Case Study on Cellular Adaptation, Injury, and Death

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CaseStudy on Cellular Adaptation, Injury, and Death

CaseStudy on Cellular Adaptation, Injury, and Death

1.Reasons for Tissue Ischemia

Mariawill be affected by tissue ischemia because of trauma and embolism.Ischemia involves hindrance of blood flow in the tissues. Theinsufficient blood flow results in minimal quantities of glucose andoxygen, which causes poor cellular metabolism. The patient can getischemia because of traumatic injuries caused by the overweight andhigh blood pressure condition. Maria can experience embolism becauseof circulation of foreign bodies in the blood system. Foreign bodycirculation is one of the causes of the enlarged heart condition.Tissue ischemia causes hypoxia as a result of reduced oxygen levelsin the body tissues (Robinson, 2014).

2.Early and Reversible Changes

Tissuecells experience two reversible changes at the early hypoxic stage.The first change is reduced mitochondrial activities because of poorglycolysis as a result of low oxygen supply. Electron transport rateis also minimized because of low oxygen supply. The concentration oflactic acid increases in the cells resulting in low cell and blood pHlevels (Sharon, 2016). The second change is disruption of thecellular membrane. Low oxygen supply increases anaerobic metabolism.Anaerobic glycolysis increases lactic acid accumulation and minimizesthe level of cellular work. If oxygen deprivation is not controlled,then disruption of the cellular membrane is experienced causingelectrolyte disturbance (Sharon, 2016).

3.Cellular Adaptation

Theenlarged heart of Maria is a category of cellular adaptation to thelow levels of oxygen supply in the blood system. The heart adapts toinsufficient oxygen supply by increasing blood pumping effort. Theincreased blood circulation load makes the heart to develop lessoverlap of the myosin and actin filaments. This causes the myocardialfibers to increase in size. The size of the heart thus increases tosupport the increased blood circulation load (Burch &amp Walsh,2013).

References

Burch,G. &amp Walsh, J. (2013). “Value of Prolonged Bed Rest inManagement of Cardiomegaly.” JAMA183(2):81-87.

Robinson,G. (2014). OxfordHandbook of Respiratory Medicine.Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sharon,E. (2016). Cellular Pathophysiology. Retrieved from https://www.nursingtimes.net/cellular-pathophysiology-part-2-responses-following-hypoxia/200091.article

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