BIRTH CONTROL OPTIONS 7
Whenan individual becomes sexually active, like in the case of Jane, therisks of getting unwanted pregnancies increase. Girls will attempt tocarry out abortions when they get impregnated before marriage or whennot financially stable. Also, some ladies throw away their infantsimmediately after birth. As a result, the number of street childrenhas been on the rise which in turn, has led to an increase in socialcrime rates in towns. Besides, some individuals dislike their babiesif the pregnancies were unplanned.
Janecan use various methods to prevent untimely pregnancies. However,some considerations should be made before she decides on the suitabletechnique to use. There are many things that a lady is expected tothink about since there is no best way to control conception becauseeach procedure has got its advantages and disadvantages (PeelPublic Health, n.d).Therefore, making the correct choice about which birth controldevices to use is not easy. However, a woman should consider heroverall health before settling on any process. Also, theeffectiveness of the technique is a major factor that could influencethe choice of the birth monitoring system she can use. The mostappropriate method is the one that has the lowest probability offailure. Besides, if she wishes to have children some day, then thesystem that she can use should be semi-permanent. Moreover, thenumber of sex partners she has or how regular she has sex willdetermine the procedure to manage birth.
Thereare various methods of family planning which include continuousabstinence, natural family planning, barrier techniques, hormonaltechnique, emergency contraception, implantable devices, andpermanent birth control procedures (U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, 2011).Continuous abstinence is the only routine that is hundred percentsure that a lady will not be pregnant and offers full protectionagainst sexually transmitted infections and HIV. In this technique, awoman does not have either vaginal or anal sex at any time. This typeof conception management style demands a high degree of self-controland discipline. This method is advantageous because there is nofinancial cost involved and no need to visit a health care provider.
Thenatural method, also known as the rhythm routine, is where a womanabstains from sex during her most fertile days or uses barrierdevices during sexual intercourse. However, the rhythm style favorsladies who have regular menstrual cycle since it is possible topredict when an individual is safe to have sex. A girl with regularperiods has approximately nine days in a month during when she canconceive. It is unsafe to have sex five days before ovulation andthree days after ovulation. Besides, body temperature and vaginaldischarge can be good indicators of whether a female is safe orunsafe to have sex. It is unsafe for a girl to have sexualintercourse when her vaginal discharge is clear and slippery, and hertemperatures are around 0.8○Fbecause she is most fertile during that period (U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, 2011).
Barriermethods are used to keep sperms away from the ova, and the procedureinvolves the use of male condoms, contraceptive sponge, femalecondoms, diaphragm, cervical cap, and cervical shield. Acontraceptive sponge is a soft device that covers the cervix wheninserted into the vagina before sex (U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, 2011).A sponge must be moistened using a liquid like water to activatespermicide that is used to kill sperms. Further, a contraceptivesponge is advantageous because it is non-latex, about 91% effective,readily available in the drug stores, re-usable, and it has astandard size that can fit all women. However, a sponge cannot beused during the menstrual period, and it does not offer protectionagainst sexually transmitted diseases.
Also,a diaphragm is a soft rubber with a doom shape that prevents spermsfrom reaching the cervix. A diaphragm is fitted into the vagina atleast six hours before the intercourse, and it must stay in thevagina for not less than six hours after having sex. Moreover, adiaphragm has up to ninety-four percent effectiveness, is re-usable,and uses spermicidal jelly which acts as an excellent lubricant (PeelPublic Health, n.d).However, a diaphragm is costly because fitting requires a doctor andextra spermicidal jelly is needed every time a female wants sex.Also, its insertion is often uncomfortable to many women.
Janecan also request her sex partner to use a male condom, which is athin sheath that is used to cover an erect penis. The condom preventsthe sperms from entering into the vagina and condoms can be utilizedwith other birth control measures to increase their effectiveness.Condoms have the following merits they are readily available,prevent both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, areninety-eight percent effective, and they do not require aprofessional health care to be fitted. However, condoms can ruptureif they are not worn appropriately and latex in condoms can causeirritations (PeelPublic Health, n.d).
Femalecondoms are polyurethane sheath with two rings whereby one ring isfitted into the vagina, and the other ring is placed on the vaginalopening. The penis penetrates into the vagina through the ringoutside the opening of the vagina. Female condoms have up toninety-five percent effectiveness, are readily available, and can beused by women who are allergic to latex because they are non-latex.Alternatively, they offer protection against sexually transmittedinfections and HIV (U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, 2011).However, not all users are comfortable with inserting the condom intothe vagina and condoms make noise during sexual intercourse.
Bothcervical cap and cervical shield block the sperm from entering thecervix so that the sperm does not reach the egg.
Hormonalbirth control techniques prevent conception by interfering withmenstrual periods and fertilization. Oral contraceptives are pillsthat are taken every day to prevent the ovaries from releasing theova. Oral contraceptives contain the progestin and estrogen hormones(Mary& Gina, 2014).These hormones also alter the lining of the uterus to block the spermfrom fusing with an ovum. Also, there is the patch that can be wornon the outer arm or upper body where it releases progestin andestrogen hormones into bloodstream thus stopping the ovaries fromreleasing eggs. Besides, the patch thickens the cervical mucus tohinder the sperms from fertilizing the ova. Also, females can beinjected with progestin hormone in the buttock every three months toprevent the ovaries from releasing the ova. However, the birthcontrol injection should be used for a period not exceeding two yearsbecause it can affect bone density.
Implantabledevices are inserted into the body, and they stay in the body for afew years (Mary& Gina, 2014).For example, the implantable rod that is the size of a matchstick isinserted into the skin of the upper arm. This rod releases progestinwhich causes alterations in the uterus lining as well as thickeningthe cervical mucus to keep the sperms from fusing with the ova.
Permanentbirth control methods are recommended for those people who areconfident that they do need a baby at any point in their lives. Thereare two methods of permanent family planning that are surgical andnon-surgical sterilization. For example, sterilization implant worksby causing a scar tissue which forms around the coil. The scar tissueblocks the fallopian tube thus stopping the ovum from joining withthe sperm. In surgical sterilization, the fallopian tubes are cut andsealed to prevent the egg from fusing with the sperm (Mary& Gina, 2014).
Emergencycontraception is the pill that a woman swallows after havingunprotected vaginal intercourse or when the lady’s leading birthcontrol technique fails. Emergency pills prevent the sperm from anovum, hinder the fusion of the sperm and an egg, and block anyfertilized ovum attaching itself to the walls of the uterus. However,these pills must be taken within a period not exceeding seventy-twohours after having unprotected sexual intercourse for them to beeffective (PeelPublic Health, n.d).
Amongthe Roman Catholicism, the use of artificial contraception such asemergency pill is not allowed. Roman Catholicism encourages the useof natural methods in family planning. Also, most religions restrictpeople from using permanent birth control methods such as surgicalsterilization (Prettner& Strulik, 2014).Most cultures support the use coitus interruptus because it does notrequire any special arrangements. Also, several cultures recommendfor the use of mucothermic method whereby a woman abstains from sexduring her fertile days (Srikanthan& Reid, 2008).
Mary,A.O. & Gina, S.S. (2014). Contraception for Adolescents. AmericanAcademy of Pediatrics,Vol. 134 (4). Retrieved fromhttp://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2014/09/24/peds.2014-2299.full.pdf
PeelPublic Health (n.d). BirthControl Methods.Healthy Sexuality, Retrieved fromhttp://peelregion.ca/health/sexuality/birth-control/pdfs/birth-control-methods.pdf
Prettner,K. & Strulik, H. (2014). It`sA Sin-Contraceptive Use, Religious Beliefs, and Long-Run EconomicDevelopment.Universityof Southern Denmark Retrieved fromhttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwje25LFkOHOAhWeHsAKHdr_CrQQFgghMAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sdu.dk%2F-%2Fmedia%2Ffiles%2Fom_sdu%2Finstitutter%2Fivoe%2Fdisc_papers%2Fdisc_2014%2Fdpbe11_2014.pdf&usg=AFQjCNFlAVJsWsViQr1uJUegQLONk-D6hQ&sig2=Zw1WgBaIUf02I1SQyPf45w&bvm=bv.131286987,d.d24
Srikanthan,A. & Reid, L.R. (2008). Religious and Cultural Influences onContraception. JOGC30 (2) 129-137. Retrieved fromhttp://www.jogc.com/article/S1701-2163(16)32736-0/pdf
U.S.Department of Health and Human Services (2011). BirthControl Methods, Frequently Asked Questions.Retrieved fromhttps://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/birth-control-methods.pdf