ADHD/ADD Causes, Diagnosis, and Prescription

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ADHD/ADD:Causes, Diagnosis, and Prescription


AttentionDeficit Disorder has been on the rise in the contemporary society.The disease has affected a significant number of both children andadults. There are different alternative treatments for the disease.Even though the treatments are effective, they have various sideeffects on patients. Moreover, these procedures exist in differentforms that attract abuse from a section of the population. Asignificant population of the community readily abuses the mostimportant treatments for the defect, Ritalin, and Adderall. Thesecompounds have the ability to make someone have an extensiveconcentration and also a payment to detail in whatever they do. Thesedrugs also have side effects that affect people in differentproportions given their bodily actions. Therefore, through theanalysis of these diseases, I take an insight into the drugs, sideeffects, and abuse to the non-patients. Through the paper, the abovepoints are exclusively discussed to bring out the actual state of themedicines in the society.

ADHD/ADD:Causes, Diagnosis, and Prescription

Attentiondeficit disorder is common in contemporary society in both childrenand adults (Kalbag &amp Levin, 2005). The disease affects people andhow they relate to others in society. The disease also causes severelearning problems since the patient finds it difficult to stayattentive in class. Individuals affected by this disorder in mostcases are impulsive and have a different way of handling issuescompared to the average person. Barkley, Murphy, &amp Fischer (2010)remarks that the patients’ disruptive nature makes them handleissues poorly. In other words, the attention disruptive disease makesan individual have the worst kind of social behavior. The syndrome isnot caused by any mental or physical state but is a result ofhyperactive individuals (Stein, Weiss &amp Hlavaty, 2012). Thus,various treatment options are available for the disorder. There areseveral reports on the increase of cases of the defect amongchildren. The reports show that most parents fail to notice thedisorder in their children (Kessler et al. 2006). Various factorslike diet, poverty level, and family history influence the disease’sprevalence. The disease is prevalent in the families that earn anestimated range of $70,000 and above in a year (Kessler et al.,2006). The defects do affect the middle and high income-earninghouseholds in the society.

Thereare various drugs, which are used to treat the defect. The drugs areinstrumental in helping the hyperactive individual live their livesin a proper way. One of the traditional drugs utilized for thetreatment of the defect is Ritalin (Kalbag, &amp Levin, 2005). Anestimated 90% of the patients that suffer from the disease areprescribed to the drug (Katusic et al. 2005). In some cases, there isover-prescription of the drug where the patients take too much of thedrug. Ritalin, like all other chemical substances, has a significantside effect when used in an excessive proportion. Despite helping totune the individuals to the healthy society, Ritalin also putspatients in conditions where they are exposed to vulnerabilities(Barkley et al. 2010). Ritalin has similar effects on the body as thecocaine and can make an individual stimulated just like cocaine. Somestudents often use Ritalin because of the belief that it amelioratestheir academic excellence and makes them alert in the classrooms(Wolraich et al., 2005). The conditions have various detriments tothe society. The paper seeks to discuss in detail the abuse of thesedrugs as well as the side effects these drugs have on both the ADHDpatients and normal users.

Purposeof Conducting Study

Inconducting this study, the researcher seeks to establish the variousside effects of the medications given to a patient who suffers fromADHD and their significant effects on the people that do not sufferfrom the disease. The ADHD syndrome and its treatment options arewell discussed in this research unravel the effects to the patientsand the non-patients. Notably, the study also looks into the possibleabuse options for the drugs.


Variousfactors in the society can cause ADHD. Primarily, the defect is ahereditary condition transferred between the members of a family. Incase one person is diagnosed with the infection, there are greaterchances that the other members of the family will also suffer fromthe same disease (Bussing et al. 2012). The disease affects a familyline since it is likely to be caused by the lack of specificinstruments in the body such as dopamine. The lack of Dopamine in thegenes makes one have a prior disposal to attracting the disease(Wolraich et al., 2005). Intake of much sugar in the body can alsocause ADHD. The defect will arise in an individual of a young age ifthe person takes in a significant amount of sugar, which will harmhis or her systems in the end (Kalbag &amp Levin, 2005). The lack ofguidance for caring for the children gives the parents a lack ofexpertise in dealing with the defects that they develop. The braininjuries that people suffer destroy specific parts of the brain thusmaking them exhibit the symptoms of the disease (Bussing et al.2012). Watching too much television and lack of enough exercisesexposes children to attracting the ADHD defects (Barkley et al.2010). There are several causes of the disorder in the society, andthey will wear down on an individual in their childhood years. Theprematurity is a sign of ADHD in most common instances (Marcus et al,2005). Lead poisoning is also a factor that causes the disorder andmakes the patients more likely to get chronic than the other causes.

Diagnosisand General treatment

Physiciansdiagnose ADHD/ADD after a keen observation of the children who sufferfrom the defects. The disease manifests itself in children before theage of seven (Bussing et al., 2012). The disease also has symptomsthat are long-lasting and can stretch for about six months.Therefore, studying the illness is an integral issue in fighting thecondition (Attention Deficit, 2011). In carrying out the diagnosis,the children undergo examination, and their history scrutinized. Insome cases, the disease appears in children from as early as fiveyears old (Stein et al. 2012). The characteristics that the childrendisplay help in determining if they are suffering from the disease ornot.

Afterthe diagnosis of the disease, there are various drugs, which aregiven to the children to help them with making them better. Themedications given to the children, in this case, include theAmphetamines such as Dexedrine (Castellanos et al. 2006). There arenon-stimulant drugs used to control and treat the disease such asStraterra. The most common class of medications used for the defectinclude Ritalin and Metadata. The manner of administration of thesedrugs to the child varies with age and also the intensity of thesymptoms.

ADHDmedication to the children should be carried out with a keensupervision to help test the various balances of the children(Wolraich et al. 2005). The treatment of the disease without anysupervision can have undesired outcomes. Therefore, in the treatmentof the illness, it is integral to look into the manner in which thedisease affects their system and how they use the drug as explainedby Bussing et al. (2012).

AdderallPrescription, Uses, Side Effects and Abuse

Adderallis a drug that is famously used to treat the individuals diagnosedwith ADHD. The drug is a combination of amphetamine anddextroamphetamine, which are nervous stimulants. The drugs areinstrumental in increasing the general ability to focus and theattention that one gives a particular item (Barkley et al. 2010).Through administering the drug to a patient who suffers from ADHD,their behavior is controlled and can be changed for the better.

Adderallincreases the concentration of dopamine by restricting thereabsorption of the neurotransmitter. The drug, therefore, providesthe necessary component that the patients lack in their bodies, thusthe control of their behaviors is noted and the monitoring of theiractions. Adderall is a drug that has new prescriptions and makes theentire body of the patients have the changes required (AttentionDeficit, 2011). Through the administration of the drug, the bodies ofthe patients are channeled to behave in flight or a fight conditionthat makes them more active.

Thereare different kinds of the medicine prescribed to the patients. Thereare tablets and capsules administered to the patients depending onthe symptoms they portray. The drug also comes in differentquantities that are integral in determining the kind of infectionthat the particular patient is suffering from (Bussing et al. 2012).Thus, through the use of the Adderall, the patients are well treated.

Adderalluse in young children below six years old

Childrenwho exhibit the symptoms of ADHD in most cases are provided with theAdderall drug to help make their situations better. The drug iscommon in use for children below the age of six due to its high ratesof efficiency (Marcus et al. 2005). The drug helps to reinstate theirnormalcy and makes them behave in the right manner. Adderall XR,prescribed in most occasions, helps the patient to calm, in the rightset of doses (Barkly et al., 2010).

Inthe initial phase after diagnosing the child with the disease, thedrug should be taken in lower proportions to acquaint the body withit. The children, in most cases, experience defects with growth andweight have a long run remaining on their bodies. Some of theimmediate effects on the children include the lack of appetite andvomiting (Marcus et al. 2005). The drug is an efficient one for thechildren when they take it in. Through the intake of the drug, thechildren have a high capability of tackling issues that they couldnot have otherwise handled (Bussing et al. 2012). Through thetreatment of ADHD, the children have an inclination to having betterlives. Nonetheless, the side effect of the drugs on the children isnot as much bespoken in comparison to those that affect the olderpeople. Adderall presents a better alternative to the treatment ofchildren who suffer from the defects of ADHD, and is a significantstep for the members of the society as it helps calm the children(Marcus et al, 2005).

Adderallapplications among the general patients and side effects

Overthe recent years, there are high rates at which the generalpopulation gets the prescription for Adderall (Polanczyk et al.2007). A drug is a leading option for those who are suffering fromADHD. Through the administration of Adderall, there are people withfewer side effects and also have to experience some other strenuousfactors that decrease their general body functioning. Thus, usingAdderall, the population has had a better alternative to treating theattention disorder.

Thereare various kinds of the drugs given to the patients depending ontheir bodies and other specifications. The different forms of thedrugs are dependent on the patients diagnosed with the disease. Thepatients are also given the drug because of the intensity of illness(DuPaul &amp Stoner, 2014). There are certain cases where thedoctors overprescribe the drug. In other cases, the doctors have aparticular form that enables them to test the activity and thestrength of the patient before they prescribe the drug. The ADHD drugis an effective one in the treatment of both adults and the youngpatients (Kalbag &amp Levin, 2005).

Afterthe diagnosis to the drug, the patients have to deal with variousissues that come after the intake of the Adderall drug. Despite thefact that the drug more developed in comparison to the previous ones,it still has some side effects that significantly affect the patientsin a detrimental manner (Kalbag &amp Levin, 2005). Overly, the drugis habit forming and can lead addiction by the patients. Thosesuffering from the chronic syndrome have a hard time getting thedisease (Marcus et al. 2005). Therefore, the intake leads to strongercravings. There are different side effects in individuals who use thedrug. To those who suffer from the symptoms of ADHD, the intake ofAdderall will lead to the restlessness of the patients. There areother associated side effects such as the nervousness of thepatients, excitability of the patients, headaches in some cases,blurred vision, constipation, stomach pains, nausea, and the loss ofappetite in most cases (DuPaul &amp Stoner, 2014).

Othersituations in the intake of the drug may lead to intense sideeffects. These are side effects such as the cause of hair loss,chronic fever, stomach pains, increased blood pressure, and thegrowth in the heart rates of the individual patients (Kessler et al.,2006). It is notable that among the patients that suffer from thedisease and have symptoms of the disease, the symptoms are temporary,as they will get minimal the time that one has fully become used tothe drug (DuPaul &amp Stoner, 2014). The Adderall drug makes thebody systems of the patients to behave in different ways beforeaccepting it (Castellanos et al. 2006). After the acceptance of thebody to the drug, the patients will exhibit rare instances of beingaffected by the drug. Therefore, the side effects of Adderall to thepatients are minimal in the extreme cases (Kessler et al., 2006). Thepatients who suffer from the disease, after some time of using thedrug, the body system will get functional with the drug and also syncwith it (Kessler et al., 2006). The further intake of the drug doesnot result in greater cases of side effects but also make thepatients have a particular system of dealing with their infections(Castellanos et al. 2006). Therefore, the ADHD syndrome drug iseffective when used over a period.

Ritalinuses among the general patients and side effects

Theuse of Ritalin in patients who suffer from ADHD has been a collectiveexperience. The drug is among the first ever made by the physiciansto discern on how to treat the disease (Kessler et al., 2006).Ritalin gained an excellent reputation in the society because of itsability to handle the conditions that presented to it (Stein, Weiss,&amp Hlavaty, 2012). By using Ritalin, the society was better, andthe doctors found better ways of prescribing it to patients.

Thedrug had numerous instances of side effects to the patients as someof the genetic orientation of some could not allow for them to takein the drug (Stein, Weiss &amp Hlavaty, 2012). Therefore, by takingRitalin, the patients experiences grievous side effects. Thisobservation led to the development of new generational drugs tohandle the ADHD syndrome. However, the diseases are well treated withthe use of Ritalin. Even in the contemporary world, Ritalin stillmaintains popularity in dealing with the conditions (Kalbag &ampLevin, 2005). However, there are side effects that the drug poses tothe users in most cases. These side effects do not notably take along time, but they present themselves in the initial phase that aperson has made it (Stein, Weiss &amp Hlavaty, 2012). Ritalin sideeffects span a considerable controversy on the application of thedrug but since it takes a short time after the diagnosis of patientswith the disease, the drug’s efficiency in undoubted.

Ritalinis a drug commonly used by the individuals who present uncontrollablesleepiness. (Compton &amp Volkow, 2006). Additionally, the sideeffects of Ritalin include insomnia, sweating, skin rash, andpalpitations. In extreme cases, just like Adderall, the drug cancause an elevated rate of the heart and also lead to the loss ofweight of the patients (Kalbag &amp Levin, 2005). Vision problemsare also a common occurrence in Ritalin and cold feet and hands(Kalbag &amp Levin, 2005). These side effects make the patientsfeel uncomfortable in most cases (Castellanos et al. 2006). However,when the patients get used to the drug in the due course of theirdosage, they get even better methods of ensuring that the sideeffects are minimal (Kessler et al., 2006). Therefore, using Ritalinin the systems of the patients, the side effects get minimal, and thenumbness of their body systems reduces (Kessler et al., 2006).

Ritalinis highly vulnerable to physical dependency and a great extent ofpsychological changes in the users (Castellanos et al. 2006).Therefore, the medicine stands out as a great warning to the usersthe prescriptions should be made in a precise manner to ensure thatthey do not affect the patients in greatly negative ways.

Straterrauses among the general patients and side effects

Stratterais a non-stimulant medication for the ADHD. The drug is among the fewused to treat the disorder and has no stimulative characteristics(Kessler et al., 2006). The primary drugs used to the disease arestimulants to increase the activity of the brain and the entire bodyto help normalize the individuals (Kessler et al., 2006). Despite thedifference in morphology with the other drugs, Strattera also hassome side effects that make it a negatively addictive drug too to thepatients.

Themajor side effect of the drug includes insomnia where the patientslack sleep and also a decreased appetite for food (Marcus et al,2005). Using the drug, the patients may develop a skin rash and alsodevelop constipation. Strattera has similar side effects incomparison to the other drugs used for the treatment of the disorder(Kessler et al., 2006).

Oneside effect of the drug is the occurrence of sexual difficulties(Kessler et al., 2006). The drug results in the loss of interest insex and the inability for the patients to cum when they use it(Kessler et al., 2006). These side effects are not present in theother drugs, which are used to treat the disorder. Through the intakeof the drug, it is also notable that the menstrual periods of thefemale patients will become painful than the normal levels (Kessleret al., 2006). In conclusion, Straterra makes the patients experiencecertain undesirable side effects.

PotentialAbuse of the ADHD drugs by non-patients

Overthe recent years, there are increased chances of ill-treatment forthe drugs by non-patients (Compton &amp Volkow, 2006). Among theyouths and the young adults, the drugs have become a common form ofabuse to achieve various standards (Compton &amp Volkow, 2006). Inthe case where non-patients abuse the drugs, there are certainfunctions that they seek to increase in their body systems. Themisuse of the drug warranties that they will have elevated systemsfunctionality thus they aim at having even better ways of approachingissues (Kessler et al., 2006).

Amongthe school-going addicts to the drug, the ADHD stimulant drugs, themost prevalent reason of abusing them is the cause for higher levelsof concentration in the classroom and an increase in the brainactivity towards doing the exams (Harpin, 2005). Therefore, using thetechniques that they have to reach the drugs, the school goingindividuals abuse the drug to have higher grades and read a lot morewhen in school.

Someother abusers of the drugs are those in employment. They abuse thesedrugs because of their ability to make someone active and moreenergized (Kessler et al., 2006). For the people who have long hourjobs, the abuse of the drug is coupled with an advantage of makingthem handle their many tasks with ease (Compton &amp Volkow, 2006).Most of these workers who abuse these drugs do so because they do nothave a high level of concentration, and fail to pay attention todetail in the workplaces (Kessler et al., 2006). Therefore, theseworkers believe ADHD drugs can make them have their desired levels ofconcentration and activity (Kessler et al., 2006). Notably, most ofthese individuals obtain these medications in a scrupulous mannerthat is not recommended by the authorities (Compton &amp Volkow,2006). Therefore the abuse of these drugs a treated in a similarmanner like those who abuse hard drugs.

Furthermore,there are some side effects of the drugs noticed when thenon-patients take them. For instance, the addiction to the drug mayhave severe health effects to the abusers (Kessler et al., 2006).Even though the drugs assure the abusers of a better and anoperational system, this is not usually the case. The intake of thedrug results in regular panic attacks (Compton &amp Volkow, 2006).Additionally, those who abuse the drug usually suffer from damages tothe nasal vessels. Thus, the drug is more detrimental to their healthcompared to how it improves their functionality. Those who aresuffering from the disease experience less detrimental side effectssuch as constipation, insomnia and reduced appetite (Compton &ampVolkow, 2006). Therefore, the abuse of the drug among thenon-patients is a health concern and deserves addressing in thesociety.

Comparisonof Adderall and Ritalin, and Concerta and Vyvanse

Adderalland Ritalin are the two most common kinds of medication for the ADHDdisorder. The drugs are simulative and help increase thefunctionality of the systems of the patients (Faraone &ampBiederman, 2005). Faraone &amp Biederman, (2005), further explainthat these two drugs are generationally different in composition, butpresent various similar positive effects to the patients. Faraone &ampBiederman (2005) say that when patients use these drugs, theyexperience significant similarities in their effects. The ADHD drugsare in a great way effective in channeling the patients to theirnormalcy and reducing instances of disruptive behavior.

However,through the intake of the drugs too, there are certain side effectsnoticed. While Adderall was developed to curb the difficult sideeffects of Ritalin, they both have numerous side effects and highrates of addiction (Harpin, 2005). Once a patient is addicted to thedrugs, they will have a great instance of the need to have themedicine supplied to them before they carry out any activity (Faraone&amp Biederman, 2005). The side effects of Ritalin are alsoexcessively detrimental to the systems of the patients, more so thefemale patients who have to struggle with the high levels of changein their systems (Compton &amp Volkow, 2006). Ritalin has sexualside effects, which Adderall does not have.

OtherADHD drugs like Concerta and Vyvanse also possess serious sideeffects. Research shows that the use of Concerta in childreninterferes with their growth (Harpin, 2005). At the same time, thepatients who use these drugs may experience chest pain, seizures,muscle twitches and numbness (Harpin, 2005). Vyvanse, on the otherhand, makes the patients lose weight because of the reduced appetite.Another peculiar side effect of the drug is the erection in men thatlasts for long. Just like Concerta, Vyvanse also causes stuntedgrowth in kids (Harpin, 2005).

Harpin,(2005) explains that the drugs also present themselves as potentialgrounds for abuse by the non-patients. For instance, students andworking class individuals may abuse the drugs because of their highlysimulative characteristics (Harpin, 2005). The workers and studentstake these drugs because of the belief that they increaseeffectiveness and performances. The intake of these drugs among thenon-patients has proliferated and making it a norm in the society.Since these drugs present a potential to significant abuse andaddiction among the patients and non-patients, many scholars likeHarpin (2005), propose alternative means of treatment like improvingthe diet and regular exercise.

Despitethe side effects and high rates of substance abuse and ill-treatment,the drugs are better for the people that suffer from ADHD (Compton &ampVolkow, 2006). Compton &amp Volkow, (2006) explain that the twodrugs control the disorder and reduce the disruptive nature ofpatients. The drugs are also made to have better ways of use in thetreatment of the diseases (Polanczyk et al. 2007). Therefore, whenthere is a correct use of ADHD drugs, such that there are no cases ofabuse, the patients have better results.


Inconclusion, ADHD is becoming a widespread occurrence in thecontemporary society (Kessler et al., 2006). Through theadministration of various drugs, both generic and non-generic, thedisorder is sustained in the community. Some of the most populardrugs used for the treatment of the disease are Adderall, Ritalin,and Strattera, Focalin, Concerta, Metadate, Dexedrine, and Vyvanseamong others (Polanczyk et al. 2007). These drugs are adequate in thetreatment of the patients and make them coexist in the society.However, the side effects of the drugs are detrimental to the healthof the patients, though they take place for a short while in the bodyof the patients. In the instances of side effects, the patients haveproliferated rates of breathing but after adopting to the drug, theybegin to feel good. The ADHD drugs are therefore necessary for themaking of a better society since they help improve the behavior ofthe patients in the society.

Eventhough the use of the stimulants like Adderall, Ritalin, andStrattera have shown their effectiveness in managing ADHD, there is ahigh risk of misuse. Most individuals use these drug to enhance theirperformance. Indeed these drugs may improve performance but not tousers with high intellectual abilities (Compton &amp Volkow, 2006).These drugs do not have an effect on the IQ of an individual (Advokatet al., 2008). This scenario is what has fueled the emergence of thecontroversy surrounding the use of these drugs. The fact that thesedrugs still present side effects to those who have the conditionmakes the use of these drugs questionable. Additionally, theobservations that the utilization of these drugs by people who arenot sick is detrimental has led to the discouragement of the use ofthese drugs (Compton &amp Volkow, 2006). In summary, the sideeffects of the use of these drugs are greater in those who are notsick as opposed to those who are sick. The people who are not sickshould, therefore, not use these drugs at all since the drugs do nothave any beneficial effects on them. At the same time, it isnecessary to perform more research to develop more improved drugsthat have few or no side effects (Compton &amp Volkow, 2006).Additionally, the patients should get appropriate prescriptions so asto minimize the instances of side effects.


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