Contributingto Theory: Independent, Mediating, Moderating and Dependent Variables
Whenconducting a study, several factors must be considered by theresearchers. Before a study is taken to the field, it has to be wellorganized, and accurate literature sought by enlightenment. Thereexists data and other theoretical information that when compiledtogether, they become imperative for anyone planning to conduct agiven research study. Whether a study is retrospective orprospective, information collected would always be quantified in someway. The quantification of collected data would be analyzed, and anexplicit representation is disseminated. In the health sector, thevariability in the data would always have an implication. Forinstance, for one to epidemiologically distinguish the incidences andthe prevalence of a disease condition, the significant figures on theground are what defines the state of the disease condition in thepopulation.
Therefore,it is critical for any study to consider and stick to the tentativequantitative question so that from the compilation that the surveywill provide a positive contribution that would be observed on thetheories that have long existed. In moderation (M) the variables areimpacts on the relationship between independent and dependentvariables in a set of data. In most cases, the moderator variablesare usually qualitative or quantitative. On the other hand, themediator variable is responsible for explaining why there exists aparticular closeness between the two primary variables. Independentvariables are said to be unchanged by any variation in the data andvice versa for dependent variables.
Inthe first article (A General Model for Testing Mediation andModeration Effects), the author focuses on trying to seek anyintervening occurrence between the independent and dependentvariables. The writer attempts to explore both direct and indirecteffects on the changes from normal to pathological conditions of theparticipants involved in the study. Typically, it looks into thecause of obesity. The primary constructs comprise the related causesof the conditions and the analysis of the direct and indirect causestowards the underlying condition. The article looks into the historyof the obese condition in populations, and it is taken as themediation factor. The diet which includes the fruits and vegetablesand the worksite wellness program are also discussed as direct causesof obese development. The study involved 107 participants without ahistory of obesity in their family and 93 other members of householdswith the condition. It was a cohort study where the participants wentthrough medical observation and diagnosis to find out the occurrenceof the disease. Statistical significance of a test is based on fourparameters: sample size, effect size, power, and the alpha-level setfor the experiment. The null hypothesis is that there is nodifference in the indirect effect of the program on employee fruitand vegetable consumption through knowledge of fruit and vegetablebenefits across employees who have a family history of disease versusthose who have no family history of the disease. In summary, therewas a close link between the choice of the diet to those with historyand thus a significant contributor to the existing theory that diethas a direct impact on the development of obesity.
Thesecond study (Accurate normalization of real-time Quantitative RT-PCRdata by geometric averaging of multiple internal control genes),involves independent variables which are genes. They are analyzed tocheck for any changes in the dependence constructs which include thenumber of the genes in a typical situation and comparatively linkedto the number and size of the abnormal genes. The study includes acollection of Ribonucleic acids from pooled normal human tissues. Thesamples were collected from 30 participants in which we had 15healthy and 15 diseased members. The operation of the variables isthrough making the Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction machine to bestandard by running healthy cells so as to detect any variables inthe cases of abnormal developments. The study includes aretrospective hospital-based study with internal gene controlstability measure through sampling and testing methods. The datacollected was sought to give a geometric means, and then they areused as the normalization factors. The method was found to be aprerequisite for accuracy purposes and thus an important process ofstudying small expressional variables in the genes. This study helpsto substantiate the feasibility of the mediation and moderationstudies.
AlbertBandura’s document involves a quantitative application whereindividuals are thought to be very efficient in trying to impact adifference in the core lives of their learners. It is perceived bythe people’s ability to influence events that affect their livesand also the lives of others. The people who need to change areconstructs that stand on their own. On the other hand, the influenceand change in behavior are what we quantify about the time ofexposure. The change may be direct or indirect. This study includedan observational study that took a cohort design. It was conductedusing a teacher and a class of students. The students were assessedthrough the questionnaire method on how the influence had impacted intheir lives and also through a psychiatric evaluation.
Inthis Cohen`s study, readers are said to be beneficiaries of theconceptual exposition and frequent use of examples. The mediationvariables are applied to define any direct or indirect influence onhow good the receivers of the information benefit when the examplesare demonstrated and when there are no instances in the deliveranceof the data. The study involves a group of learners who are observedover a period regarding the changes in the behavior and how effectivethey are. A comparison is evaluated for both cases concerningidentifying whether the group of learners who were demonstratedappeals better compared to those who lacked it in teaching. Resultswere obtained from testing methods where tests were given to bothgroups and after evaluation a regression and correlation test wasdone to find out any causes of effects of the examples to thereaders. The study directly helps to build on the existingqualitative understanding that in behavioral influence, the power ofdemonstration is very critical to help the users. The level of changecan be mediated and thus be moderated by the people who read moreexamples are since they are well positioned to understand the realityand influence of the models to the level of the demonstration by thelearners. In the outcomes, the researchers were able to conclude thatthose authors who demonstrated by examples gave their readers betterchances of following and thus it has an effect on the qualitativetheory.
Lastly,Snowman`s study was conducted on over two hundred students fromdifferent faculties. It was focused on the lifestyles of the studentstoday and how well they can be accommodated based on complexpsychology theories. It also demonstrates the relationship betweenlearning, teacher preparedness, and students’ understanding. Itcovers all the constructs and mediates the effects of proper teachingconcerning the level of knowledge of the students. The study involveda cohort design where the students were taught and evaluated. A clearcorrelation was found to exist between the preparedness of theteachers and the understanding of the concept. A statistical dataanalysis was sought to find the general relationship between thevariables. The study holds the facts upheld by the contributingtheory that dependable keys still find strength from the autonomousfigures to give a clear data.
Mediationand moderation of data are becoming very imperative today, and a goodsummary of this information is helping in the analysis ofinformation. An argument on how best we can reduce the morbidity ofand mortality of the obesity conditions in our patients from thefirst article are an issue of concern. Research on practice gapsstill exist due to the following reasons, for instance lapses incommunication between researchers and practitioners. Several otherfactors such as lack of public awareness, poor financial support, andpolitically unfriendly environments have all contributed to themisfortunes in the research area. The data collection, analysis, anddissemination have proved to be complex, challenging and costly andthus many researchers fail to completely get an entirely preparedreport. In research, a psychological study which involves a class ofstudents (quantitative moderator) who are put to an oral test andtheir scores (qualitative moderator) the questions are taken. Anothergroup of learners to be used as the control group can be selected andtaught how to respond to the same issue and later taken through thesame test. The explanation in variation (mediator variable) in thescores of the two groups of students can be used to validate thefeasibility of our theory. Such a study can as well be used toprovide values applicable for the contribution to the qualitative andquantitative theory.
Inconclusion, the errors are always given an allowance in which theycan operate. The calculations and the formulas used in the dataanalysis have always been vital and the dissemination and explanationof the required data. The study has become very critical and thus,the usage and practice of the constructs with the use of quantitativetheory have been contributing to the development of the qualitativeand quantitative analysis.
Cohen, J. C. (2003). Applied Multiple Regression/ Correlation Analysis for Behavioural Sciences. New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates.
et.al, S. J. (2006). Research Methods in Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
J.F., D. (2013). Moderation in Management Research. Journals o Business and Psychology.
John Snowman, R. M. (2012). Ed Psych. Washington DC.
M.k., J. P. (2001). Research Methods Knowledge Base. New York.