Comparison Paper

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Healthcareentails the improvement or maintenance of health through diagnosisand prevention of injury, illness, disease, and other physicalaspects. With the ever rising health issues, medical institutionsmust be furnished to cater for the entire population. The quality andquantity of healthcare tend to vary across counties and states. Italso varies across the globe. As a matter of fact, a country’sprogress or rather status is founded on the availability and strengthof the health care facilities. Apart from that, different countiesand states have varying levels of the healthcare amenities. Thispaper will expound on the availability of healthcare in the county ofSan Diego, State of California, and the entire nation. Additionally,the paper will provide the historical background as well assignificant events in the above regions. Apart from that, I willcompare the public and community health services within the statedregions [ CITATION Tan13 l 1033 ].


Thereare approximately 35 medical facilities in San Diego offeringdifferent kinds of care. The centers provide care such as dental,mental health, emergencies, and trauma among others. Some of the toprated healthcare institutions in San Diego include UC San DiegoMedical Center, Scripps LA Jolla Hospitals and Clinics, SharpGrossmont Hospital, and Alvarado Hospital Medical Center. The countyis quite famous for drug development as well as medical technology.In fact, it is regarded to be the home of the most sophisticatedhealth care industries in the entire country. Clinically-focused andacademic medical centers offer high-quality primary care. The SanDiego hospitals have the highest ratings as indicated by nationalpublications like World Report and U.S. News, for both distinctivespecialists and overall care. It is among the fastest growingindustries with the largest employers in the area [ CITATION San10 l 1033 ].

Historyof Public Health in San Diego

Thecounty formerly had five organizations offering either social orhealth services to the residents. They include:

1.The department of social services

2.The department of health services

3.The department of veterans’ services

4.Commission of children, youth and family

5.The area agency and aging

Theorganizations were merged in 1996 to form a single entity afterapproval from the County Board of Supervisors. The publicadministration and guardian were also incorporated in 1998. Combiningthe services improved delivery and transformed the sector to be moreefficient and client-focused. The efficiency of the service was alsoheightened by the division of provision in geographic terms to meetthe needs of the diverse populations. In that respect, six regions,that is, Central, South, North Central, East, North Coast, and NorthInland were created (San Diego County, 2016).

SanDiego attained official approval nationally for public healthservices from the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) on May 17,2016. This approval indicates that the County has met the nationalstandards in offering necessary public health services that includeimplementing public health rules and regulations investigatingpublic health issues educating the public on public health problemsand preparing and reacting imminently to emergencies, disasters, andhealth threats [CITATION San10 l 1033 ].


Healthcareservice in the entire state of California varies across the counties.The main projects are handled by the California Department of Health.It finances and controls several healthcare delivery programs such asMedi-Cal that caters for low-income earners. The 2011 annual budgetwas $46.8 billion with subsequent increases over the years. Thedepartment champions healthy living through various agencies thatwork in uniformity (Khazan, 2014).

Historyof Public Health in California

Morethan 100 years ago, the state of California had small settlementswith people living hundreds of miles apart. Its vast expanse ofmountains, prairies, and deserts barred people from moving to thisstate. However, the 1848 discovery of gold in the state by JohnMarshall attracted over 100,000 people within two years. The activityattracted many physicians one of them being Dr. Thomas Logan. Hisarrival marked the beginning of public health in the state. Heinstituted the California State Board of Public Health that went onto revitalize medical care (Sasaki, 2013).

TheUnited States Healthcare System

Severaldistinct organizations offer medical care within the country. Thefacilities are mainly owned by private sector businesses. 58 percentof the United States community hospitals are non-profit, 21 percentfor profit, and the government owns 21 percent. As per the WHOstatistics, the U.S. spent more on healthcare than any other countryin 2011. Most of the spending emanates from programs like Medicaid,Veterans Health Administration, Children’s Health Insurance, andMedicare. Presently the life expectancy is 78.4 years, a significantrise from 75.2 in 1990. Among the high-income nations, the U.S. ranksthe highest or near-highest regarding car accidents, adolescentpregnancies, homicides, obesity, lung and heart diseases, andsexually transmitted infections (Sasaki, 2013).

Healthcarefacilities are distributed varyingly across the states. According toCommonwealth Fund ranking, Minnesota has the best-performinghealthcare system. Vermont, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts are alsohighly ranked. Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Arkansas are among thecounties with the worst healthcare facilities. However, Mississippiranks last. These states were ranked according to 42 differentmetrics like obesity rates, insurance coverage, vaccination rates,and elderly care among others (Khazan, 2014).

Historyof Public Health in the Country

The1944 Public Health Service Act structured PHS in the U.S. that wasfounded in 1798. The Public Health Service (PHS) constitutes allagency divisions of health and human services commissioned by Corps.Corps has seen significant achievements over the years on the publicservice front. Among the top achievements of the public health in the20th century include immunizations, workplace safety, safer andhealthier foods, family planning, motor-vehicle safety, control ofinfectious diseases, healthier mothers and babies, and heart illnessand stroke management [ CITATION The l 1033 ].

Differencesbetween Public and Community Health

Thepublic health service in San Diego works to protect againstenvironmental hazards, prevent the spread of diseases as well asepidemics, promote healthy behaviors, and respond to calamities toensure high-quality of service. Community health describes thehealth behaviors, injuries, and sicknesses for particularpopulations. It also monitors the health trends and providescomparisons to the national targets. In the country, Community healthcenters are systematized as non-profit medical caregivers thatfunction under comprehensive federal standards [ CITATION Tan13 l 1033 ].


Khazan, O. (2014, May 1). The States With the Worst Healthcare Systems. Retrieved from

SanDiegoCounty. (2016). Health and Human Services Agency. Retrieved August 28, 2016, from

Sasaki, Tanya Penn and Shreya. (2013). Community Health Needs Assessment. Retrieved from

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