Application of Evidence-based Practice in Addressing the Patient Problem

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Applicationof Evidence-based Practice in Addressing the Patient Problem

Applicationof Evidence-based Practice in Addressing the Patient Problem

Heart attacks continue to be a problem across the globe withthousands of deaths reported to occur because of the condition. It isunfortunate that despite the possibility of managing the disease,lives still continue to be lost. It is essential to come up with waysto deal with the adverse effects that arise because of a heartattack. However, the application of any remedies to deal with theproblem must be preceded by a consideration of available evidencethat supports the same. Avoidance of stressful conditions andstrenuous physical exercises can reduce the cases of heart attackswitnessed. The paper will evaluate the existing evidence thatpertains to the possibility of employing the identified solution indealing with heart attacks.

Search Strategy

The search was conducted by use of a medical database, PubMedCentral. The search terms used were “effect of stress on heartattack” and “obesity and heart attack”. The most relevantstudies were isolated and were used to solve the problem. Inclusioncriteria were studies conducted within the last seven years.

Evaluation of Evidence

Grippo and Johnson (2010) in their study have linked cardiovasculardisease to stressful condition. According to the researchers,depression resulting from psychological processes such as dealingwith lifestyle changes increases the likelihood of one developingheart disease. The researchers were able to determine that indeedboth the psychological and physiological factors increase the risk ofcardiovascular disease. Findings by the researchers reveal thatpatients with minimal stress levels have better chances of overcominga heart attack. In their conclusions, the researchers state thatdepression determines the incidence of cardiovascular disease (Grippo&amp Johnson, 2010). Evidence from the research can serve as abasis to inform the patient to avoid the possibility of developing aheart attack. The research is reliable considering the approachresearchers take in undertaking the study. It can be relied upon andcould serve as evidence to support avoidance of stress.

Arnold et al. (2012) evaluate the impact of stress on patientsaffected by myocardial infarction. In the research, it was determinedthat patients with moderate or high levels of stress havean increased rate of mortality compared to those havingdecreased levels. The researchers mainly link high-stress levels withpoor health and elevated chances of angina. Further, the researchersattribute increased levels to elevated blood pressure and pulserates. It is an indication of the fact that patients suffering fromheart attack need not be exposed to conditions that subject them tostressful states. The effect of stress has been linked to increase inblood pressure. Notably, the researchers point out to a particulartype of stress that could affect patients suffering from the heartcondition. Information presented by the researchers serves as aground to advise patients with a heart attack to avoid any conditionsleading to stress. Elevated stress levels may compound the situationfurther. Evidence suggested by the researchers can be relied uponbecause of the rigorous nature in which the research was done.Particularly, the researchers conduct studies on a total of 4204patients selected from 24 United States hospitals. Researcherssubject the patients into completing a Perceived Stress Scale-4 todetermine the depression level of patients. The method in which thestudy was conducted serves as ground into acknowledging it as asource into advising patients to avoid stress to help manage heartattack. Because of the presented evidence, it is critical thatpatients suffering from heart attack avoid any situation that couldaffect their health.

Reduction of stress can help in the reduction of episodes of heartattacks according to studies conducted by Shah et al. (2012). Theresearchers assess the effect of financial stress on the progressionof myocardial infarction. According to the researchers, increasedlevels of stress, probably caused by financial challenges can subjectpatients to adverse outcomes for patients recovering from myocardialinfarction. The build-up of stress significantly compoundsindividuals suffering from a heart attack. According to theresearchers, patients who were suffering from stress faced asignificant physical health problem. It could explain the reason whythe heart problem aggravates in the event of the stressful condition.The researchers followed a reliable framework for conducting thestudy making it appropriate for use in helping advise patientssuffering from heart attacks. The researchers enroll patients in theProspective Registry Evaluating Myocardial Infarction. However,before taking part in the study, it was vital to determine thefinancial stress of the participants, and it served as the criteriato be part of the study. They adopt a reliable statistical analysismethod, particularly the Chi-square test in analyzing their findings.The methodology employed by the researchers in conducting the studymakes it appropriate in supporting the need to have patientssuffering from heart attack to avoid any situations that are likelyto increase their stress levels. Further, it is essential to considerthat participants of the study were sufferingfrom myocardial infarction and had some levels of stress. Overall,patients facing heart problems must learn to desist from anysituations that are likely to increase the development of thecardiovascular disease.

Finally, studies conducted by Hooper et al. (2011) indicate arelationship between obesity and myocardial infarction. Theresearchers sought to examine the effect of dietary fat on one’srisk to cardiovascular-related death. The researchers carried out aclinical trial for a duration of six months. It was determined that achange in the dietary intake could help reduce the risk of patientsaffected by a cardiovascular disease to suffer from a heart attack.Notably, researchers point out to the fact that patients who have abuild-up in lipid content are at a risk of suffering a heart attack.Researchers conduct a review of studies searched on various databasesincluding Medline, Embase, and Central. The findings of the studymake it reliable enough to be employed in advising the patient.Change of a lifestyle is essential in helping protect patientssuffering from cardiovascular disease.


A heart attack is a critical health problem that needs to beaddressed. The most appropriate way to deal with the issue is to lookinto the aggravating factors leading to a heart attack. Stress andpoor dietary habits have been linked with increased risk of a heartattack (Steptoe, &amp Kivimäki, 2013). Individuals suffering fromthe disease must learn to desist from any activities likely toelevate their stress levels. Stress is accompanied by variousphysical problems including high blood pressure. The heart is forcedto pump at a higher rate. It is vital that patients maintain a lifethat is free from any stressful states (Fard, &amp Mojtabaei, 2016).

Lifestyle change for the patient suffering from the cardiovasculardisease is appropriate in helping reduce chances of development of aheart attack. Patients must embrace the attitude of conductingrigorous exercises to enhance the overall blood circulation in thebody. Increased exercises would be instrumental in promoting themetabolic activities in the body. Circulation of blood would beenhanced reducing chances of the heart attack occurring. Patients cantake part in rigorous physical exercises. Obesity has been shown toaggravate the chances of patients suffering from a heart condition.The build-up of fat plaques in the vessels makes it difficult forefficient blood flow. However, through exercise, it would be possibleto get rid of the plaques making it easy for the blood to flowthrough the vessels. The heart can pump blood efficiently with ease.


Cases of heart failure have been on the increase in the recent years.High mortality rates continue to be witnessed because of theconsistent heart attacks. The increase in death rates begs the needto create awareness on how best to deal with the condition. Reductionof stress levels and avoidance of any strenuous physical activitieswill help protect patients suffering from the heart condition.Patients should work closely with the healthcare providers todetermine the best way to avoid any possibility of suffering a heartattack.


Arnold, S. V., Smolderen, K. G., Buchanan, D. M., Li, Y., &ampSpertus, J. A. (2012). Perceived Stress in Myocardial Infarction:Long-Term Mortality and Health Status Outcomes. Journal of theAmerican College of Cardiology, 60(18), 1756–1763.

Fard, A. D., &amp Mojtabaei, M. (2016). The Effect of CognitiveBehavioral Stress Management and Psychological Well-Being andAdherence to Treatment In Patients with Coronary Heart Disease (Chd).International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS)​ISSN 2356-5926, 1(1), 271-284.

Grippo, A. J., &amp Johnson, A. K. (2009). Stress, depression, andcardiovascular dysregulation: A review of neurobiological mechanismsand the integration of research from preclinical disease models.Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 12(1), 1–21.

Hooper, L., Summerbell, C. D., Thompson, R., Sills, D., Roberts, F.G., Moore, H., &amp Smith, G. D. (2011). Reduced or modified dietaryfat for preventing cardiovascular disease. The Cochrane Databaseof Systematic Reviews, (7), CD002137. Advance online publication.

Shah, S. J., Krumholz, H. M., Reid, K. J., Rathore, S. S., Mandawat,A., Spertus, J. A., &amp Ross, J. S. (2012). Financial Stress andOutcomes after Acute Myocardial Infarction. PLoS ONE, 7(10),e47420.

Steptoe, A., &amp Kivimäki, M. (2013). Stress and cardiovasculardisease: an update on current knowledge. Annual review of publichealth, 34, 337-354.

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