, conversely, have mixed connotationswhen they apply autonomy. In one poem of the courtesans, a courtesanremains dedicated to her lover, purchases her freedom, accumulateswealth to impress his parents, and still goes ahead to commitssuicide by the end for the reason that her husband decides to put herup for sale (Haslam, and Ryan, 2008, p.188). In this narration thewomen are perceived to be quite naïve and very poor in managingthemselves alone. It is due to this that the most stories portendsthere were less women in the leadership position and even then theycould not contain the art and the knowledge of decision-making. Asit stands, the various parties to this advent gives the connotationthat women have been despised because of their gender. The perceptionthat they are still weak is still on and this has made them to bedespised in the community. Autonomy is very important forleadership. Unless one exhibit high sense of autonomy, thetranscending effect is that in times of decision-making, this wouldbe a daunting task to execute (Bowles, 2012, p.198).

Thisseeming irregularity in what occurs when women implement theirdesires is an concern not just since there is a clear twice standardstuck between what occurs when female gender act on their desiresagainst when male gender do (especially since that double customaryis almost predictable). The discrepancy is an issue since when womenexercise self-government it is a much more fundamental act becausethey have fewer chances for it in society. Knowing when these womencan perform it and have an optimistic result is important since itreveals the limits that women have in the social order and in whichregions of it they can have authority (King, 2009, p.98).

DevelopingWomen Leadership

First,women need to have acquisition of basic skills apart from just theregular education (Cooke, 2013). Therefore, the young women need tobe given the opportunity to build the skills that will ensure theyhave successful careers. By developing these skills, some of theareas under focus include public speaking, effective networking,writing, and capability to negotiate (Downs et al., 2014). Some ofthem may have these skills but lack the opportunity to practice them.It is worth providing them with an opportunity to practice theskills.

Womenneed to be given international exposure as this kind of exposureremains invaluable in their career development (Pini, 2013). This isthe case as the world is increasing becoming a village andinterdependent and actions that occur at one point directly affectsothers. Through international thinking, the way in which theindividuals think is challenged. Getting skills from living andworking in a new environment is just incomparable. The women getexposed to how different cultures perceive issues and tackle them.Individuals are forced to think outside the box and apply solutionsbeyond their comfort zones (Wilson, 2006).

Additionally,women need role models as it is a way through which women can developleadership and aspire to be great themselves (Jonsen, Maznevski andSchneider, 2010).

Womenneed to be nurtured as mentored at an early stage to help themrealize that they can make it. This message should be passed even toboys early enough so that it becomes a norm (Regan and Brooks, 2005).


Thissection recommends some the ways in which the women leadership inChina could be improved. The improvement is based on various facets.These facets may entail empowering them with regard to education,allowing them to make autonomous decisions in their leadership anddemystifying the presumed gender roles in the society among others.In the current corporate world, women get quite aggressive to be atthe top positions in many organizations. However, along the way, theytend to be discouraged and get out of these leadership positions anddisappear. They are then replaced by the men who are considered to bequite tolerant to the upheavals in the leadership positions. Thisconnotation is strengthened by that fact that most of men are likedby their subordinates and are perceived as those who can be trustedwith such delicate position. The following discussions brings onboard the solutions that could be applied to make sure that thesewomen are indeed at a position to clinch these positions and remainon top.

Opportunitiesfor Developing Women’s Leadership in China (Organizational Context)

1.Formal Mentoring Programs

Institutionscan work to get superior leaders to offer mentorship and support totalented women in a company. The business needs to hold up theconception of women’s collections that can give opportunities forfemale gender to be with the persons who encounter the samechallenges and to exchange resolutions for dealing with thesedemands. This proposition is strengthened by the fact that in Chinamost of the women do not have a say in daily mega decisions (Kulich,2015, p.287). Women tend to be left out and therefore not concernedabout growing themselves into the professional leadership positions.With the inception of the mentorship program, they would be at aposition to understand their real problems with keen concern onmaking sure that they overcome such challenges. Those who are in thesuperior positions have also experienced the managerial challenges.They can share on the how they managed to solve such situation.Having this kind of mentoring women will ultimately come out as boldand brave. Their influence is critical in making sure that they earnrespect as they give orders (Assouline-Dayan, 2013, p.231).

Reductionof Women Employee Turnover

Everytime we get together with a large group of executives within anysociety, we can reliably reach a conclusion that women will be themarginalized. Secondly, you can envisage that the women will normallybe seated collectively, generally in clusters of three or four. Eachof them tends to look for others with whom we believe they have muchin familiar. That is why groupings of women can be so important inproviding education and support. Chinese organizations shouldencourage women to meet frequently and mentor each other to expandtheir influence (King, 2009, p.98). A group of elite women who are inthe active leadership positions should come on board and make surethat they meet up with the upcoming women leaders. The main aim ofthis meeting would be to offer support on pertinent issues regardingleadership and management. The transcending effect of this notion isthat the women would be empowered. Additionally, most women know orhave idea of the things that their counterparts go through. The womenleaders who are mentors can advise the upcoming women leaders in anempathic way. They understand the stress these persons are goingthrough in terms of household chores. They also understand theemotional stress they are put through. The good thing is that theyalready overcame such traumas. Mentoring the young women leaderswould be very passionate. In fact they would be willing to give backto the society through the mentorship programs (Bowles, 2012, p.198).

2.Development Opportunities

Firmscould do more to ensure that there are greater improvementopportunities and back-up all senior managers to expand the conduitof women who are in managerial and administrative positions. Theseare the titles from which prospect VPs and superior executives willbe selected. Except there is a sufficient supply at these foremostand second echelons of administration, the problem is significantlymagnified. Once more, because of the reasonably small figure ofsenior females in firms, there are few mentors to emulate. The morecompanies can augment the exposure and authority of their seniorfeminine, the greater their achievement will be in transforming womento superior positions. It is therefore quite important the everyorganization should ensure that they inculcate the gender parity rule(Kulich, 2015, p.287). This move will ensure that there are equalemployment opportunities for both the men and women. This notion hasthe effect of ensuring the women leaders can be nurtured. Thenurturing is done because most of the employees are aware of thepromotion that awaits them when they perform well. The proportion ofthe male and the female is expected therefore to be equal. Theseequal employment opportunities will make the proportion of womenleaders to grow exponentially (King, 2009, p.98).

3.Active in-house Recruiting

InChina, it is advocated that if firms would add more females to theirheadship teams, the efficiency of the teams would amplify. Researchworks have shown that businesses with women on their panels ofdirectors have enhanced economic performance than those withoutwomen. Furthermore, as organizations aim to fill their managementconduit, it is prudent for them to look within instead of employingexecutives from competing companies. Often, from within there is theuntapped reserve (Assouline-Dayan, 2013, p.231). The research alsoput the women on the rank of being impartial than men in terms ofdecision making. This rare quality should be widely exploited by theowners of these organizations. The stereotype should be removed inorder to allow these employees to do their work exceptionally well.The proposition that most of the women need support is very critical(Bailyn, and Fletcher, 2007, p.198).

HumanResource Department Restructuring

Theperformance of the human resource departments in variousorganizations will determine employment management, growth, andturnover. There is a way in which the organizations should managetheir human resource (Assouline-Dayan, 2013, p.287). One of them isthrough employment of qualified staffs that have the vast knowledgeof the gender placement in the society. This opinion resonates withthe fact that the department will determine how these marginal groupsgrow and how the employee turnover is controlled. For example, the HRdepartment should have equal opportunity for both the women and men.Therefore in terms of decision making on the employment in relationto gender, the women recruitment would be well represented (Ely, andRhode, 2010, p.324).

Thewomen HR staffs are expected to defend their fellow women recruitsfor these positions if there is to be high level of parity in theorganization. This representation and defending of the women in theHR department will ensure that they grow in both skills and the rolesthey play. In addition to the representation, this department shouldcontain those who are empathetic to the women and are able to offertraining for the same. The support through training and workshop thatis experienced in the whole context of management has a profoundeffect of motivating the women employees to take up their rolesseriously. The taking up of the roles is pegged on the need to builda string team which would eventually represent the women in theseleadership positions (Kim, and Rowley, 2009, p.231).

Exploitationof Women Capabilities

Inthe current research, it came out clearly that women are morestrategic thinkers than their male counterparts. The organizations inChina should embrace this connotation and encourage more women tojoin these leadership positions. Any firm with a clear strategy hasthe ability to excel. The women with the gift of being a goodstrategic planner should indeed be on the verge of ensuring that theydeliver a good work for the organization. The continued efforts bythese HR departments and the organization as a whole have the effectof making sure that percentage of those women who clinch thesepositions escalates (Law, 2013, p.45). Moreover, because effectivecontrol is dependent on devotees’ reactions to their leaders,inappropriate leadership can result in real opposition in leadershipefficiency as followers are less likely to accept the control ofleaders who are professed and evaluated (Graves, Sarkis, and Zhu,2013, p.76).

Changingthe Presumed Image of Leadership

Theorthodox image of a leader is somebody who has genetic, mannishtraits, and in proportion to role congruity theory. Bigotry againstwomen develops from the absurdity between the leader responsibilityand the female femininity role. This inappropriateness was originallyestablished by Schein (2013), who exemplified that depictions of menwere much supplementary similar to the depictions of executives thanwere portrayals of women, and has been long-established in severalstudies since. Compliant with these gendered beliefs, men are moreprobable to come out and take on the bureaucrat role and title of aperson in charge, while women are more apt to take on unceremoniousleadership positions and interrelated titles such as social launchpad or coordinator (Özdemir, 2015, p.334). This conception isgradually changing and most of the organizations are making steps todemystify this fact. The main aim of any organization is to ensurethat they remain competitive in the market and have the best strategyto move forward. There should be therefore impartiality in thechoosing of the leaders. The choosing should therefore be based onmerit of these employees. The conception of women not getting theseopportunities even when they have the paper should not be the case(Jacka, 2014, p.34). The bigotry perceptions and prejudice that wasseen in the ancient management system should be scrapped out in orderto ensure equality and profound management of these companies. Tothis end, it is the mandate of every organization in China to step uptheir control and ensure that also the women are given equalopportunities in terms of employment and leadership positions. Nowthat China is facing high levels of ageing society and genderimbalance, the role of women in building the economy is quiteinevitable (Graves, Sarkis, and Zhu, 2013, p.144).

TheGovernment Intervention

Inthe bid to empower women in China, there are various interventionsthat the government can engage. One of them is the inception ofpolicies that promote women to be in the leadership positions. As thegovernment seeks to empower women, the first policy that it shouldput in place is ensuring that there is equal employment opportunityto both the women and men (Ryan, Haslam, and Kulich, 2010, p.176).This policy should be instituted such that it affects both the publicand the private sector. Most countries like the USA have successfullyintroduced this policy and it is working perfectly well. In fact, thecurrent workforce status of US is that half o the working populationis women. In the private sector, the big companies like Delloite haveripped a lot through giving equal opportunities to the women as men.There are barriers that have hindered the women from making suchdecisions and hence they are left out of these positions (Chun,Sosik, Yun, 2012, p.27).

Onthe other hand the advent of glass ceiling is perceived as thoseunseen circumstances that have been put in place to hinder thefeminine gender from elevating to the upper realms of corporateranks. This notion happens without any regard to the academicqualifications and experiences of the women in context. It means thatthese women would be hindered from clinching their leadershipposition even if they have all the qualifications needs(Stachowitsch, 2013, p.111). For this condition to exist, there arecertain limited requirements. One of them is that the racial orgender disparity should exist independently. This disparity shouldnot be explained by the characteristics of job relevance of theworker. The government should therefore ensure they shun genderdiscrimination to all its citizens with keen concern on theprovisions of opportunities to every individual. Some of the programsthat help women nurture their talents are through creation of commoncommunication forum for women where they can interact and mentor eachother (Sheaffer, Bogler, &amp Sarfaty, 2011, p.188).

Mentorshipfrom Successful Men Leaders

Inthe China community, majority of positions are taken by men. Thegovernment and the private sector organizations should take it uponthemselves to instruct the male leaders to mentor ladies. The equalparity can only be achieved when all the parties concerned areprovided with equal opportunities. The private sector should organizeforums that would make men leaders to come together to offer theirexperience in leadership to the women leaders. With this move, thewomen will feel part of the society (Sweetman, 2011, p.59).Additionally, they will gain profound knowledge and skills on thebest way to manage the whole context of organizational leadership. Acase study done by Delloite Company in USA shows that the forumstarted by the US government to empower women leader was madesuccessful using men leaders who offered not only to train the ladiesbut also mentor them. The result was that these women who weretrained became successful in their areas of management more thanother men leaders (Steinberg, True, &amp Russo, 2008). This is themove that should be incepted in China to create high level of parityin provision of leadership opportunities to the esteemed women whoaspire to be leaders. Lastly, the men are like the pillar of thewomen. Their instructions on leadership are more respected by thewomen. If this virtue could be inculcated in women, it would indeedcreate a platform of respectful leadership across the board. Thesuccessful men who are in leadership should therefore take thischallenge in China to empower the women of their country (Regan, andBrooks, 2005, p.79).


Acar,F.P., 2015. Gender Differences in Promotions to Top Level ManagementPositions: An Examination of Glass Cliff in the IT Sector.Procedia-Socialand Behavioral Sciences,210,pp.223-230.

Adams,S.M., Gupta, A. and Leeth, J.D., 2009. Are female executivesover‐representedin precarious leadership positions?. BritishJournal of Management,20(1),pp.1-12.

Ashby,J.S., Ryan, M.K. and Haslam, S.A., 2006. Legal work and the glasscliff: Evidence that women are preferentially selected to leadproblematic cases. Wm.&amp Mary J. Women &amp L.,13,p.775.

Ashby,J.S., Ryan, M.K. and Haslam, S.A., 2006. Legal work and the glasscliff: Evidence that women are preferentially selected to leadproblematic cases. Wm.&amp Mary J. Women &amp L.,13,p.775.

Assouline-Dayan,Y., 2013. The preference for an endoscopist specific sex: a linkbetween ethnic origin, religious belief, socioeconomic status, andprocedure type. Patientpreference and adherence,7,pp.897-903.

Bailyn,L. and Fletcher, J.K., 2007. Collaborative interactive actionresearch. Workand Family Encyclopedia, Boston, MA: Sloan Work and Family ResearchNetwork, available online at http://wfnetwork. php.

Bowles,H.R., 2012. Claiming authority: How women explain their ascent to topbusiness leadership positions. Researchin Organizational Behavior,32,pp.189-212.

Bruckmüller,S. and Branscombe, N.R., 2010. The glass cliff: When and why womenare selected as leaders in crisis contexts. BritishJournal of Social Psychology,49(3),pp.433-451.

Carroll,W., Hennessey, S.M. and MacDonald, R., 2013, July. IS THERE A&quotGLASS CLIFF?&quot: EXAMINING THE PHENOMENON USING BOARD OF DIRECTORAPPOINTMENTS IN CANADA. In AlliedAcademies International Conference. Academy of OrganizationalCulture, Communications and Conflict. Proceedings(Vol. 18, No. 2, p. 9). Jordan Whitney Enterprises, Inc.

Chen,X.P., Eberly, M.B., Chiang, T.J., Farh, J.L. and Cheng, B.S., 2014.Affective trust in Chinese leaders linking paternalistic leadershipto employee performance. Journalof Management,40(3),pp.796-819.

Chun,J.I., Sosik, JJ, Yun, NY,(2012). A longitudinal study of mentor andprotégé outcomes in a formal mentoring relationship. Journalof Organizational Behavior,33,pp.1071-1094.

Confederation,N. H. S. (2007). Management in the NHS: the facts. London:NHS Confederation.

Cooke,F.L., 2013. Women in management in China. Womenand Management: Global Issues and Promising Solutions,pp.285-308.

Downs,J.A., Reif, M.L.K., Hokororo, A. and Fitzgerald, D.W., 2014.Increasing women in leadership in global health. Academicmedicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges,89(8),p.1103.

Ely,R.J. and Rhode, D.L., 2010. Women and leadership. Handbookof leadership theory and practice,pp.377-410.

Fernández,J., 2013. Perspectivas y medidas de masculinidad y feminidad.

Graves,L.M., Sarkis, J. and Zhu, Q., 2013. How transformational leadershipand employee motivation combine to predict employee proenvironmentalbehaviors in China. Journalof Environmental Psychology,35,pp.81-91.

Haslam,S.A. and Ryan, M.K., 2008. The road to the glass cliff: Differencesin the perceived suitability of men and women for leadershippositions in succeeding and failing organizations. TheLeadership Quarterly,19(5),pp.530-546.

Jacka,T., 2014. Ruralwomen in urban China: Gender, migration, and social change.Routledge.

Jonsen,K., Maznevski, M. L., &amp Schneider, S. C. (2010). Genderdifferences in leadership-believing is seeing: implications formanaging diversity. Equality,Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal,29(6),549-572.

Judge,E., 2003. Women on board: Help or hindrance. TheTimes,11(21),pp.543-562.

Katuna,B.M., 2014. Breaking the Glass Ceiling? Gender and Leadership inHigher Education.

Kim,N. and Rowley, C., 2009. The Changing Face of Korean Management.

King,M., 2009. King Code of Governance for South Africe 2009 (King III).EuropeanCorporate Governance Institute website. Available at: www. php.

Kottke,J.L., Pelletier, K.L., Beckles, V., Hutabarat, D.J., DiPonio, G.L.,Nguyen, B.N. and Gonzalez, A.E., Revisiting LeadershipCharacteristics of the Glass Cliff Phenomenon: Gender Typed?.

Kulich,C., 2015. Glass ceiling/glass cliff. WileyEncyclopedia of Management.

Kulich,C., Ryan, M.K. and Haslam, S.A., 2013. The political glass cliff:understanding how seat selection contributes to the underperformanceof ethnic minority candidates. PoliticalResearch Quarterly,p.1065912913495740.

Lan,H.R. and Fong, V.L., 2015. Womenin republican China: A sourcebook.Routledge.

Law,W.W., 2013. Culture, gender and school leadership: school leaders`self-perceptions in China. Compare:A Journal of Comparative and International Education,43(3),pp.295-322.

Liden,R.C., Panaccio, A., Meuser, J.D., Hu, J. and Wayne, S.J., 2014.Servant leadership.

Liu,Y., Wei, Z. and Xie, F., 2014. Do women directors improve firmperformance in China?. Journalof Corporate Finance,28,pp.169-184.

Luscombe,B., 2010. Woman power: the rise of the sheconomy. TimeMagazine.

Madsen,S.R., Storberg-Walker, J. and och Dag, K.N., 2014. Advancing Researchon Women and Leadership: Developing an HRD Scholarly Agenda.

Matter,W., 2012. Making the breakthrough. McKinsey&amp.(paperback: ISBN-0-8039-6234-7, $18 clothbound: ISBN-0-8039-6233-9)

Morgenroth,T., Rink, F., Ryan, M.K. and Stoker, J., 2015. The Glass Cliff:Understanding the Precariousness of Women’s Leadership Position andthe Underlying Mechanisms. In Auswahlvon Männern und Frauen als Führungskräfte(pp. 127-133). Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Nadkarni,V. and Noonan, N.C. eds., 2013. Emergingpowers in a comparative perspective: The political and economic riseof the BRIC countries.Bloomsbury Publishing USA.

Nadler,J.T. and Bailey, S., 2015. Group Discussions and the Glass CliffContext: An Exploratory Study of Gender and Leadership. NorthAmerican Journal of Psychology,17(3),p.617.

Özdemir,A.A., 2015 Ambivalent Sexism and Gender as Predictors of TurkishCollege Students’ Attitudes toward Women Managers.British Journal of Social Psychology,49(3),pp.433-451.

Pini,B. ed., 2013. Womenand representation in local government: international case studies(Vol. 39). Routledge.

Regan,H.B. and Brooks, G.H., 2005. Outof Women`s Experience: Creating Relational Leadership.Corwin Press, Inc., 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320(paperback: ISBN-0-8039-6234-7, $18 clothbound:ISBN-0-8039-6233-9)..

Rink,F., Ryan, M.K. and Stoker, J.I., 2012. Influence in times of crisishow social and financial resources affect men’s and women’sevaluations of glass-cliff positions. Psychologicalscience,23(11),pp.1306-1313.

Ryan,M.K. and Haslam, S.A., 2005. The glass cliff: Evidence that women areover‐representedin precarious leadership positions. BritishJournal of management,16(2),pp.81-90.

Ryan,M.K. and Haslam, S.A., 2007. The glass cliff: Exploring the dynamicssurrounding the appointment of women to precarious leadershippositions. Academyof Management Review,32(2),pp.549-572.

Ryan,M.K., Alexander Haslam, S. and Postmes, T., 2007. Reactions to theglass cliff: Gender differences in the explanations for theprecariousness of women`s leadership positions. Journalof Organizational Change Management,20(2),pp.182-197.

Ryan,M.K., Haslam, S.A. and Kulich, C., 2010. Politics and the glasscliff: Evidence that women are preferentially selected to contesthard-to-win seats. Psychologyof Women Quarterly,34(1),pp.56-64.

Ryan,M.K., Haslam, S.A., Hersby, M.D. and Bongiorno, R., 2011. Thinkcrisis–think female: The glass cliff and contextual variation inthe think manager–think male stereotype. Journalof Applied Psychology,96(3),p.470.

Schull,V., Shaw, S. and Kihl, L.A., 2013. “If A Woman Came In… She WouldHave Been Eaten Up Alive” Analyzing Gendered Political Processes inthe Search for an Athletic Director. Gender&amp Society,27(1),pp.56-81.

Shah,D.K., Karasek, V., Gerkin, R.D., Ramirez, F.C. and Young, M.A., 2011.Sex preferences for colonoscopists and GI physicians among patientsand health care professionals. Gastrointestinalendoscopy,74(1),pp.122-127.

Sheaffer,Z., Bogler, R., &amp Sarfaty, S. (2011). Leadership attributes,masculinity and risk taking as predictors of crisis proneness. Genderin Management: An International Journal,26(2),163-187.

Shui,J. and Jaschok, M., 2014. The Culture of ‘AssociationalLeadership’in the Hui Muslim Women’s Mosques of Central China.AsianJournal of Social Science,42(5),pp.641-656.

Stachowitsch,S., 2013. Professional Soldier, Weak Victim, Patriotic Heroine:GENDER IDEOLOGIES IN DEBATES ON WOMEN`S MILITARY INTEGRATION IN THEUS. InternationalFeminist Journal of Politics,15(2),pp.157-176.

Steinberg,J. R., True, M., &amp Russo, N. F. (2008). Work and Family Roles.Psychologyof Women. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, ABC-CLIO.

Sweetman,C. ed., 2011. Womenand leadership.Oxfam.

Turock,B.J., 2001. Women and leadership. Journalof Library Administration,32(3-4),pp.115-137.


Valcour,M., 2014. LeadershipDevelopment of Women Executives.Henry Stewart Talks.

Varia,A., Patel, M.K., Tanikella, R., Machicao, V.I., Fallon, M.B. andLukens, F.J., 2014. Gender preference for the endoscopist amongHispanics: The results of a prospective study. Journalof Immigrant and Minority Health,16(5),pp.990-993.

Walker,A., Hu, R. and Qian, H., 2012. Principal leadership in China: Aninitial review. SchoolEffectiveness and School Improvement,23(4),pp.369-399.

Wallace,J.E., 2014. Gender and Supportive Co‐WorkerRelations in the Medical Profession. Gender,Work &amp Organization,21(1),pp.1-17.

Wallis,C., 2015. Technomobilityin China: Young migrant women and mobile phones.NYU Press.

Wang,A.C., Chiang, J.T.J., Tsai, C.Y., Lin, T.T. and Cheng, B.S., 2013.Gender makes the difference: The moderating role of leader gender onthe relationship between leadership styles and subordinateperformance. OrganizationalBehavior and Human Decision Processes,122(2),pp.101-113.

Welbourn,D. and Liddell, A., 2006 Accountable care: aligning incentives withoutcomes. Journalof Integrated Care.

Wilson,M.C., 2006. Closingthe leadership gap: Why women can and must help run the world.Penguin Group USA.

Zeng,J., 2016. The Institutionalization of the Authoritarian Leadership inChina. In TheChinese Communist Party’s Capacity to Rule(pp. 153-180). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Zhang,J. and Lee, W.N., 2015. Testing the concepts of market mavenism andopinion leadership in China. AmericanJournal of Business,30(3),pp.178-195.

Zhou,J., 2013. Keys to women’s liberation in Communist China: Anhistorical overview. Journalof International Women`s Studies,5(1),pp.67-77.

Zhu,Y., 2013. Televisionin post-reform China: Serial dramas, Confucian leadership and theglobal television market(Vol. 9). Routledge.

Close Menu