Course Number: Course Name
The conflict began shortly after the Arab Spring uprisings in 2011.On April 29th 2011, 13-year-old boys wrote on the side oftheir school treasonous words “The Government must go!” in thetown of Daraa1.The general public saw the Al-Assad family as an autocratic leaderhence the movement started as a fight for democracy. But by 2013, themoment disintegrated into a terrorist element, competing for rebelgroups and religious factions. This war has cost the lives of aquarter million Syrians with millions rendered refugees fleeing toWestern Europe.
Causal factors that led to the Syrian Civil War
TheTunisian revolution was the stimulating factor that spread the waveof Arab unrest reaching Syria on 15th of March 2011. Asmall southern city’s residents took to the streets to protest thetorture of underage students who erected anti-government graffiti2.The Syrian government, however, responded with military action thusfiring up demonstrations all over the country. President Basharal-Assad had ideas of initiating reforms for the citizens of Syriainstead of force as his father. In April 2011, a couple of days hadpassed after the state of emergency was lifted. It set off with aseries of crackdowns sending military tanks into protesting cities assecurity forces open live fire on peaceful demonstrators 3.In response to this, the peaceful demonstrations escalated to beingviolent attacks on the Syrian troops.
Progression of the Conflict
Thecrackdown on the insurgents continued until summer of 2011. Syriansoldiers defected and joined the numerous rebel groups in the fightfor democracy. They started launching attacks on the governmentforces leading to the progression of the civil war. The SyrianNational Council an opposition government was formed but was notrecognized the by Western and Arab League due to its internaldivision. The opposition remained a collection of exiled politicalgroups, armed militants divided along ethnic, sectarian andideological lines. Racial division in Syria complicated the conflictin the country. The Assad and much of the high profile members of themilitary belong to a minority tribe, the Alawite sect.
TheAssad government had the advantage of having high-powered militaryhardware and units of loyal elite troops yet, on the other hand, therebels fighters were highly motivated and had the numbers ofMujahedeen about seventy-five percent of the Syrian population4.The United States, Saudi Arabia and other countries condemnedPresident Bashir who many had hoped that he would restrain from theprevious iron-handed regime his father had started. Syrian neighborssuch as Turkey and Jordan criticized all the developing issueshappening in Syria. The epitome of all occurrences took place whenSyria was removed from the Arab League after an agreement for acease-fire on protestors and formulation of a peace plan butgovernment forces retaliated by stepping up attacks on demonstrators.In early 2012, the Syrian government agreed to let observers from theArab League into the country. Their presence did not influence theend of the violence.
InFebruary that year, the United Nations General Assembly approved thecondemnation of the Syrian president’s crackdowns on suspectedfaction in resistive cities. Russia and China blocked efforts for astronger Security Council action. Tensions spilled over borders intoTurkey, Iraq, Jordan and Lebanon, where there was an increase ofAl-Qaeda linked succeed bombings in the same year. By the year 2012,the Syrian conflict had advanced in violence in every province of thenation where an estimation of the death toll was previously at 400 inJune 2011 and had risen to more than 3000 people in 2012 (Güney).The United Nations, however, estimated more than 10,000 people werekilled and left millions displaced.
TheSyrian government continued waging a campaign of arrests that incitedmore people to take arms against the government in the holy war ofjihad. In Damascus and cities throughout Syria including Aleppo thelargest city, the opposition had coalesced around armed groups with acommon identity of being elements of the free Syrian army. Toney,medical supplies and weapons increased in opposition bases located inthe refugee camps on the Turkish borderside. The conflict changed itscourse into being a radicalized front for home based Muslim Jihadistswith help from fighters belonging to known terror cells such asal-Qaeda. These soldiers took up the prominent role of running to theresistance as the war waged on without resolution.
War Crimes Committed in the Civil War
TheSyrian civil was described as a humanitarian crisis after the SecondWorld War with half a million of its citizens maimed, the homescharred to the ground and the country reduced to a battlefield andthe Sunni-Shia sectarianism generation seen. Adverse implicationswere brought by the conflict for the boundaries of the Middle Eastand the increasing cases of terrorism. The devolved civil war led tothe partitioning of Syria into three general areas whereUS-designated terrorist groups were dominant. In the West of Syria,the minority Alawite dominating Assad regime and the mosaic of Shiamilitants funded by the Iranian Revolutionary Corp trained and heldthe tribal lands5.In the center of Syria, Islamists, Sunni moderate and Jihadistsorganizations such as Jabhat al-Nusra as al-Qaeda affiliated groupand ISIS shared control of the region.
TheKurdish-based People’s Protection (YPG) influenced the lands withtheir Sectarian ideologies and were supported by the KurdistanWorkers’ party. Jordan, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the U.A.E and Qatarsupported the Sunni. While Russia strongly backed up the Assad regimeeven though the very fabric of Syrian society was being washed awaydue to the escalating conflicts in the nation6.Rebel brigades were deployed to fight against government troops forcontrol of influential cities such as Damascus and Aleppo. Theregions experienced the highest death tolls of both civilians andsoldiers. In 2013, June the UN reported that more than 90,000 peoplehad been killed and to date, the number has tripled according toother sources focused on the Syrian civil war (Hughes, p 524).
TheSyrian conflict has now multifaceted with many components that widenthe tensions in place between the rebel forces and the governmentloyalists. The country also faces ethnic differences especially afterthe introduction of world powers who try to control the war. UNCommission investigated human rights violations since the inceptionof the Syrian conflict. Evidence shows that both the government andrebel forces have committed crimes against humanity. Notably crimesinclude include torture, mass murder, forced disappearances oftargeted individuals and rape. Rebel forces have gone to an extent ofdenying civilians basic amenities such as food, water, and healthservices as a tactical strategy of demanding a pledge of allegianceto their course.
In2014, the UN Security Council was inclined to release a resolutiondemanding that all the parties in the civil war end theindiscriminate deployment of weapons in civilian locations7.After the resolution, sources confirm barrel bombs killed more than6000 civilians dropped by the Syrian Air force in rebel-held areas.Rebel forces directly targeted civilians heightening the situation inSyria. After the intense infantry warfare seen in Damascus, PresidentBashar al-Assad changed his tactic by introducing chemical weapons.The Sarin nerve gas was dispatched to rebel-held areas which led tothe mass murder of 1500 civilians who died from exposure (Hayani etal., p 64).
Role of Foreign Nations in the Syrian Civil War
Themove was against regulations set by the international law. PresidentObama modified his plan to a full-scale air campaign strikes againstAssad forces. The United States and Russia made a deal where Syriawas to surrender the remaining stock of chemical weapons. Scientistsin the mobile laboratory facilities were formulating chemicals thatwere to be used to create the Sarin gas that was later fed into awarhead and attached to a missile. Syrian doctors had no choice butto cooperate after the revolting ones were publicly assassinated by afiring squad to foster allegiance to the Assad regime. The death ofhundreds of civilians influenced the US military to intervene in theSyrian Civil War. Due to this threat, chemical weapons were removed,but there are still some reports of chemical weapons deployment byboth the Islamic state and the government.
Conflicts between ISIS and other Militia Groups
Therehas been a major confrontation between other rebel army and theIslamic state in Iraq and Syria. Two newly formed coalitions haveassumed leadership including the Front of Syrian Revolutionaries andJaysh al-Mujahidin. Other militia groups have waged war on ISISinsisting that it should abandon its aims of establishing a state.They insist fighters should pledge their allegiances to the IslamicState or quit Syria. Fighting between free Syrian army and ISIS hastransformed the civil war due to the selfish interests of the partieswho are fighting over strategic territories.
The Syrian opposition coalition believes that ISIS is a regimedesigned to undermine the critical principles of the revolution andpoisons the meaning of Islam. The Syrian national coalition alsobelieves that ISIS are private military contractors closely linked tothe dictatorial regime and serve the interests of President Bashar8.The mass murder of innocent Syrian civilians for opposing the harshSharia Law supports their intentions behind the formation of theIslamic State. The agendas brought and supported by ISIS do not favorthe general public. For the Islamic Front and Hassan Aboud, seizingand executing Dr. Hussein al-Suleiman, a doctor who was anadministrator in the Ahrar al-Sham state army was of greatsignificance. Dr. Hussein was in charge of the Bab al-Hawa fringecrossing after the Ahrar al-Sham troops battling under the IslamicFront, took control of it in December 2013. Photographs of hisdamaged body, demonstrating the cutting of an ear, teeth thumped out,and the highest point of his head shot off, turned into a websensation on Twitter, inciting broad frightfulness and shock.
ISIS Mode of Operation
ISIShas attempted to control the supply lines from Turkey specifically inAleppo and the encompassing towns by catching the cities between theBab al-Hawa intersection and Aleppo. The ISIS assaulted thePreeminent Military Summons’s Head Quarters in Bab al-Hawa. TheIslamic Front civilian army cleared to the salvage having been calledby Idris to provide assistance. As indicated by Free Syria ArmedForce officers who were at the base camp, Ahrar al-Sham fighters tookthe SMC HQ at Bab al-Hawa by power for the sake of sparing it fromISIS, ravaging FSA weapons, fabrics, and individual having a place9.
Theconfrontation at Bab al-Hawa, a key guest town with Turkey, set allgatherings on an impact course that blasted in the last couple ofdays, taking after the ISIS killing of Dr. Hussein and Bab al-Hawaadministrator. Islamic Front pioneers have been exceptionallyskillful about finessing questions on administration. The extremistgroup took control of huge territories across eastern and northernSyria by 2014, with many of its fighters from foreign countriessharing a common radical ideology.
Thesame year, a United States launched air campaigns within Syria todestabilize and destroy ISIS strongholds. In response, IS helped theKurdistan rebels and initiated an assault on the Northern side ofSyria. The attacks avoided benefiting government forces orinterfering with the battle between the rebels and President Bashar’stroops. The moderate National Coalition is the prominent politicalfigure in the country but due to internal division and lack ofcooperation the group is unpopular on the ground and has minimalinfluence on the strategies to end the Civil War.
Remotecontribution in the Syrian Common War alludes to the political,military and operational backing of parties required in thecontinuous clash in Syria that started in Walk 2011, and additionallydynamic outside inclusion. Most gatherings needed in the war in Syriaget different sorts of backing from foreign nations and substancesbased outside Syria. The progressing strife in Syria is portrayed asa progression of covering intermediary wars between the provincialand world forces, fundamentally between the U.S. what`s more, Russiaand amongst Iran and Saudi Arabia. The Syrian Ba`athist government ismilitarily upheld by Iran and Russia, effectively bolstered byLebanese Hezbollah party and by Syrian-based Palestinian gatheringand others.
TheSyrian restriction politically spoke to by the Syrian NationalCoalition, gets money related, logistical, political and now andagain military backing from real Sunni states in the Center Eastunited with the U.S., most eminently Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Turkey.From early phases of the typical clash in Syria, real Westernnations, for example, the U.S, France, and the UK give political,military and logistic backing to the restriction and also rebelbunches in Syria that are not assigned to them as a terrorist. Thedominatingly Kurdish Individuals` Security Units (YPG), the primarilyoutfitted administration of the Kurdish Preeminent Council, thelegislature of Syrian Kurdistan, have gotten military and logisticbacking from Iraqi Kurdistan and air support by U.S., Canada, Englishand French aviation based armed forces.
TheSalafist gatherings are incompletely bolstered by Turkey, while theIslamic Condition of Iraq and the Levant got support from a fewnon-state groups and associations from over the Muslim World. As anoteworthy piece of Syria′s domain is following 2014 guaranteed byIslamic State (ISIL), an element globally perceived as a terrorist,various Western and different nations, most remarkably the U.S.,Russia and France, take an interest in direct military activityagainst ISIL in the region of Syria.
Since30 September 2015, Russia has openly engaged in activities indicatingits support for the ruling government. However, it is essential thatthe international community steps up efforts aimed at ending the warthat has already claimed thousands of lives. The United Nations mustmobilize nations to come up with a lasting solution toward the issue.The military movement of Russia in Syria has been condemned by theU.S. its provincial partners. Turkey apparently conflicted with theRussian army in November 2015 over the asserted infringement of itsairspace by a Russian plane and also over Russia′s barrage of theranges held by against government constraints that are upheld byTurkey, particularly in the Bayırbucak region. Since July 2015,Turkey likewise straightforwardly and efficiently restricts furtherdevelopment of the Syrian Kurdish powers along its outskirt.
Berti,Benedetta, and Yoel Guzansky. "Saudi Arabia`s Foreign Policy onIran and the Proxy War in Syria: Toward a New Chapter?" IsraelJournal of Foreign Affairs 8.3(2014): 25-34.
Carpenter,Ted Galen. "Tangled web: The Syrian civil war and itsimplications." MediterraneanQuarterly 24.1(2013): 1-11.
Casana,Jesse. "Satellite Imagery-based analysis of archaeologicallooting in Syria." NearEastern Archaeology 78.3(2015): 142-152.
Güney,Nursin Atesoglu. "A new challenge for Turkey: civil war inSyria. “InsightTurkey 15.4(2013): 51.
Gupta,Ranjit. "Understanding the War in Syria and the Roles ofExternal Players: Way Out of the Quagmire?." TheRound Table105, no. 1 (2016): 29-41.
Hayani,Kinan, Anwar Dandashli, and Elke Weisshaar. "Cutaneousleishmaniasis in Syria: clinical features, current status and theeffects of war." Actadermato-venereologica 95.1(2015): 62-66.
Hughes,Geraint Alun. "Syria and the perils of proxy warfare." SmallWars & Insurgencies 25.3(2014): 522-538.
Jenkins,Brian Michael. Howthe Current Conflicts Are Shaping the Future of Syria and Iraq.Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, PE-163-RC, 2015.
1 Berti, Benedetta, and Yoel Guzansky. "Saudi Arabia`s Foreign Policy on Iran and the Proxy War in Syria: Toward a New Chapter?" Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 8.3 (2014): 25-34.
2 Carpenter, Ted Galen. "Tangled web: The Syrian civil war and its implications." Mediterranean Quarterly 24.1 (2013): 1-11.
3 Casana, Jesse. "Satellite Imagery-based analysis of archaeological looting in Syria." Near Eastern Archaeology 78.3 (2015): 142-152.
4 Güney, Nursin Atesoglu. "A new challenge for Turkey: civil war in Syria. “Insight Turkey 15.4 (2013): 51.
5 Hayani, Kinan, Anwar Dandashli, and Elke Weisshaar. "Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Syria: clinical features, current status and the effects of war." Acta dermato-venereologica 95.1 (2015): 62-66.
6 Hayani, Kinan, Anwar Dandashli, and Elke Weisshaar. "Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Syria: clinical features, current status and the effects of war." Acta dermato-venereologica 95.1 (2015): 62-66.
7 Hughes, Geraint Alun. "Syria and the perils of proxy warfare." Small Wars & Insurgencies 25.3 (2014): 522-538.
8Gupta, Ranjit. "Understanding the War in Syria and the Roles of External Players: Way Out of the Quagmire?." The Round Table 105, no. 1 (2016): 29-41.
9 Jenkins, Brian Michael. How the Current Conflicts Are Shaping the Future of Syria and Iraq. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, PE-163-RC, 2015.