COUNTERTERRORISM ESSAY QUIZ 1
The Muslim communityencompasses of eight sections of the “inverted pyramid”organization, which is also recognized as the reverse hierarchy. Theuppermost segment is cultural, and it consists of nominal, liberal,and progressive Muslims. Traditional is the second segment it ismade of Sufis, Bareli’s, and Devotional. Third are thetheologically educated Muslims who have both interest and knowledgein religion as well as Quran, Islamic, and Hadith. Additionally,there is the Shari ‘a compliant, Puritanical Reform, Islamist,radical Islamists, and lastly, the radical Islamic Terrorist section.The radical Islamists segment is also known as the political wing,whereas the radical Terrorist as the military wing. Apparently, theinverted pyramid comprises extra minor and semi-detached groups ofatheists, agnostics, and secularists. The majority of Muslims whobelong in the uppermost section cultural, do not practice a lot ofduties of Islam.
The radicalterrorist includes the al Qaeda and Salafi-jihadis, who function likethe military. Furthermore, the second section traditional Muslimsare known for adhering to the Islamist ideology. Conversely, allthose belonging to the third and fourth segment are educated,patriotic, as well as loyal to their religion and the Quran. Personsin the fifth bar puritanical reform, expresses their reformistagenda intensely. Similarly, the sixth (Islamist) and the seventh(radical Islamist), are centered to political agenda. Finally, is themilitary, which consists of the al Qaeda. After Muslims areknowledgeable in their religious divinity, they begin to undergo adynamic that influences them practice violence, as well as extremism.However, some of them resist the transitions to a great extent, whileothers do not and eventually they turn out to be terrorists.
Frequently,Muslims moves towards the point of the pyramid by phases when beingradicalized.
Significantly,author John J. Kane suggests six functional categories of response tocyber terrorism. According to him, computer-generated security shouldbe a primary aim for the administration department not only foreconomic purpose but as well for national safety. First is thetechnology response, which solves the replicated anonymity issue.Also, it ensures use of secure software by combating the crime, aswell as terrorists. Therefore, every person`s computer is supposed tobe encrypted by secure software and updated at no cost. Similarly,the time spent online must be minimized in order to decrease thechances of an attack. In addition, the government ought to embracediverse software so as to reduce intricacy, and increase modularity."Intrusion Tolerance" technological strategy is supposed tobe included in the cyber defense plan. Consequently, this approachwill offer multiple layers of security, thus making it hard forterrorist to attack people. There is also the option of utilizing thereporting software in security enforcement.
The second responseis through continuous update and reinforcement of the legalframework. Since every terror act is considered as criminal action,hence, computer-generated attack should be treated as felony. Thirdis the structural reaction, which involves the constant creation ofregional, countrywide, as well as sub-national CT center thatencourages information sharing. Actually, this response assists inpulling resources into universal and cooperative endeavors with theaim of fighting replicated terrorism. Likewise, there is periodicallyrehearsal, which provides remarkable insight into areas that needsmore attention. Even though this strategy is expensive, it offers anopportunity for military commanders as well as civilian leader toacquire extra skills. Global or strategy response involves spreadingnews concerning terror campaign through media, and the entertainmentindustry. Lastly, there is the offensive measure, which entailsforming a strong defense team that will be responding to the attacks.It also includes performing undercover operations in terrorists’chat rooms.
Apparently, there isa symbiotic relationship between media and expert terrorist.According to Trevelyan, the terrorist exploits the media reporting topress forward their cause, whereas in turn, they need the drama ofthe attackers to fill up their news bulletin broadcasts and pages,therefore exploiting their viewers as well as their profits. Theaffiliation terrorist and mass media tend as anticipated, to turn outto be symbiotic once the attack is in progress. Nonetheless, it hasbeen argued that media and terrorist are associates since they arealways enthusiastic to give their operations utmost exposure. It alsosaid that reporters as a group are compassionate with terrorist.Henceforth, this means that violence is simply news broadcast,whereby peace and harmony are not. Media view violence as aningredient of a thrilling story and the terrorists need them.Currently, a high percentage of report coverage covers violentattacks, thus encouraging terrorists.
On the other hand,some people debate that terrorism still existed even before thecommunication era. The idea of media and terrorist having arelationship makes the society overlook their value and the role theycan play in promoting peace. Moreover, the notion is wrong as well asgrotesque, since the majority of the western media broadcast coverstories such as sex, celebrity, sports, and business. Certainly,there is a thin line between the relationships of the two groups.Accordingly, the media ought to set a limit on which story tobroadcast, and profoundly there are parallels between theresponsibilities of counter terrorism representatives and securityjournalists. Both parties are in an occupation of obtaining resourcesand persuading them to spread information. Correspondingly, both haveto assemble through massive volumes of materials and make verdict onthe most important and what can firmly be disregarded. They both haveto agree on the most sensible and reliable date that is notmisleading this is the event where the tension between counterterrorism and correspondents becomes apparent.
In fact, Germanyutilizes three primary principles as security apparatus. The economicframework increased through liberalization and privatization ofmarkets. As a result, the government gained revenue, which theyinvested in safety measures as well as fighting terrorism. Regulatorshave turned in investments as a security policy. The structuralframework has expanded to a large organization, which is independent,allied, and strong. The presence of methodical regulations andprotection measures are used in fight terrorism. Essentially, themethodical foundation is an integrated risks management program andidentification. Crisis planning allows the immediate share ofinformation between authorities, thus responding to terrorist attack. Even though government officials are always ready to respond toattack, vulnerability is also considered as an approach. Therefore,there is always need to adopt vital infrastructure to endureprospective impact thus making creating a robust and more tolerantdistraction.
Threat and Hazardprevention decrease the chances of using critical infrastructurethis is regarded as the responsibilities of the government towardstheir citizens. It is centered on defense mechanism, foreign policy,health care, and internal security. The strategic principle aims atprotecting critical infrastructure, thus bringing togethershareholders and balancing their diversity. Evaluating and analyzingthe susceptibility of vital infrastructure components, mechanicallyresults in safety gaps, thus potential option for efficientprotection.
Germany has used theNorth Atlantic Treaty organization to approach counterterrorism. Theassociation has assisted in controlling the US airspace. Also, it hasperformed minor operations, which involves fighting local terrorism.As well, NATO has been involved in consequence management, militarycooperation, effective operations, and defense against attacks. Itaddresses these operations through partnership programs that includeaffiliation for peace. The implementation of various actions is basedindividuals states. Since there is always a difference in theapproach, the NATO strategy always remains low, except for in theforetold endovours. The other group is the group of eight, which hasusually remained relevant in counterterrorism because of itspotential to guide, establish, and improve operational fields.
Third is the UnitedNations organization, which is essential globally. Its primary roleis to create international law. Second is to debate which measure totake in the case of a terrorist attack. The organization treats theissues as a broad problem, which has resulted in overlap, but stillpoliticization of judgment. The advantage of UN compared to otheragencies, is its setting capacity, despite the fact it experiencesaforementioned political limitations. Finally is the European Union,which portrays the Germany`s framework approach towardscounterterrorism.
Sinai, J. (2008). Resolving aterrorist insurgency by addressing its root causes. In TerrorismInformatics (pp.101-114). Springer US. Retrieved from:http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-0-387-71613-8_5