The majority of heart defects are congenital. They includestructural abnormalities in the formation of the heart and majorblood vessels. There are more than 18 different types of cardiacimperfections, in addition to several variations in the anatomy ofcirculatory organs. They mainly affect the interior structures of theheart, valves, and major veins and arteries near the heart. Somedefects have adverse effects on the hemodynamic and, thus, theabilities of the heart to pump blood throughout the body(Rickert-Sperling, 2015).
Some heart defects are simple and do not require any treatment, whileothers are intricate with limited chances of survival. Hypoplasia isa rare but serious condition that results from poor development ofthe verticals. It negatively affects the pumping of blood to thelungs and other parts of the body. Therefore, it is a fatal conditionthat results in infant death unless emergency surgery is done. Septaldefects are common abnormalities, which stem from the septum tissuesallowing blood to flow across, from left to right. This affects theefficiency of the heart in delivering oxygenated blood to otherorgans. Obstruction defects, which mainly affect valves and majorblood vessels near the heart, are also classified as cardiacabnormalities. They include blockage or abnormally narrow arteries,veins and valves which have negative impacts on the flow of blood.They are major causes of high blood pressure and enlargement of theheart. While some obstructions are congenital, some may develop afterbirth due to environmental and lifestyle influences(Rickert-Sperling, 2015).
Since they affect the functionality of other organs in the body,(such as the brain, lungs, kidney, and skin) heart defects havedirect impacts on all aspects of life. For example, the individualmay not be able to engage in some lifestyles like sporting activitiesor be pregnant (Rickert-Sperling, 2015).
Rickert-Sperling, S. et al (2015). Congenital heart diseases: thebroken heart: clinical features, human genetics and molecularpathways. New York: Springer.