Community Health Application among the Hispanic/ Latino

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COMMUNITY HEALTH 13

CommunityHealth Application among the Hispanic/ Latino

CommunityHealth Application among the Hispanic/ Latino People

  1. Community Assessment

TheOrange County is Located in the U.S. State of California. It is amongthe most populous county in the nation with a population of overthree million people. The Hispanic people in the county constituteabout 33.7% of the entire population (City Data, 2016).on a scale of1 to 5, the health rating is 3.6 which is above average. By 2014,more than 91% of the working population had completed high schoolwhile the number of college graduates was 45.3% (Sothern CaliforniaAssociation of Governments, 2013).

Cityof Laguna Hills is home to only 1% of all people living in the OrangeCounty. In Laguna Hills alone where the total population is 30,618the percentage of people with Latino/Hispanic descent is 21.5%(SouthernCalifornia Association of Governments, 2013). The median age standsat 27 and 31 for men and female respectively. The median householdincome is 79,787. While the percentage of people who own homes in thegreater Orange County is 54.3%, the city’s house ownership rate is74.5%. For a period of 12 years, between 2000 and 2012, thepopulation of the city increased by only 727 people, which is muchlower than the average for the county. During this period, theHispanic population increased from 16.4% to 21.5% (SouthernCalifornia Association of Governments, 2013).

  1. Assessment of needs

EpidemiologicalIndicators

Birthrate

In2010, the numbers of live births in Orange County were 38,237 whichindicate a birth rate of 12.2 per 1000 population (Orange HealthCounty Profile, 2013). Approximately half of all children born duringthe year were from Latino/Hispanic ethnicity. Out of the 38,237 newborn babies, 18930 were born by Hispanic mothers.

TheHispanic, who accounts for only 34.3% of the entire population,contributed 49.5% of all children born. According to the OrangeCounty Health Profile (2013), the projected population of Hispanicsis 37.1%. The projection shows that all the other races will eithermaintain their current percentages or experience a decrease (andparticularly the whites) with the exception of the Latinos. By 2030,38.6% of the inhabitants of Orange County will be Latino while thenon-Hispanic Whites percentage will decrease to 36.7. This would makethe Latino the largest ethnic group in the county.

DeathRate

Dataobtained shows that the average life expectancy at birth of theHispanic women is 85.4 while that of men is 80.5. On average, theLatino lives longer than their white neighbors, whose life expectancyat birth is 83 and 78.7 for women and men respectively (Orange CountyHealth Profile, 2017). Looking at mortality rate after ageadjustment, the Hispanic recorded a population of 386.8 per 100,000people as compared to the white which was 18% above after recoding475.2 per 100,000 persons. The infant mortality for Latino stands at6.1 per 1,000 live births which is more attractive than that of thewhite which stands at 6.3% for every 1,000 live births.

LeadingCauses of Morbidity

Theleading cause of death in Orange County is the heart diseases.However, among the Hispanic people, malignant neoplasms type ofcancer caused the largest number of deaths (540) in 2010 than anyother disease (Orange County Health Profile, 2013). The secondcondition was the heart disease with about 460 people. A comparativestudy of the races in Orange County reveals that the heart ailment isthe leading cause of death to whites and Asians. About 45.4 for every100,000 Hispanic people lose their lives due to coronary relateddiseases which is also responsible for 131 per 100,000 white people.Cancer is attributable to 53.3 deaths per every 100,000 Latinos whilecerebrovascular disease and accident accounts for 12.2 and 11.7deaths for every 100,000 population. Other health problems leading tomortality reported in the area include diabetes, pneumonia,influenza, chronic obstructive pulmonary illness, and intentionalself-harm (suicide).

PopulationEconomic Status

InOrange County, 12.9% of the population was reported to be livingbelow the 100% Federal poverty line of $10,890 per single-personhousehold in 2010. The data revealed that the poverty rate of theHispanics had 17.8% and 20.9% poverty levels for men and womenrespectively (Orange County Health Profile, 2013). While 96.1 % and95.4% of all white male and female non-Hispanic whites holds highschool diploma, only 57% and 59.1% Latinos had graduated from highschool by 2011. This is the lowest among all the races found inOrange County. High level poverty is a threat to health in a numberof ways first, access to health services becomes a challenge,meeting standard nutritional requirements becomes an uphill task andthere is increased tendency to harmful behaviors development such assmoking and substance abuse. The Orange County Health Profile (2013),states that poverty is one of the substantial causes of prematuredeath.

CulturalAssessment

Tolearn about the cultural values of the Hispanic/Latino people, aninterview that involved ten people was conducted. Out of the ten, sixwere men and four women. Since cultural values are well pronounced inthe elderly, six out of the total participants were between the ageof 40 and 62, while four were young adults between 18 and 35 years.Some interviews, especially those involving people from HuntingtonBeach, Santa Ana and Fullerton were conducted through telephonecalls. Notable individuals in the Latino community were involved.

Anumber of questions were asked during the interview to helpunderstand the cultural elements. The first question required theparticipant to describe the family construction and the role playedby each member of the society. The second question sought tounderstand gender roles and differences between Hispanic males andFemales. In the third question, cultural, the respondent wererequested to describe any other communal value that the communitytreasures and how it is practiced. On matters pertaining to health,the fourth question sought to understand the cultural solutions foundamong the people to various illnesses and the people involved intreating and healing the sick. The fifth question required therespondent to explain why many people were reluctant to seekcontemporary medical solution. The sixth question required to seekwhether it is possible for the traditionalist to work collaborativelywith the modern health practitioners. Finally, the respondents wereasked to suggest what they would wish to see improved in the existinghealth services.

Findings

Mostrespondents (8 out of ten), described the family as an importantelement in the Hispanic way of life. Father is the head of the familyand carries all the authority. Children belong to the society and arerequired to respect all the adults equally. Boys are required to showbravely and to always be ready to protect their family. Over 70% ofthe people interviewed believed that separation of roles depending ongender is still an essential component of their life. However, threepeople thought that roles are first changing and women are asassertive as men (two of them were single mothers). A number ofrespondents mentioned that members of the extended family are highlyvalued. Some described the essence of comprades (godparents), who aresecond parents to a child while others explained the important rolethat spiritual practices play in their lives.

Onmatters pertaining to health, 50% of the people interviewed believedthat the curanderos are just as efficient as contemporary doctors.The elderly over the age of 50 involved believed that curanderos haveremedies to health complexes that clinical doctors are unable totreat. One participant explained of several instances where certainillnesses were undetected in hospitals but continued to torment thepatient until when they sought the help of the traditionalists. Somepeople (4 out of 10) stated that they lack medical health cover andcould not afford the expensive services offered in health centers.Elements of ignorance and lack of information was also prevalentamong the participants. In response to the last question oncollaboration of doctors and traditional practitioners, 40% of theinterviewee recommended incorporation of the traditionalist servicesin modern health centers. Some of the areas mentioned for improvementof services was educational programs to teach people on proper livingstyle and importance of visiting health centers and availability ofHispanic translators to help patients who are not eloquent in Englishwhen both the patient and the doctor do not speak the same language.According to the Orange County Health Profile (2013), only 51.8% ofthe population speaks English while a combined close to 28% thepeople are learners of the language.

Analysisof Hispanic Culture

TheLatino way of life is instilled by the parents to their children inearly years. Children learn important cultural roles such as welldiscerned family responsibility, rigidly held roles based on gender,reverent and sincere respect to the elderly and the people inleadership positions and the position of each sex in the family. Bothmen and women are expected to appreciate the important position ofauthority, responsibility and respect of a man in family. A study ofthe way of life of the Latino in Laguna Hills city reveal that therole of gender is under serious redefinition as more men relax andwomen assert themselves in all areas of life. However, a majority ofwomen still holds subordinate positions. This is in agreement withwhat researchers have found out over the last few years afterstudying and conducting studies about the Latino living all over theUnited States. For instance, Kim (2015) states that owing to thechanging position of the gender roles among the Latinos, 16.1% of thewomen are currently in employment.

Astudy of the Hispanic people in Orange County shows that fathersenjoy a prestige and authority in family settings. Male childrenlearn to be independent early in life as compared to the femalecounterparts. There is significant interaction with members of theextended family who are greatly valued. An ideal example of valuebestowed in adults’ relatives and close friends is the culture ofgodparents (Compadres) arrangement practiced by the community. Thecompadres are required to be actively involved in a child’s life byadvising and even supporting them materially when required to do so.

Dependingon their native origin, the Latino people of Orange County have theirtraditional solutions to a number of illnesses. Sometimes, thenon-Hispanic people are perplexed when referred to a healer who hastreated many people before with similar conditions to that a personmay be going through. Some of the ancient healing available in thecounty includes the curanderismo, popular among the Latin America andthe Mexican-American, Seneria commonly applied by those from Cuba andBrazil and espiritismo that originated from Puerto Rico. Thetraditional healers also referred to as curanderos, have a way ofdistinguishing diseases into two classes: hot or cold illnesses andin some occasions, natural and unnatural diseases. Unnatural arethose resulting from sorcery and can only be treated using thetraditional remedies. Consequently, patients are forced to seek forbrujas and brujos (Witches and wizards) to correct unnatural healthcomplexities. Other recognized traditional health practitioners inthe county include parteras (midwives), yerberas (herbalists),hueseros (bone setters) and sobradores who plays role similar to thatof physical therapists.

WindscreenSurvey

Inthe Laguna hill city and its neighborhood, a windscreen surveyrevealed a significant number of fast food joints which arefrequented by large number of clients. Most of the low incomepopulation, especially among the Latinos and Blacks are the heaviestbuyers of junk food. The number of people in the streets who clearlyshows signs of being over-weight or obese is relatively large. Playgrounds for the community where physical exercises can be conductedare few and especially in more populated areas.

ScavengerHunt

Thereare a few organizations that offer services directly to thevulnerable members of the society. One such organization is theNetwork for Healthy California which is public health initiativeorganized funded by the state government of California. It organizespublic rallies and campaigns targeted to certain groups such aschildren, members of certain ethnicity, profession or trade. Forinstance, the Children’s Power Play is an initiative with goals toempower and motivate elementary school-aged children to consumebetween 2 to 5 cups of vegetables and fruits and exercise for atleast 60 minutes daily. The initiative targets to enhance short termhealth by encouraging habits that are fundamental in reducinglong-term risk and exposure to chronic diseases such as cancer,obesity and heart disease (Network for Healthy California, 2016). TheChildren’s Power Play is currently under the funding ofSupplemental Nutrition Assistance Program which is commonly referredto as food stamp. To include children from income qualifyingbackgrounds, the program is referred to as Calfresh in California.

  1. Top Three Major Problems among the Latinos Based on Healthy People 2020 Goals

Obesityand Diabetes

TheHealthy People 2020 goals is to decrease the prevalence of DiabetesMelitus (DM) and in so doing, reduce the economic burden for allpersons who are suffering from or are at risk of developing thecondition (Healthy People 2020, 2016). Nationally, DM affectsapproximately 23.6 million people and is the 7thmost deadly disease. The estimated financial cost in 2007 in theUnited States alone was $ 174 billion. The mentioned cost includesthe cost of disability, premature death, and medical care. Accordingto Healthy People 2020, DM reduces life expectancy by close to 15years, multiplies the risk of suffering heart disease by 200%-400%and is the major cause of amputations of lower limb, onset of adultblindness, and kidney failure.

Amongthe Latinos, obesity and the rate of diabetes mellitus are alarminglyhigh. Statistics shows that over 40% of Mexican American who areabove 20 years of age is overweight. The Non-Latino white populationhas about 33% obesity rate while the other races record much smallerrates. Obesity is the most significant cause of hypertension and isclosely linked to diabetes (Orange County Health Profile, 2013).About 11.8% of all Latino above 20 years are reported to have type -2-diabetes where the Mexican American led the list with 13.3%. Inaddition to genetic factors, poor lifestyle involving sedentary anddiet with high proportion of calorie are the major factorscontributing to these problems. Since their access to health facilityis often remote due to self-imposed reasons, obesity is diagnosed toolate and in many instances, accompanied with other complications. Itis paradoxical to imagine that despite the health risks that theHispanics are exposed to their life expectancy is still higher thanother races, including the whites, most of whom have access andability to obtain the best health services (Juckett, 2013). Theanomaly may be explained by the commonly held belief that the Latinoowns protective factors, the fact that immigrants are naturallyhardy, diet, and social integration. The Latinos are believed to liveabout 7.7 years longer than the non-Hispanic Blacks.

Instudies conducted to show the impact of acculturation of theHispanics on diet, it was discovered that the impact is mixture ofboth positive and negative attributes. Overall, acculturation wasfound to have more negative consequences than affirmative (Juckett,2013). Consumption of traditional foods that are naturally morenutritious reduced as people migrated to the United States andcontinued to do so as the length of stay increased. Women in thesecond generation consume relatively smaller amounts of nativefoodstuff as compared to those in the first generation. Theadvantages of consuming less Hispanic food is decrease in levels ofcream use, reduced use of lard and sausage, and increased consumptionlevel of salads and milk. However, by utilizing more foodstuff nativeto America, the Hispanic reduce use of diets such as vegetable soupand homemade fruit juices and at the same time consume more vegetableoils, butter and margarine, cookies, mayonnaise, and sugars. Thisincreases risks to diseases associated to these commodities.

Basedon the interviews conducted, the Latino way of life is instilled bythe parents to their children early in life. Children learn importantcultural roles such as well discerned family responsibility, rigidlyheld roles based on gender, reverent and sincere respect to theelderly and the people in leadership positions and the position ofeach sex in the family. Both men and women are expected to appreciatethe important position of authority, responsibility and respect of aman in family. A study of the way of life of the Latino in LagunaHills city reveal that the role of gender is under seriousredefinition as more men relax and women assert themselves in allareas of life. However, a majority of women still holds subordinatepositions. This is particularly clear where Kim (2015) states thatonly less than a fifth of the Latino women are employed.

TypicalHispanic dishes include consumption of foodstuffs such as beans,herbs and fresh fruits, all of which constitutes a healthy diet(Rodriguez, 2013). However, immigration and acculturation especiallyupon relocating to different parts of the United States, is usuallyaccompanied with alteration in changing habits. People cook fewermeals at home, eating larger than usual proportions of meals,adopting different cooking styles and buying of fast foods and othercheap ready to eat delicacies are some of the new trends thatdevelop. Most of these foods contain large amounts of sugar, fats,and sodium.

Rodriguez(2013) notes that eating together as a family is extremely valued inLatino community. Members would rather spend their money to ensurethat the family has adequate supplies than spend it on healthpreventive care. As a result, most individuals do not participate inregular medical check-up, which increases the risk to developingcomplications when some diseases are not detected early enough. As ameasure to encourage healthy eating, some organizations haveintroduced programs to enlighten the Latinos on the need to buydelicious but healthy groceries. For example, The National Councilfor La Raza conducts campaigns to encourage healthy shopping ofgroceries (Rodriguez, 2013).

Heartdisease

Aftercancer, heart diseases are the leading causes of deaths in OrangeCounty among the Hispanics. According to NationalHeart, Lung and Blood Institute (2014), some of the major factorscausing heart diseases include diabetes, smoking (both actual andsecond hand smoke), high blood pressure, and inflammation of bloodvessels. By controlling this conditions or avoiding some of them likesmoking, it is possible to reduce the number of casualties. Thelifestyle and eating habits can also lead to increased risk. Properdiet indirectly would play a role in mitigating the risk ofdeveloping factors that causes health complexities.

Studiesshow that Hispanic men smoke just as much as the non-Hispanic Whitepopulation. Men are heavier smokers than women. The acculturationtheory suggests that the smoking rate of Hispanics and Whitesconverges as the rate of interaction intensifies. For instance, thenumber of Mexican American women smoking is more prevalent amonghighly acculturated women and stands at exactly the same level withthat of White women. However, little information is available aboutmen and women smokers in the Cuban and Puerto Rican origin. However,a recent study as reported by surgeon general revealed that thePuerto Rican women are leading in smoking with a percentage of 23,followed closely by the whites (22%), Cuban (18%) and the MexicanAmerican with 15% (Southern California Association of Governments,2013).

Thegoals of Healthy People 2020 is to prevent, detect and offertreatment to people who develop heart problems and stroke and preventinstances of repeat cardiovascular conditions. In 2010, the leadingcause of death, only second to cancer, in Orange County was heartdisease which accounted for 2,976 of 17% of all deaths (Orange CountyHealth Profile, 2013). The Healthy People 2020 goals for OrangeCounty are to reduce the death rate owing to this disease from thecurrent 126.0 per 100,000 populations recorded in 2007 to 100.8 per100,000 people. The major risk factors include high cholesterollevels, smoking, and high blood pressure.

Accordingto Healthy People 2020 (2016), the cost associated to heart diseaseand stroke (which is the first and the third leading causes of deathsnationally) amounted to a little more than $500 billion in bothhealth care expenditures and other services and expenditures closelyrelated to them, per annum. The fortunate fact about the heartdisease and stroke is that they are preventable. Healthy people 2020(2016), have identified the following controllable factors for strokeand heart disease: physical inactivity and poor diet, cigarettesmoking, being overweight and obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol andhigh blood pressure. If these risk factors are addressed early inlife, it is possible to prevent most of the devastating potentialcomplications associated to cardiovascular illness. The mentionedfactors cause alterations in the blood vessels and heart whichincreases risks of heart failure, heart attacks, and stroke.

However,controlling the risk factors is a demanding challenge to anindividual or a community. For instance, high blood pressure affectsclose to 1 out of 3 adult Americans and the most significant causesof the reported cardiovascular disease. The shocking thing is thatmore than half of this people do not have control over their bloodpressure. In spite of high sodium intake being a known risk factor,about 90% of the American adults consume more than recommendedamounts of sodium (Healthy People 2020, 2016).

Cancer

InOrange County, cancer was the second in rank among the leading causesof death in 2010. The total number of deaths was 4340 for all typesof cancers. The most prevalent types were: lung and bronchus cancerresponsible for 1280 deaths, colon and rectum cancer, breast cancerand prostate cancer which accounted for 1185, 2025 and 1410 deathsrespectively (Orange County Health Profile, 2013). Lung cancer alonewas responsible for 5% of all deaths in Orange County. The Whites andthe African Americans are the most affected while the impact on theAsian and the Latino was much less. Generally, the senior citizensare more prone to cancer problems. Close to 80% of all deathsinvolved people over the age of 65. However, Latino women recordedthe highest number of breast cancer.

TheGoal of Healthy People 2020 is to reduce number of new cancer cases,disabilities, illness and deaths resulting from cancer. Nationally,cancer is the second largest cause of deaths after heart disease.Healthy People 2020 facilitate monitoring cancer trends, mortality,and access to better health services and survival instances and hopesto decrease the economic burden of the problem in the nation (HealthyPeople 2020, 2016). Many types of cancers are preventable by avoidingrisk factors which include cigarette smoking and tobacco use, beingoverweight and obesity, exposure to ultra violet rays, and poornutrition. Regular physical exercise is also an important way ofreducing the risk.

SelectedMajor Health Problem: Heart Disease

Beingthe second most significant cause of morbidity, heart disease is amajor challenge to the Hispanic people living in Orange County. Thechoice to address this as one of the major problem is motivated bythe fact that many of the factors that cause the disease arepreventable or controllable. Furthermore, there are substantialamount of resources and partners in the county to address theproblem.

  1. Availability of Community Resources

InOrange community, there are a number of governmental andnon-governmental establishment committed to dealing with heartdisease in addition to other closely related ailments. For thepurpose of this study, three organizations are covered with detailsof how they operate and the services they offer. The three includeIn-home Care Service (Right at Home), American Heart Association inOrange County, and Network for Healthy California.

Rightat Home

Theobjective of Right at Home initiative is to deliver services tosenior citizens with heart problems by conducting home visits andarenas where this group of people is likely to be. 75% of the peopleserved by the organization are above 62 years old. According to Rightat Home (2016), arteriosclerosis occurs when the internal walls ofarteries thickens and lose their elasticity, reducing the areaavailable for flow of blood. If the condition is not detected earlyand controlled, it ends up blocking the vessels entirely overtime.The elders are also at risk of developing Congestive Heart Failure(CHF). The condition results when the heart loses its ability to pumpsufficient blood for normal body functioning. HCF can be caused byall the other heart conditions.

Tooffer crucial home care solutions to clients with heart problems,Right at Home developed experience in care and prevention comes inhandy. The organization has programs that place clients under healthdiet for heart conditions, organizes and help withphysician-prescribed exercise special for people with heart disease,and general assistance in daily life activities (Right at Home,2016). Daily activities requested by the clients and offered by theassociation includes but not limited to light housekeeping, groceryshopping, meal preparation, errand services, laundry and linencleaning, development of healthy diet program, special physician-prescribed exercises, and medication reminder.

AmericanHeart Association in Orange County

TheAmerican Heart Association is a national organization that works inalmost all states and counties. In Orange County, the associationworks hard to empower people to lead healthier lives, avoid stressand mental pressure related to heart disease and stroke. Thecommunity advocates for key issues which include prohibiting smokingin public places, construction and maintenance of more paths thatallow walking and biking activities, educating the masses abouthealthy diets appropriate for body nutritional requirement andhealthy choices, adequate and affordable for all heath care servicesin the county, hygienic indoor and outdoor air conditions for publicactivities and reduction of calories consumed by school goingchildren (American Heart Association, 2016).

Healthcare services aimed at improving the condition of patients withstroke and heart conditions include promoting placement of advancedlife support (AFD) in public and business places, training hundredsof citizens in CPR, defibrillator use, and provision of first aid.The association also provides emergency care for patients who getheart attacks through a mission dubbed Lifeline community-basedinitiative. Moreover, they provide aid to hospitals in treatment ofstroke and cardiac patients based on proven guideline using theiradvanced programs. The community has strengthened stroke system ofcare in Orange County, educated the people on how to respond towarning indicators and has played significant role in provision ofresources to survivors of stroke and care givers (American HeartAssociation, 2016).

Throughcause initiatives and online-based tools, the association strives toreach high risk population such as the Latino and African American(American Heart Association, 2016). Some of the programs andcampaigns for public education include My heart-my life, Power to endstroke, Go Red for Women and Conozca Su Corazon (Search Your Heart)which aims at assisting the Hispanic community to make informedheart-healthy decisions, Juntos Contra El Derrame Cerebral (TogetherAgainst Stroke), an initiative for reducing risk to stroke among theLatinos and heart hub (www.hearthub.org),which is an online portal for patients with resources and tools oncardiovascular disease and stroke. Nationwide, the entity investsapproximately $ 132 million on annual basis for research in heartdisease and stroke which has led to several breakthroughs such as therecent clot-busting drug. The journals published periodically form animportant resource for medical practitioners and health careproviders, in addition to the conferences and online courses provided(American Heart Association, 2016).

Networkfor Healthy California

Thisassociation has been mentioned in Scavenger hunt. Another initiativeby the Network for Healthy California is the Latino campaign which isspearheaded by California Department of Public Health. The purpose ofthe program is to empower the low- income members of the Latinofamilies and enable them to eat the recommended amount of vegetablesand fruits and conduct physical exercises every day. Through thecampaign throughout California, including Orange County, lifestylethat enhances living healthy is popularized through a healthy andsupportive environment. Research has shown that heavy intakes ofvegetables, fruits and regular physical activities are crucial inreducing the risks to chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer,diabetes mellitus, and obesity (Network for Healthy California,2016). The Latino Campaign is also incorporated.

PrimaryPrevention Strategies

Accordingto the Healthy People 2020, the primary approaches to prevention ofDiabetes include testing and early diagnosis which is critical stageas it helps to separate those who know their status to those who donot. To help more people get screening services, the initiative plansto adopt new emerging diagnostic methods such as use of HbA1c whichalso diagnoses the risk level. The methods will increase casesdiagnosed and reduce instances of developing complications forprolonged conditions. This will form an important part of developmentof diabetes prevention in many health facilities. Lifestyle changehas proved in the past to be one of the most effective means ofdelaying the onset of some type of diabetes and particularly, type 2.To achieve these goals in Orange County, the primary preventionmethods used must involve the selected aspect as discussed below.

Dealingwith Cultural Factors leading to Poor Health

Owingto the cultural beliefs of the Latino people in Orange County, a hugenumber may fail to seek modern medical solution in favor oftraditional remedies (Nursetogether, 2015). A substantial numberstill holds social mistrusts of the trained doctors most of who hailsfrom the Asian and White communities. On many occasions, death resultdue to delays in seeking conventional treatment solutions whenpatients prefer to conduct self-treatment. The situation is worsenedby existence of pharmaceuticals where people can purchase drugswithout prescription. Additionally, about thirty percent of theLatino people lack medical health coverage, limiting their chances ofobtaining optimal health services. When doctors available are notnatives of the county, as is the case in many health centers,language barrier and inaccurate translation may lower the standard ofhealth solution offered. Illegal immigrants, who lack credentials andother important documentations faces more challenges due to poverty,illiteracy and fear of deportation which may propel them to avoidseeking medical services.

CreatingAwareness through Campaigns

Raisingawareness about the issue of obesity in the Latino community is ofparamount importance. As we have seen above, a substantial proportionof the society members are corpulent. This is a significant healthchallenge given that such individuals are at higher risk ofdeveloping closely linked health problems such hypertension anddiabetes. Some individual beliefs that being overweight is anindication of family wellbeing are ignorant of the consequences thatthis may have in the long run. According to Jucket (2013), MexicanAmerican who has hypertension is more likely to ignore seekingtreatment as compared to the non-Hispanic whites. With all theseissues in mind, there is need to conduct targeted public campaigns inall areas of Orange County, and especially where the Hispanics arelargely concentrated. Public awareness will play a critical role inpreventing ailments such as diabetes, hypertension, and prevention ofobesity.

Amongthe leading causes of complications that make it difficult forpatient to recover easily is lack of adequate information aboutcertain illnesses. Jucket (2013) reports that most Latinos attributecertain illnesses to factors that are not accurate often based ontheir beliefs. For instance, posttraumatic shocks, which are causedby posttraumatic stress disorder, may be attributed to susto (‘soulloss”). A patient suffering from this condition may as a resultfail to seek medical solution and wait for natural healing. Somepeople believe that abdominal pain is caused by empacho (which means“food getting stack in the intestine”). Failure of a child tothrive or develop normally may be attributed to mal de ojo (“evileye”), which is believed to occur when an envious eye glances onthem. However, Jucket (2013) states that most of these conditionshave traditional treatment most of which are safe with only theexceptions of a few. If contemporary practitioners collaborate withsome of the recognized healers, it would be easier to understand somepractices that are fruitful to the society.

IncorporatingTraditional remedies in the Contemporary setting

Indesigning an effective health program for the Hispanic People inOrange County, it is crucial for the medical practitioners tounderstand and be ready to accommodate the role played by herbaltherapies in the people’s folk medicine. Knowledge in Spanish namesfor regular herbs can be of substantial help. The Latino has a largeselection of herbal teas produced by botanicas available in manyneighborhoods. Hot herbs are used during treatment of cold healthconditions while cold herbs are remedies for hot health problems(Jucket, 2013). For instance, a mother may use cold herbs to treatrashes in a child that results from use of diapers (hot condition).Additionally, she may stop giving several types of vitamins to thebaby as part of hot therapy. As a result, it is possible to mix bothconventional and alternative treatment safely if no possibleconflicts are identified in advance before allowing the exercise.

Aspart of the primary health care to the Latino people in OrangeCounty, use of Spanish handouts may be helpful with Englishtranslation. When conveying medical instructions to patients withdifficulty in English language skills, it may be frustrating for boththe practitioner and the patient. The doctor or nurse can write theinstructions and if resources and time allow, seek help intranslating to a language that the patient will understand better.Patients should be allowed to participate actively in the care andpassiveness discouraged. Jucket (2013) report that for foreign bornLatinos, changing a habit may be quite a process but it is stillachievable if the patient is actively involved.

Finally,the environment in which health services are offered should befriendly and caring. Medical practitioners have an obligation toensure that the environment is friendly, warm and welcoming forLatino Patients. For instance, informative and educative medicalliterature and posters should be prepared in a bilingual form whichmakes the target audience feel that their needs are considered too.More Latino-physicians staff and other specialists should berecruited to intensify service delivery measures. When thesepractitioners are not familiar with Hispanic cultures and beliefs,health facilities can avail materials that supply them with basicsabout cultural sensitivity and traditionally appropriate diets aspart of the menus. Education of masses through medics who understandsthe culture and the language of the people can be a very effectiveway of passing important information that will eventually lead toprevention of many chronic diseases.

References

AmericanHeart Association. (2016). Whowe are.Retrieved 14 August 2016, fromhttps://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Affiliate/Orange-County—Who-We-Are_UCM_304433_SubHomePage.jsp

HealthyPeople 2020. (2016). Diabetes.Retrieved 13 August 2016, fromhttps://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/diabetes

Juckett,G. (2013). Caringfor Latino patients – American family physician.Retrieved 12 August 2016, fromhttp://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0101/p48.html

Kim,V. (2015). Changingroles of Latina women.Retrievedon 16 August 2016, fromhttps://prezi.com/7q9dskfh-naw/changing-roles-of-latina-women/

NationalHeart, Lung and Blood Institute. (2014). Whatcauses heart disease? – NHLBI, NIH.Retrieved 13 August 2016, fromhttp://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hdw/causes

NetworkFor Healthy California.(2016). OrangeCounty, California – Regional programs.Retrieved 14 August 2016, fromhttp://ochealthinfo.com/phs/about/family/nutrition/neop/programs

Nursetogether.(2015). 5ways to provide culturally competent nursing care to. Retrieved16 August 2016, fromhttp://www.nursetogether.com/culturally-competent-nursing-care-to-latino-patients

OrangeCounty Health Profile.(2013). Alook at trends and disparities in key health indicators for OrangeCounty(1st ed.). Laguna Hills.

Rightat Home. (2016). Heartdisease care services for seniors.Retrieved 14 August 2016, fromhttp://www.rightathome.net/south-orange-county/our-services/special-care-situations/heart-disease/

Rodriguez,C. (2013). Beautifulbut deadly: Latinos` curves put them at risk.Retrieved on 16 August 2016, fromhttp://edition.cnn.com/2013/10/15/health/latino-cardiovascular-disparities/

SouthernCalifornia Association of Governments. (2013). Profileof city of Laguna Hills(1sted.).

U.S.Department of Health and Human Services.(2016). Nutritionand weight status.Retrieved 13 August 2016, fromhttps://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/nutrition-and-weight-status

CityData,. (2016). OrangeCounty, California (CA).City-data.com.Retrieved 22 August 2016, fromhttp://www.city-data.com/county/Orange_County-CA.html

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