Antibiotic Resistance

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Antibioticresistance is a crisis that is affecting the whole world. It’s anendemic in the sense that it endangers the efficient working ofantibiotic medicine in the human body. The antibiotic resistance hasaccredited to the overuse and misuse of these medications togetherwith the lack of development of new drugs by pharmaceuticals industrydue to the cut down of economic incentives and the ever challengingregulatory requirement. This infection is a menace to the human beingboth health wise and financially. Antibiotic resistance is caused byseveral ways which include: overuse of the antibiotic drugs,inadequate prescription, and lack of regulatory barriers. Researchconducted in 2011 by Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)revealed that 60% of U.S population is resistant to antibiotics. Onthe other hand, the research was conducted amid the rise in cases ofantibiotic resistance. According to Llorand Lars (232), there is no specific treatment for antibioticresistance, however, the best way to manage and treat the problem isthrough prescription of few antibiotics to reduce the resistance. Arelated treatment involves combination of inhibitory compounds thathave different mode of action. For instance, macrolide together withfluoroquinolone when used will overcome the resistance. Figure1 presents the percentage prevalence of infection of the antibioticresistance from the year 2006-2015. This paper, therefore,investigates the crisis of antibiotic resistance as the greatestchallenge to the effective treatment of infections globally.

LiteratureReview

Accordingto the laboratory studies, numerous genetic mechanism implicates inthe evolution of antibiotic-resistant population. In this case, manyof the bacterial pathogens associated with epidemic of human diseasehave evolve into multidrug-resistant forms subsequent to antibioticuse (Davies and Davies 419). Lin,Jun et al. (1), assert that the multidrug efflux systems contributevastly to the increased resistance to multiple antibiotics inbacteria. The available literature in the bacteria genomics shows thepresence of a variety of efflux systems in the bacteria (1).

Eggleston et al. (3144) maintain that the prevalence of drugresistance reduces the therapeutic options for treatment andmanagement of infections, and bestows to the global phantasm of a‘post-antimicrobial epoch’ in which some of the most useful toolsof anti-infections lose their effectiveness. Conversely,Antibiotic-resistance infection is a problematic challenge for thehealth sector everywhere across the world, and therefore, dealingwith this situation is through the use of non-antibiotic agents toprevent the production of resistance of bacteria such as observationof hygiene (3145). Other means of combating infectious disease isthrough the use of antimicrobial agents that are efficacious inlimiting, eliminating the growth, and preventing the growth ofmicrobial predators as noted by Michael et al. (2).

Accordingto the Director of Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)(2010), addressing the issue of antibiotic resistance calls for amultifaceted method to reduce inappropriate use, prevent diseasetransmission, and develop new antibiotic agents. On the other hand, areport by the World Health Organization (2015) on the antibioticresistant crisis, revealed the threat posed by this crisis isaffecting everyone be it a child, an adult, and any individual in anypart of the world. Therefore, this needs immediate action from everystakeholder to prevent the world from heading into a post-antibioticera. They identified a threat which this antibiotic crisis can leadto, and worst of it is death.

Researchconducted by Llor and Lars (230),shows that infection with antibiotic-resistance bacteria may causesevere illness, increase the mortality rate, and high risk ofcomplications. They found out that, complications associated withantibiotic resistance cost € 9 billion annually in Europe (230).

ResearchDesign and Methodology

The aim of this research to investigate the antibiotic resistance aglobal crisis affecting healthcare systems. In this research, we willuse existing literature and statistical data to outline thechallenges brought by antibiotic resistance and solutions to thiscrisis. Existing research from different scholars will help usanalyze the problem and even filter out the prescribed solutions tosolve this crisis. From the statistical data, we can measure how thatproblem has been back several years. Similarly, the study will usedescriptive research design in explaining the characteristics of theinformation gathered and estimating the net percentage on the trendof the prevalence of this global problem.

Resultsand Analysis of the Data

In analyzing these statistics, it’s clear that there has been anincrease in the spread of antibiotic-resistant infection. In the lastten years’ various researchers identified that this endemic crisishas been on the increase and now over 60% of the world population aresuffering from the antibiotic resistance crisis as shown in Figure 1(WHO, 2015). As a result of several factors including overuse of theantibiotic drugs which are easily found in every drug shop,inadequate prescriptions by careless medical practitioners and lackof regulatory measures in setting up laws and measures to minimizethe use of antibiotic drugs. The 80% of those affected by thisinfection are as a result of over use of the drug thus making thebacteria to produce resistant genes.

Discussion

The increase in the infection globally needs quick actions inresolving. It’s a crisis which is faced currently everywhere, andit can also be a future problem when not solved as soon as possible.Observation of hygiene should be maintained, and medicalpractitioners should consider alternative vaccines, which have lesseffect compared to antibiotic drugs that make the bacteria resistant.In some parts of the world, awareness has started to educate peopleand also coming up with measures of antibiotic drugs. For example, inIndia, they have approached this matter, and they are coming up withan alternative to this problem. Families are being enlightened on theimportance of maintaining hygiene. That action has helped in reducingrelated bacterial infections.

Conclusion

Finally, from the research conducted by Eggleston et al.(3146), on antibiotic alarm, outlines how this problem is extremelydangerous. Some of the solutions that need to be undertaken withurgency include control in the use of antibiotic drugs, stakeholdersshould come up with measures of use of antibiotic medicines, and alsoother alternative antibiotic agents should be developed. Anotherattractive way of controlling antibiotic resistance is perhaps theimprovements of diagnosis and diagnostic tools and heightening oftracking methodologies that will make federal states and governmentto detect and respond to urgent and emerging threats post byantibiotic resistance (Ventola 345). Other solutions to this problemis to allow pharmaceutical companies to develop new antibiotic agentsand also the world medical bodies e.g. the WHO should introduceregulation measures in the use of antibiotics (Eggleston et al.3142).

Work Cited:

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). US Department ofHealth and Human Services. and the Threatto Public Health. 2010.

Davies, Julian, and Dorothy Davies.“Origins and Evolution of .”&nbspMicrobiologyand Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR&nbsp74.3.2010: 417–433.&nbspPMC.Web. 17 Aug. 2016.

Eggleston Karen, Zhang Ruifang, and Zeckhauser Richard. InternationalJournal of Environmental Research and Public Health. The GlobalChallenge of Antimicrobial Resistance: Insights from EconomicAnlysis. 2010. Vol. 7, 3141-3149 doi:10.3390/ijerph708314

Llor,Carl, and Lars Bjerrum. “Antimicrobial Resistance: Risk Associatedwith Antibiotic Overuse and Initiatives to Reduce theProblem.”&nbspTherapeuticAdvances in Drug Safety&nbsp5.6(2014): 229–241.&nbspPMC.Web. 17 Aug. 2016.

Lin,Jun et al. “Mechanisms of .”&nbspFrontiersin Microbiology6(2015): 34.&nbspPMC.Web. 17 Aug. 2016.

Michael A. Carolyne,Dominey-Howes Dale, and Labbate Maurizo. ReviewArticle. The AntimicrobialResistance Crisis: Causes, Consequences, and Management. 2014. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2014.00145

World Health Organization(WHO). The State of the World’s Antibiotics. 2014. Print.

Ventola,C. Lee. “The Crisis: Part 2: ManagementStrategies and New Agents.”&nbspPharmacyand Therapeutics&nbsp40.5(2015): 344–352. Print.

Appendix

Figure1:

Source:WHO, 2015.

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