Date Rape

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DateRape

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Studiesreveal that one in every ten women becomes a victim of rape in herlifetime (University Police Crime Prevention Division, 2003). Mythsabout sexual violence blind the bigger portion of the population.Reason being, most people start assuming that they are safe. The mostcritical thing to have in memory is that all individuals arepotential victims. There are a number of common myths about sexualviolence. To begin with, most women assume that men in dark alleysare the only potential perpetrators of rape. Research refutes thisassertion by emphasizing that strangers rape only 17% of women, andover 50% of rape assaults take place during the day. Secondly, mostmen assume that when their dates say no, they do not mean it. Also,reports indicate that women deceitfully accuse men of rape. The FBIproclaims that only 2% of rape reports are false. Fourth, mostindividuals assume that rapists are persons who have uncontrollableurges and desires. Lastly, the victim has to fight back for sexualintercourse to be considered rape. Date rape is asocial concern thatnecessitated additional investigation.

2.0Defining and Sexual Assault

Daterape is a highly contentious crime (University Police CrimePrevention Division, 2003). Forced sex is, in essence, perceived asrape. However, date rape may not necessarily involve the use ofphysical violence. Nonetheless, detention, the fear of violence,intoxication (with drugs or alcohol), and deception can be attributedto the factors that come into play to determine whether the womanconsented willingly or unwillingly to sex. Research indicates that22% of all college females have been forcefully subjected to sexualintercourse on a date, women between aged between 15 and 24 areprimary friend rape victims, and date rape is a common phenomenon inall campuses or colleges. Also, date rape can happen when otherindividuals are close by. In addition, female students are at ahigher risk of becoming date rape victims compared to all othermembers of the population, and acquaintance rape is common whenseduction fails and the offender has to force himself on the victim.

Sexualassault is perceivable as any act, nonverbal or verbal, which puts aperson`s trust in jeopardy and is sexual in nature (WisconsinCoalition Against Sexual Assault, Inc., 2008). It encompasses daterape, child sexual assault, incest, rape, partner/marital rape,harassment and any other form of sexual abuse. In essence, sexualassault is a violent act where sex is used as a weapon against thevictim. The victims of rape are usually coerced, manipulated, orforced into unconsented sexual activity.

Sexualassault is becoming prevalent in colleges statistics indicate thatwomen are, generally, the victims of these types of violence(Wisconsin Coalition Against Sexual Assault, Inc., 2008). Myths suchas females owe men sex (if money is spent on the date), women say nowhen they mean no, and women enjoy being pursued by aggressive menemerge repeatedly. Alcohol, drugs, and gendered communication havealso been pointed out as factors that precipitate the development ofsuch occurrences.

3.0The Prevalence of and Sexual Assault

Statisticsindicate that about 71% of date rape is planned (FloridaInstitute of Technology University,n.d., p, 1). Some men anticipate sexual favor after spending money ona woman. Also, date rape cases are higher if the woman is dressed ina manner that is deemed provocative by the man or if the pair hasengaged in sex before. Approximately 12.8% of full sexual assault,35% of tried rapes, and 22.9% of threatened sexual assault take placeduring a date (CampusSexual Violence Resource List, 2016).

4.0Explanations

Theperiod between 1995 and 2013 witnessed the highest rape-related casesin females aged between 18 and 24 (Sinozich &amp Langton, 2014, p.1). Over the past decades, issues centering on the victimization ofwomen in colleges and universities received little attention.However, the emergence of concepts such as date rape has raisedsignificant attention in topics bordering on the issue of thevictimization of women in institutions of higher education (Fisher,Cullen, &amp Turner, 2000, p. 1). Research indicates that women ininstitutions of higher education are at a greater risk of becomingvictims of sexual assault.

  1. Methodology

Thepreferred research methodology was qualitative in nature. Informationfrom web-related databases was collected to make the researchauthoritative. The research entailed the collection of informationthat centered on date rape, drug-facilitated sexual violence, and theprinciples or guidelines that should be emphasized to ensure that thedevelopment of sound, preventative and therapeutic responses to daterape. Surveys, in the form of questionnaires, were also conducted tostudy the validity of increases in the rate of date rape in learninginstitutions. Various presumptions appraised the methodologicalalternative. There is sexual expectation when:

  1. He uses a lot of funds on her

  2. He feels turned on when he believes he cannot be stopped

  3. She engages in sex with other guys

  4. Drugs or alcohol have intoxicated her

  5. She allows him to touch her above her waist

  6. She acquiesces to have sex then changes her mind later

  7. She leads him on

  8. She arouses him sexually

  9. The two individuals have dated for a long time

5.1Overview of the Research Design

Interviewswere administered to both male and female students who resided withinand outside the college premises. The primary intention of such anapproach was to develop a body of information that brought aboutdiversity. The scholars were questioned about their thoughts of thevarious circumstances that were regarded conducive for stimulatingsexual desire. A number of themes materialized and were documented.The distinguishing features of each theme and its relationship toother issues were noted.

5.2The Recruitment of Respondents

Randomsampling was the preferred method for the selection of participants.Ten students, five male and five female, were selected. Theseindividuals resided within the university premises and outside. Dueto the complex nature of the issue at hand, random selection wasbelieved to offer the study the diversity it required. Therespondents came from different cultural backgrounds, had differenteducational achievements, did different courses, perceived theirsurroundings differently, and had divergent opinions and views aboutthe opposite sex.

Therecruitment criterion involved inviting willing students to registerat a designated point within the university premises. All studentswere guaranteed that their privacies would be considered inpublishing the results of the study. Only scholars who accepted totake part in the study were contacted.

5.3Description of the Research Participants

Allten students were aged between 19 and 28. All respondents werestudents at the University, but pursuing different courses. Allstudents confirmed that they had been in heterosexual relationships.Two of the participants were international students (non-UScitizens). Six members contended that they were Christians twoasserted that they were Muslims one claimed he was Hindu, and theother one did not align himself with any religious position. A biggerportion of the participants (58%) comprised of volunteers who were intheir final year of the university level, although a significantportion (42%) also came from lower levels of the school educationprogram (first, second, and third years).

5.4The Interview Process

8out of 10 of the interviews that were conducted took place within thepremises of the university: the students` hall. The other twointerviews were carried out in the participants` homes. Each meetingcommenced with a request for personal information such as age, thecourse being undertaken, religious affiliation, the perception of theworld from a gender viewpoint, and the participant understanding ofwhat date rape is and what consented sex is. The questions wereopen-ended, allowing the students to offer their perceptions ofvarious concepts.

Theinterviews lasted approximately one hour, with notes being made onboth the process and content of the meeting. Participants got a copyof the interview notes and requested to raise any issues they wereuncomfortable with or add to the preexisting information. They werealso asked to highlight the areas that they felt would identify them.

5.5Information from Web-based Resources

Inaddition to the information gathered from the interviews, the studyalso included information from credible online sources. The rationalefor choosing this strategy was to identify the areas that were not inline with the research that had been conducted in the field of daterape. Also, credible online sources made the study more reliablesince they were used to make the findings of the surveyauthoritative. This information was derived from reliable onlinedatabases, scientific journals, government publications, and researchconducted by non-profit organizations.

5.6Data Analysis

Afterdoing the interviews, the researchers reviewed each transcriptcarefully to identify patterns, themes, and insights into the issueat hand. When the process was complete, the themes, ideas, andpatterns that emerged were given a conceptual label, after beinggrouped. Subsequently, data from all 10 participants was sorted infiles by code names, and, later, reviewed for subthemes andrelationships between the subthemes. Data that were dissimilar werealso noted.

ChartShowing the Factors that Lead to Increases in cases inColleges

6.0Characteristics

6.1Perpetrator and Victim Demographics

Themessuch as overspending, vulnerability, engagement in sex with othermen, seduction, indulgence in drugs, a change of mind, the ladyleading the man on, and dating for extended periods are factors thatprecipitate date rape.

Inthe study, all men believed that the woman they were with owed themsex since they spent money on her. Some women also held this notion,but some did not. This presumption meant that money had a directrelation to date rape, albeit to a smaller extent.

Secondly,most men (4 out of the five males) acquiesced to the fact that theyfelt turned on when the victim resisted, but they were stronger. Inthe same light, a bigger portion of women (4 out of the five females)contended that no meant no. This viewpoint suggests that a directcorrelation among men asserting their dominance and women refusingthem sexual activity exists.

Third,a somewhat bigger portion of men (3 out of the five men who wereinterviewed) claimed that they anticipated their dates to have sexwith them if she engaged in sex with multiple spouses. All females,however, (5 out of 5 of the women interviewed) claimed that they didnot feel obliged to offer their partners a sexual favor merelybecause they had engaged in intercourse with other men. Thisassertion means that there was also, a correlation between having sexwith multiple spouses and date rape.

Fourth,all the males asserted that there was a grander probability of daterape if the lady was under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Thefemales also revealed similar findings. This premise showed that theinfluence of drugs and alcohol had a direct correlation with daterape.

Fifth,all the males supposed that they could not stop themselves fromsexually assaulting their partners if they allowed them to touch themabove the waist. A small portion of the females (two out of five)acquiesced to this notion, but the others three said that such ahappenstance did not oblige them to engage in a sexual encounter withtheir dates. This finding reveals that seduction had a relativelyhigh correlation with date rape.

Sixth,the majority of men (4 out of the five men interviewed) said thatthey would force themselves on a woman if she changed her mindsuddenly, after assenting to having sex with them. All the ladiesstated that they were entitled to change their minds at any time.Thus, changing one`s mind (for a woman) had a high correlation withdate rape.

Seventh,most of the men (4 out of the five male interviewed) asserted that ifa woman led them on, they expected a sexual favor from her. In thesame vein, the majority of women (4 out of the five women) contendedthat they were willing to engage in sexual intercourse if they led aman on. Thus, leading a man on had a lower correlation with daterape.

Eighth,all the men asserted that the woman had to have sex with them if shearoused them sexually. Also, the majority of women (4 out of the fivewomen) felt that they owed a man sexual activity if they aroused himsexually. Thus, sexual arousal had a low correlation with date rape.

Lastly,all the men said that they expected a woman to have sex with them ifshe had dated them for an extended period. The majority of women (4out of the five women) also agreed with the assertions of the males.Thus, dating for a long time had a weak correlation with date rape.

6.2Intimate Partner Violence

IntimatePartner Violence is perceivable as sexual or physical violence,psychological aggression, or stalking by a former or current lover. Alover or intimate partner can be viewed as a person that one has aclose relationship with. The relationship may be characteristic ofemotional connectedness, sexual behavior, physical contact, regularcontact, or identify themselves as a pair. In this context, violenceis viewed ins terms of sexual aggression, where a different personattempts intimate association without the consent of the victim.

6.3Acquaintance Rape

Acquaintancerape can be defined as a sex offense that is committed by anindividual that is familiar with the victim(IndependentCommunications Authority of South Africa, n.d.). The individual canbe a workmate, a classmate, a relative or a friend. Simply put,acquaintance rape can be defined as sexual contact that is coerced,forced, or manipulated. Statistics reveal that 70% of rape victimsare familiar with their attackers, the average of adolescent anduniversity victims is 18.5 years, and 90% of rape victims who wereunder age 13 knew who their attackers were.

6.3Gang Rape

Gangrape is defined as sexual assault that involves two or more attackers(WorldHealth Organization, n.d.). This type of sexual violence has beenreported in many regions of the globe. However, information regardingthe extent of the issue is inadequate. In Johannesburg, for example,research revealed that one-thirds of all rape-related cases due togang rapes. In the United States, studies confirm that 1 in 10 rapeincidents involve more than one attacker. The majority of thesecrimes are perpetrated by individuals that are unknown to the victim.

7.0Common Reactions to Rape

Theresponses and adjustments that are associated with rape are usuallysimilar to those that people experience after life crises(DomesticViolence Services, 2016). These types of reactions vary depending onfactors such as the age of the victim, life experience, maturity, andthe support system. The nature of the attack also has an impact onthe victim. An attack that involves a stranger wielding a weapon mayelicit a different response than on that is perpetrated by a casualacquaintance with whom one has had social contact with. Most rapevictims adjust to their ordeals in phases. Three stages of reactionhave been linked to rape attacks, as discussed below.

Thefirst stage is shock. Victims, during this phase, suffer from fear,anxiety, and guilt. Observation reactions range from panic tonumbness (Domestic Violence Services, 2016).

Thesecond phase is Denial. Victims try to put everything that happenedto them behind them, at this stage. The victim discusses herexperience less and denies having feelings of anger or hurt. She mayalso attempt to go back to her daily routine (Domestic ViolenceServices, 2016).

Thethird phase is integration. The victims begin realizing that, inspite of their attempts at forgetting the incident, a conspicuouschange has endured in their lives. The recurring nightmaresdifficulties with relationships and uneasiness become part of thevictim`s life. Prolonged effects may prompt the victim to reevaluatethe impact that the attack has made in her life (Domestic ViolenceServices, 2016).

8.0Male Attitudes Toward Sex

Manystereotypical beliefs about the gender differences between men andwomen, regarding sexual attitudes and behaviors exist(Societyfor the Scientific Study of Sexuality, 2012). Scientific evidence,however, asserts that although some of the conceptions forwarded,regarding the attitudes of men toward sex are true, some are false.

Pastresearch reveals that men were the initiators of sexual activity andengaged in sex more often compared to women (Society for theScientific Study of Sexuality, 2012). Recent research contradictsthese assertions. Although reports reveal that men are still theprimary causes of extramarital sex and think about sex more often, achange in the status quo is developing gradually. Both sexes arebeing reported to become more aroused by new partners, although menare more attracted to multiple partners compared to women. Men alsoengage in masturbation and view erotic material more often. Also, menhave been reported to be more permissive, in terms of sex attitudesand acquiescing casual sex (Society for the Scientific Study ofSexuality, 2012). Men are also more likely to perceive sexualrelationship outside the confines of a relationship as beingacceptable.

9.0Rape Culture

Feministsin the US developed the concept rape culture in the 1970s(WomenAgainst Violence Against Women, 2016). The protagonists of rapeculture wanted to bring to bear the relaxed attitude of society inmatters that center on sexual assault. Simply put, the victims ofrape were blamed for being sufferers while male sexual violence wasviewed as being normal. According to Emilie Buchwald, society acceptsand develops rape culture when it allows normalizes sexual assault.

10.0Risk Factors

Asthe students shared their perceptions of date rape, some insightsemerged.

10.1Overspending

Theissue of spending a lot of money on the woman appeared repeatedly.All the males who were interviewed contended that they expected sexafter spending money on a woman. Three out of five females felt thatthey did not owe the man anything even after he spent money on them.The other two held the assertion that a sexual favor was expectedafter a man spent money on them.

    1. Vulnerability

4out of the five males acquiesced that they felt turned on when thevictim resisted, but they overpowered her. Only one man contendedthat he would stop if his date requested him to stop. 4 out of thefive females alleged that they meant no, after saying no. One of themstated that she did not always mean no when she said it.

10.3Engagement in sex with other men

Threeout of the five male respondents who were interviewed claimed thatthey expected a woman to have sex with them if she engaged in sexwith multiple spouses. The other two contended that sexual favor wasnot dependent on the number of men that a woman has slept with. 5 outof 5 of the females interviewed claimed that they did owe a man asexual favor merely because they had engaged in intercourse withother men.

    1. The influence of drugs

Allthe males contended that there was a greater probability of forcefulsexual encounter if the woman was under the influence of narcotics oralcohol. The females also revealed similar findings.

    1. Touch above the waist

Seductionalso emerged quite distinctly. All the males contended that theycould not prevent themselves from forceful sexual encounter if theirdates allowed them to touch them above the waist. Two of the femalesalso acquiesced to this notion, but the other three contended that ahappenstance did not oblige them to engage in a sexual encounter withtheir dates.

10.6Changing her mind

4out of the five men said that they would force themselves on a womanif she changed her mind suddenly, after agreeing to have sex withthem. Only one male contended that he would respect the decision ofthe woman. All the ladies argued that they were entitled to changetheir minds at any time.

    1. The woman leads the man on

4out of the five male contended that if a woman led them on, theyexpected a sexual favor from her. One of the males asserted that thelady did not owe him any sexual favor, even after leading him on. 4out of the five women argued that they were willing to engage insexual intercourse if they led a man on. One of the women, however,stated that such a happening did not oblige her to have sex with aman.

    1. The woman arouses the man sexually

Allthe males contended that the woman had to have sex with them if shearoused them sexually. 4 out of the five women also agreed with thispremise. One woman, however, said that she was entitled to change hermind if she felt like it, despite arousing the man sexually.

    1. Dating for an extended period

Allthe men contended that they expected that a woman was supposed tohave sex with them if she had dated them for a long time. 4 out ofthe five women also agreed with the assertions of the males. One ofthe women, however, contended that dating for a long time was not areason that should oblige a woman to have sex with a man.

11.0Prevention Efforts

Consideringthe above, there are no foolproof methods of preventing sexualviolence (University Police Crime Prevention Division, 2003).However, one can gain an upper hand over a sexual attacker by puttinga number of measures in place.

11.1Signing up for self-defense classes

Signingup for self-defense classes is the first step toward avoiding rape.Classes such as Rape Aggression Defense can help rape victims salvagethemselves from their offenders.

11.2Attending social events in numbers

Second,attending social events in numbers is always a good idea. Using onevehicle and leaving social gatherings together prevents theoccurrence of sexual violence.

11.3Meet at a public place

Third,if one has to meet a stranger, she should meet him at a public place(Arnold, 2014).

11.4One should avoid leaving her drink unattended

Fourth,one should always avoid leaving her drink unattended to, even inpublic areas. Lastly, if one has to leave her drink, she shoulddiscard it and order a new one upon her return.

Evenso, if one becomes a victim of sexual assault, she should identify asafe spot and phone the authorities (University Police CrimePrevention Division, 2003). The sooner one calls the police, thehigher the chances that the perpetrator can get caught. One shouldalso avoid showering or dump the clothes that she had been wearing atthe time of the attack. Also, one should avoid unsettling anything atthe area of the assault since the evidence gathered at the scene willbe used as evidence against the offender in the court. After contactwith the authorities has been established, the victim should visitthe hospital for Medicare. It is prudent to request the examiningdoctor to take note of all the injuries inflicted as a result of thesexual assault. The doctor should examine the patient for pregnancyrisks and venereal ailments. Lastly, one should ensure that someoneis with her.

12.0Conclusion

Mythsabout sexual assault blind many people because these individualsstart assuming that they are safe. The most significant thing is tobear in mind that all persons are likely victims. There are somecommon myths about sexual violence: females owe men sex, is money isspent, women say yes when they say no, and women enjoy being pursuedby aggressive men emerge repeatedly. Date rape may not inherentlyinvolve the use of physical strength. Issues such as detention, thefear of violence, the influence of drugs or alcohol, and deceptioncan be attributed to consented or unconsented sex. Studies indicatethat 22% of all college female have been forcefully subjected tosexual intercourse on a date, women between age 15 and 24 are primaryfriend rape victims, and date rape is a common phenomenon is allcampuses or colleges.

Thisstudy revealed that the majority of men expected sexual favors afterspending money on a woman. Most men felt turned on by thevulnerability of women. A bigger percentage of men felt that a womanshould have sex with them if she has slept with multiple spouses. Theinfluence of drugs and alcohol has a direct link to date rape. Mencould not resist raping a woman if she let them touch her above herwaist. Men could not stop themselves from engaging in sex if a womanchanged her mind suddenly, after agreeing to have sex with them. Menexpected to sleep with a female if she led them on. All men expectedsexual activity if a woman aroused them sexually. Lastly, sexualactivity was normal for pairs that had dated for long periods.

References

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WisconsinCoalition Against Sexual Assault, Inc. (2008). Campus SexualAssault.&nbspWisconsinCoalition Against Sexual Assault, Inc. Information Sheet Series,1. Retrieved from https://www.wcasa.org/file_open.php?id=42

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