Developing Women Leadership China 7
The Name of the Class
The Name of the School(University)
The City and State
Chapter3: Developing WomenLeadership China
This sectionprovides an insight on collection and analysis of the data. The mainobjective of the study is to understand the position of womenleadership in China. From this objective, the section examines someof the data related to this topic and provides a hypotheses underinvestigated. Chapter Three is divided into sub-sections that expoundon the manner in which the data was collected and analysed. Notably,it discusses the research design used in the study, with keenattention to its suitability for the study. There is also theformulation research questions and hypothesis. From the hypothesisand research questions, it is possible to understand the type ofresearch design used. Additionally, this chapter entails the samplingtechniques used. It also outlines the data collection methods andprocedures used in this analysis. Lastly, the chapter ends with alook at the type of data analysis employed in this research.
To providesubstantial results and analysis for this research, the study usesmixed research design. In this section, both the qualitative andquantitative designs give a clear understanding of the data analysis.In analysis of the quantitative data collected through thequestionnaires, quantitative design. Furthermore, the quantitativedesign is also used in the analysis of data on the perception ofvarious people towards the leadership of women (Adams, Gupta, andLeeth, 2009, p.182). The analysis, were in numerical form, therefore,takes a statistical approach. The basis of the findings are in termsof the data collected about the perceptions of various individuals onwomen leadership. To effectively utilize the qualitative design,theoretical perspective of analysis is has been used in ensuring thatthe placement of women in the society is well addressed (Matter,2012, p.19). The life experiences and the theories put forward aboutthe women in China and globally is analyzed through the qualitativedesign. Both the qualitative and the quantitative were collected atthe same time. These data are expected to be two distinct sets aboutthe women leadership perception in China fraternity and are expectedto be of unequal weights (Chun, Sosik, Yun, 2012, p.212). Thesimultaneous timing of these sets of data is important, and itentails the qualitative and quantitative constituents that areinvolved in this study. The sets of information are collected,recorded and analysis simultaneously. It is anticipated that the twogroups of data would mix the two research designs at their initialstages. This would occur when the qualitative statistics are embeddedin quantitative information. Subsequently, the qualitative would beused in making better the quantitative research design (Bruckmüller,and Branscombe, 2010, p.27).
ResearchQuestions and Hypothesis
The mainobjective of this study is to understand the perceptions of womenleadership in China. The questions below have been formulated to giveinsights on some of the pertinent issues that should be used inanalyzing this topic. More emphasis is put on the ways in which thesewomen leadership positions could be enhanced to better their liveswhile at these positions (Nadkarni, and Noonan, 2013, p.241). Thisresearch has three sets of questions that try to address the menacethat is facing the women in China and global stance. These questionsare as outlined below:
RQ1: What account for women’sleadership development in China being less than the globallevel? RQ2: What are the most prevalent barrier andconstraint to develop women leadership in China? RQ3: Whatare opportunities for developing women’s leadership in China?
From the above research questionthe following hypotheses could be derived.
H1: The main issue that accountfor China women’s leadership development being less than global istheir gender placement in the society.
H2: The most prevalent barrierand constraint to develop women leadership is the conceptual beliefthat women are capable of being a good leader by numerous communitiesand societies across the world.
H3: There are numerousopportunities for developing women’s leadership in China such asmentoring, demystifying their gender placement and restructuring ofthe human resource in various organizations among others.
From the above research questionsand hypotheses, it is evident that the real problem that is facingwomen could be revealed. Additionally, the research questions areentirely objective since they revolved around the topic of the study,which is women leadership. Additionally, the study hypotheses arewell structured since they give much attention to the notion of realproblems and remedy to leadership positions of the women(Assouline-Dayan, 2013, p.211). The main aim of this study was tobring to light the remedies that women have in enhancing theirleadership positions in China to meet and surpass global ratings. Thehypotheses are well structured in such a way that they do not onlymention the cause of this predicament but also give remedies thatthese women should use to attain and maintain these leadershippositions (Valcour, 2014, p.21).
To carry out a comprehensive datacollection, the study uses two sets of sampling techniques for thisresearch. The first technique is the stratified sampling method. Evenas the employees were selected, they were grouped into diversegroups, which contain of almost all the similar characteristics. Thesample of participants was then selected by choosing these formedgroups now called the strata. The research utilized this form ofsampling technique since it reduces the advents of biases (Judge,2003, p.321). Additionally, gender equality is very important in thisanalysis. The use of this method ensures that the sample is gendersensitive this making it authentic. Another sampling technique usedin this research was a random sampling. While tackling the questionsto do with the perceptions of participants on the placement of womenin the China’s society, this sampling technique was veryinstrumental in ensuring that the data collected is quite authentic(Sheaffer, Bogler, & Sarfaty, 2011, p.310). This is because thetechnique allows for wider coverage of participants, which allowsqualitative data to be quite reliable. These two sets of samplingtechniques were used simultaneously to create an advent offamiliarity, therefore, bringing authenticity to the research. Asnoted earlier, the research entails qualitative and quantitativedesign. These two techniques cuts across the two research design andblend them well for further analysis (Haslam, and Ryan, 2008, p.192).
The data collection was done withreference to the three sets of questions and hypotheses. Thisarrangement of data collection has been adopted to create clarity onthe type of data used for each research question.
RQ1: What account for women’sleadership development in China being less than the global level?
In July 2016, the author sent outquestionnaires from students to leaders at all organizational levelsto understand how they view their careers, workplaces, and women’sroles at work. Based on collected 48 valid questionnaires, thissection captures the current perspectives from China’s women andmen, the main barriers to women advancement and the action thatcompanies, families, and individuals can take to help more women inChina fulfill their leadership aspirations.
To have a more specific andaccurate result, the researcher distributed the questionnaires torespondents who were in three groups. The groups included students(include college students, masters, and doctoral students), staff(the person who is working but not holding leading positions) andleaders (a person who leaders). From this distribution of thecollected questionnaire, it was established that 65% of respondentswere students, 18% of respondents are staff, and 17% are leaders.
It is obvious that the responsesobtained from the questionnaires represented each respondent’sobservations and attitude about the gender issues in China’sleadership development. This summary and analysis can make readershave an in-depth understanding of the gender issues in leadershipdevelopment and encourage more Chinese women to fight for their equalrights in their workplaces (Rink, Ryan, and Stoker, 2012, p.192).
RQ2: What are the mostprevalent barrier and constraint to develop women leadership in Chinaand how do they affect their leadership positions in management?
Over the years, advancement insociety has also seen progress in the women’s social status.Looking at the current situation in China, can one still affirm thatthere is gender imbalance? Based on this question, the researcherprogressed to analyze the data from questionnaires.
From the data collected, most ofthe students think that the proportion of male and female in schoolor university is balanced and within a reasonable range. Less than10% of students observed that, none of the female or male students’populations is rare. It means the number of men and women are almostequal in the campus. Statistically, this observation can be proved.According to large-scaled statistics, China’s college graduates sexratio achieved balance a decade ago (Fernández, 2013, p.312). In2004, the number of male college graduates in China was 1.4 million,while the number of female graduates was 1.16 million.
At the leadership level, thescope and extent of the gender imbalance is significant. According tothe questionnaire, only 25% of respondents believe the sex ratio ofleaders in their workplaces is balanced. On the contrary, 67% ofrespondents noted that there are few women leaders. Only 9% ofrespondents found that the number of male leaders is a disadvantagein their workplace (Kim, and Rowley, 2009, p.32).
The results obtained lead to aconsiderable phenomenon. The issue is that, although the number ofeducated men and women are almost the same, there is a higherimbalance in the practical workplace, and in the leading positions,this gender imbalance situation becomes more obvious (Figure1).
Figure 1: As thedevelopment of career, the percentage of female decline
This finding also can also beproved by statistics from Chinese Government Census and StatisticsDepartment. According to Chinese People`s Political ConsultativeConference (CPPCC) proposals in the year 2011, the number of femalesin China has accounted for 40% of the total number of Human Resourcesin Science and Technology (HRST), but the proportion of females inhigh-level and decision-making positions is very low. For example,women make up only 6.8% in China’s Committee of Experts and only2.1% in expert consultants group (Bowles, 2012, p.87). Even in somesectors, which are widely believed to be more easily for developingwomen’s leadership, like the humanities and social science, thepercentage of male leaders also, exceed women leaders (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Statistics aboutthe percentage of male and female leaders in different sectorsofficial websites
RQ3: What are opportunities fordeveloping women’s leadership in China?
From the figure 1, it can beestablished that in terms of transition from education to leaders,the number of women reduced drastically. This makes women become avulnerable party in comparison to men in leadership positions. Thisadverse position is a barrier to the development of women’sleadership and cause more women to lose opportunities. Finding thebarriers that make most females not to have productive careerpromotion is the first step to solving women leadership developmentissues (Jacka, 2014, p.327).
This phenomenon also providesinsight to the fact that gender discrimination is a detrimentalfactor in progression of women to leadership roles. To explore this,the same question was set to either gender: ‘Do you feel genderdiscrimination in your work or daily life and do you have genderdiscriminating action toward others?’ From collected data, theresults were astounding.
According to the data collected,78% of female respondents felt discriminated based on gender in bothdaily life and at work. 17% of the women felt that the males werepropagating serious gender discrimination (Katuna, 2014, p.79). Onthe other hand, nearly 70% of male respondents did not believe thatthere was gender discrimination in their daily life and work (Figure3).
Figure 3: Male and femalerespondents’ feeling toward discrimination in their work and dailylife
It is worth mentioning that fromquestionnaire more than 80% of the male respondents think they havenever been discriminatory towards females. No more than 20% of malerespondents think they have discriminated women before. Only 1% ofmale respondents think they have extreme gender bias (Figure 4).
Figure 4: Male respondents’attitude towards discrimination
It is strange that most males donot think they have ever discriminated women before. This explainswhy the number of women given felt that they were being discriminatedin their daily life and work. How does one account for thissignificant cognitive difference between female and male’sfeelings? By comprising this data, this finding in China may conformto the theory named second-generation bias to some extent. Thistheory illustrates that recently organizations’ bias towards womenhas shifted from intentional to invisible cultural and potentialgender bias (Ashby, Ryan,and Haslam, 2006, p.198).
Data from the questionnaires areindicative of China’s unique culture and society formation of thesecond-generation bias in existence. It is worth mentioning that, asthe principle of gender equal rights has been written into theinternational conventions and Chinese laws, specific sexdiscrimination in the mainstream has almost disappeared, nonethelesssexism may still exist in a potential way. In the development ofwomen’s leadership, there is almost no leadership team saying thatwomen ‘cannot’ lead a team, (as author describes Lenovoexperience in the introduction). At the same time a judgment standardexists to let women themselves think that they have own problems sothat they are "not suitable" or "should not" tobe leaders (Ely, andRhode, 2010, p.177).
Furthermore, after in depthreview of the questionnaire, it emerged that there was increasingtrend in gender discrimination among the investigated females. Thetrend is mainly noted in instances where women are highly educated orearn high income. Contrary, this discrimination becomes more obviouswhen women are serving in higher positions. These observations arehighly disappointing. It is worth noting that only relying onimproving the women’s education background and income levels do notautomatically change society gender bias. There is still a lot thatneed to be done for the development of women leadership (Graves,Sarkis, and Zhu, 2013, p.54).
To get the substantial resultsfrom the research, there are three sets of analysis that would becarried to the data collected. One of them is the descriptivestatistics. Here we would carry out a statistical analysis thatentails calculating the measure of central tendency. This entail thecalculation of the mean, mode, and median of the data collected. Thedata from the research question 1 would be analyzed using descriptivestatistics. Research question 1 entails the ranges of causes thatmakes the women leadership stance in China to be rated lower thanthat of the global stance (Acar, 2015, p.99). There is a range offactors that would be analyzed through the lens of mean, mode, andmedian. Additionally, it would entail the parameters such as thestandard deviation and variance of the data presented. From thisanalysis, one would able to understand the most prevalent factor thatderails the China’s women leadership.
Another method of data analysisthat has been used for this research is regression analysis. Thiswould entail finding the relationships between the dependent andindependent variable for the research questions. Regression analysisis applied to the research question 2 which creates a relationshipbetween the factors that acts as barriers to women leadership and theleadership positions of these women in China (Ely, and Rhode, 2010,p.65). In this prospect, the independent variables would entail thefactors that act as barriers and constraints. The dependent variableswould be leadership positions of these women in China. From theregression equation formed, the analysis of the whole concept ofleadership positions and these impediments could be revealed.Further, the coefficient of determination R2 and the adjusted R2would allow us understating the dependability of the data collectedfor analysis. In this prospect, the real authenticity of the datawould be revealed with keen attention to giving the correct resultsfrom the analysis (Law, 2013, p.89).
The last analysis technique thatwould be used for this research is the analysis of variance (ANOVA).This technique entails getting to know the variations that arepresent within the data collected and understanding theirsignificance. The variations will help in answering the researchquestion 3. The proposed methods of empowering women in leadershippositions would be used as the tenets of collecting data. Thevariability of the data as connoted by the ANOVA would help usprovide substantial grounds in the most proper way which womenleadership could be encouraged and empowered to embrace theseleadership positions.
From this chapter, the method ofcollecting and analyzing the data about the research topic isexplained. The research takes a mixed study design. This designentails the use of both the qualitative and quantitative analysis.Here the qualitative design would be supplemental to the quantitativedesign. The research questions are well explained, and they try torevolve around the topic of the study. The same questions have beenused to formulate the hypothesis which forms the objectives of thestudy. Two sets of sampling techniques have been used. Thesetechniques entail the stratified and the random sampling. The two hasbeen used to exemplify the whole context of mixed research design(Adams, Gupta, and Leeth, 2009, p.441). These sampling techniqueshave also been used in providing the authenticity to the researchdata. The research utilizes questionnaires and interview to collectits data. These data collection types are very critical collectingauthentic data from the respondents. Lastly, three sets of dataanalysis techniques are used in the research. These techniques entaildescriptive statistics, Regression analysis, and ANOVA. Thesetechniques are very important in analyzing the data collection withkeen attention to authenticity of the results.
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